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1.
J Pediatr ; 2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340549

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe 4 subgroups of pediatric patients treated with splenectomy, hydroxychloroquine, azathioprine, or rituximab as the first-option, second-line treatment for chronic immune thrombocytopenia. STUDY DESIGN: Selection of patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia from the French national prospective cohort of pediatric autoimmune cytopenia OBS'CEREVANCE and VIGICAIRE study, treated by splenectomy, hydroxychloroquine, azathioprine, or rituximab as a first second-line treatment. RESULTS: For 137 patients, treated between 1989 and 2016, the median follow-up after diagnosis and after treatment initiation was 8.5 (2.8-26.4) years and 4.7 (1.1-25.1) years, respectively. Median age at diagnosis and at initiation of treatment were 9 (0.7; 16) and 12 (2; 18.1) years, respectively without significant difference between subgroups. For the whole cohort, 24-month event-free survival was 62% (95% CI 55; 71). It was 85% (95% CI 77; 95) for the 56 patients treated with splenectomy, 60% (95% CI 44; 84) for the 23 patients treated with rituximab, 46% (95% CI 30; 71) for the 24 patients treated with azathioprine, and 37% (95% CI 24; 59) for the 34 patients treated with hydroxychloroquine (log-rank P < .0001). For the splenectomy subgroup, being older than 10 years at splenectomy tended to improve event-free survival (P = .05). Female teenagers with antinuclear antibody positivity benefited from hydroxychloroquine therapy. CONCLUSIONS: This national study, limiting pitfalls in the analysis of the effects of second-line therapies, showed that splenectomy remains the treatment associated with the better response at 24 months.

2.
Eur J Cancer ; 129: 71-79, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aging is an important risk factor for cancers and is associated with poor prognosis. Weakness of the immune system, also called immunosenescence may occur with older age. The impact of aging on efficacy and safety of immune checkpoint blockers, such as anti-programmed death (ligand) PD-(L)1, remains undetermined. This study aims to evaluate the incidence of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in patients aged 70 years or older than their younger counterparts. METHODS: Patients with advanced solid tumors treated at Gustave Roussy with an anti-PD-(L)1 monotherapy between June 2014 and October 2017 were prospectively included within the dedicated irAEs pharmacovigilance registry REISAMIC (Registre des Effets Indésirables Sévères des Anticorps Monoclonaux Immunomodulateurs en Cancérologie). The incidence of irAEs of grade ≥II was compared between patients aged ≥70 (old patients, OP) versus patients aged < 70 years (young patients, YP) using a chi-squared test. Survivals were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Among the 603 patients treated by anti-PD(L)1, 191 were ≥70 y.o (OP) and 424 < 70 y.o (YP). The median (range) age of OP and YP were respectively 77 (70-93) and 59 years old (17-69). A total of 165 irAEs occurred in these patients (103 grade II and 58 grade III-IV). The overall incidence of grade ≥II irAEs was higher in OP than in YP (33% versus 25%, p = 0.03). In addition, OP were more prone of having multiples irAEs compared with YP (p = 0.037). Skin toxicities were more frequent in OP than in YP (p = 0.007) but endocrine toxicities were less frequent in OP than in YP (p = 0.044). This higher level of irAEs seems to be responsible for a higher rate of treatment discontinuation in OP (p = 0.2). There was no statistical difference in median time to toxicity, exposure to steroids or survival between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Although anti-PD-(L)1 immunotherapies remain an acceptable treatment option for older patients, prescribers should be aware that irAEs are more frequent in the elderly. Further translational studies are warranted to better understand the relationship between aging and irAEs.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etnologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/imunologia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Nivolumabe , Seleção de Pacientes , Farmacovigilância , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Eur J Cancer ; 130: 39-50, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172197

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated the activities of an ImmunoTOX board, an academic, multidisciplinary group of oncologists and organ specialists that adopts a real-life, case-by-case approach in the management of patients with immune-related adverse events (irAEs). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The ImmunoTOX assessment board was set up in 2016 at Gustave Roussy in France. It meets every 2 weeks to discuss the case-by-case management of patients presenting with irAEs. Here, we describe the ImmunoTOX board's activities between 2016 and 2019. RESULTS: Over study period, 398 requests (concerning 356 patients) were submitted to the ImmunoTOX board. Most of the requests concerned the putative causal link between immunotherapy and the irAE (n = 148, 37%), followed by possible retreatment after temporary withdrawal because of an adverse event (n = 109, 27%), the clinical management of complex situations (n = 100, 25%) and the initiation of immunotherapy in patients with pre-existing comorbidities (n = 41, 10%). The ImmunoTOX board discerned 273 irAEs. The five organ systems most frequently involved by irAEs were lung (n = 58, 21%), gastrointestinal tract (n = 36, 13%), liver or biliary tract (n = 33, 12%), musculoskeletal system (n = 27, 10%), and nervous system (n = 23, 8%). The time to occurrence was shorter for severe irAEs (grade III and VI) than for mild irAEs (grades I and II), with medians of 47 and 91 days, respectively (p = 0.0216). CONCLUSION: The main medical needs in the management of irAEs involved the lung organ. Severe irAEs were expected to occur earlier than mild irAEs. This real-life study can help to better estimate medical needs and therefore help to assess the management of irAEs.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
4.
Lancet Haematol ; 6(1): e48-e57, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30528137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and anti-programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibodies are novel immunotherapies for cancer that can induce immune-related adverse events (irAEs). These adverse events can involve all organs, including the haemopoietic system. Thus far, haematological irAEs (haem-irAEs) have not been extensively characterised. This study aims to provide a comprehensive report of the haem-irAEs induced by anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1. METHODS: In this descriptive observational study, we included consecutive patients aged at least 18 years with grade 2 or worse haem-irAEs induced by anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy registered in three French pharmacovigilance databases: the Registre des Effets Indésirables Sévères des Anticorps Monoclonaux Immunomodulateurs en Cancérologie (REISAMIC; a prospective registry of patients treated with anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 at a single centre), the ImmunoTOX committee of Gustave Roussy (a national referral database of suspected irAEs in patients treated with immunotherapy), and the registry of the Centre de Référence des Cytopénies Auto-Immunes de l'Adulte (CeReCAI; a national database of autoimmune cytopenias). Cases were reviewed by a central committee; adverse events had to be classed as certainly or probably related to anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 therapy, and their severity was assessed according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 4.03). The primary endpoint was clinical description of haem-irAEs, as reported in all databases, and their frequency, as reported in the prospective REISAMIC registry. FINDINGS: We screened 948 patients registered in the three databases from June 27, 2014, to June 29, 2018 (745 from REISAMIC, 190 from the ImmunoTOX committee, and 13 from CeReCAI). 35 patients (21 men and 14 women) with haem-irAEs related to anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 were included in the study. Of 745 patients in the REISAMIC registry treated with anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1, four had haem-irAEs, giving a frequency of 0·5%. Median age in the 35 patients was 65 years (IQR 51-75), and the most common tumour types were melanoma (15 [43%] patients), non-small-cell lung cancer (12 [34%] patients), and lymphoma (four [11%] patients). 20 (57%) patients received nivolumab, 14 (40%) received pembrolizumab, and one (3%) received atezolizumab. Among the 35 patients, neutropenia, autoimmune haemolytic anaemia, and immune thrombocytopenia were the most common types of haem-irAE (each in nine patients [26%]), followed by pancytopenia or aplastic anaemia (five patients [14%]), bicytopenia (one patients with thrombocytopenia plus anaemia and one patient with neutropenia plus anaemia [6%]), and pure red cell aplasia (one patient [3%]). The maximum grade of severity was grade 2 in three (9%) patients, grade 3 in five (14%) patients, and grade 4 in 25 (71%) patients; two (6%) patients died from febrile neutropenia during haem-irAE related to anti-PD-1. Haem-irAEs resolved in 21 (60%) of the 35 patients. INTERPRETATION: Haem-irAEs induced by PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitors are rare but potentially life-threatening events. The most common clinical presentations are neutropenia, autoimmune haemolytic anaemia, immune thrombocytopenia, and aplastic anaemia. Investigations into earlier detection and better management are warranted. FUNDING: Gustave Roussy and Gustave Roussy Immunotherapy Program.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
J Hepatol ; 68(6): 1181-1190, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29427729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Immunotherapy for metastatic cancer can be complicated by the onset of hepatic immune-related adverse events (IRAEs). This study compared hepatic IRAEs associated with anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/PD ligand 1 (PD-L1) and anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). METHODS: Among 536 patients treated with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 or CTLA-4 immunotherapies, 19 (3.5%) were referred to the liver unit for grade ≥3 hepatitis. Of these patients, nine had received anti-PD-1/PD-L1 and seven had received anti-CTLA-4 mAbs, in monotherapy or in combination with anti-PD-1. Liver investigations were undertaken in these 16 patients, including viral assays, autoimmune tests and liver biopsy, histological review, and immunostaining of liver specimens. RESULTS: In the 16 patients included in this study, median age was 63 (range 33-84) years, and nine (56%) were female. Time between therapy initiation and hepatitis was five (range, 1-49) weeks and median number of immunotherapy injections was two (range, 1-36). No patients developed hepatic failure. Histology related to anti-CTLA-4 mAbs demonstrated granulomatous hepatitis including fibrin ring granulomas and central vein endotheliitis. Histology related to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 mAbs was characterised by lobular hepatitis. The management of hepatic IRAEs was tailored according to the severity of both the biology and histology of liver injury: six patients improved spontaneously; seven received oral corticosteroids at 0.5-1 mg/kg/day; two were maintained on 0.2 mg/kg/day corticosteroids; and one patient required pulses and 2.5 mg/kg/day of corticosteroids, and the addition of a second immunosuppressive drug. In three patients, immunotherapy was reintroduced without recurrence of liver dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Acute hepatitis resulting from immunotherapy for metastatic cancer is rare (3.5%) and, in most cases, not severe. Histological assessment can distinguish between anti-PD-1/PD-L1 and anti-CTLA-4 mAb toxicity. The severity of liver injury is helpful for tailoring patient management, which does not require systematic corticosteroid administration. LAY SUMMARY: Immunotherapy for metastatic cancer can be complicated by immune-related adverse events in the liver. In patients receiving immunotherapy for metastatic cancer who develop immune-mediated hepatitis, liver biopsy is helpful for the diagnosis and evaluation of the severity of liver injury. This study demonstrates the need for patient-oriented management, which could eventually avoid unnecessary systemic corticosteroid treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Fígado/lesões , Neoplasias/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Feminino , Hepatite/etiologia , Hepatite/imunologia , Hepatite/patologia , Humanos , Ipilimumab/efeitos adversos , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/imunologia , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos
6.
Eur J Cancer ; 91: 21-29, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29331748

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with autoimmune or inflammatory disease (AID) are susceptible to immune-related adverse events (irAEs) when treated with immune check-point inhibitors (ICIs). We decided to analyse the safety and effectiveness of anti-PD-1 antibodies in AID patients and look for an association between the presence of pre-existing AID and the clinical outcome. METHODS: In a prospective study of the REISAMIC registry of grade ≥2 irAEs occurring in ICI-treated patients, we studied the associations between pre-existing AID on one hand and irAE-free survival, overall survival and best objective response rate on the other. RESULTS: We identified 45 patients with 53 AIDs in REISAMIC. The cancer diagnoses included melanoma (n = 36), non-small-cell lung cancer (n = 6) and others (n = 3). The most frequent pre-existing AIDs were vitiligo (n = 17), psoriasis (n = 12), thyroiditis (n = 7), Sjögren syndrome (n = 4) and rheumatoid arthritis (n = 2). Twenty patients (44.4%) presented with at least one irAE: eleven of these were associated with a pre-existing AID ('AID flare'). Treatment with anti-PD-1 antibodies was maintained in 15 of the 20 patients with an irAE. The IrAE-free survival time was significantly shorter in AID patients (median: 5.4 months) than in AID-free patients (median: 13 months, p = 2.1 × 10-4). The AID and AID-free groups did not differ significantly with regard to the overall survival time and objective response rate (p = 0.38 and 0.098, respectively). CONCLUSION: In patients treated with anti-PD-1 antibody, pre-existing AID was associated with a significantly increased risk of irAEs. Our results indicate that cancer treatments with anti-PD-1 antibodies are just as effective in AID patients as they are in AID-free patients.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Doenças Autoimunes/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , França , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Inflamação/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
Eur J Cancer ; 82: 34-44, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28646772

RESUMO

AIM: The growing use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) is associated with the occurrence of immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Few data are published on systemic, immunohaematological and rheumatic irAEs. In a pharmacovigilance database analysis, we screened for these irAEs and calculated their prevalence. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Participants were recruited via Registre des Effets Indésirables Sévères des Anticorps Monoclonaux Immunomodulateurs en Cancérologie (REISAMIC)1 a French registry of grade ≥2 irAEs occurring in ICI-treated patients. The pathologies of interest were systemic autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, rheumatic diseases and immune cytopenia. RESULTS: Out of 908 patients treated with anti-Programmed cell Death 1 (PD1)/anti-Programmed cell Death-Ligand 1 (PD-L1) agents (together with an anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) agent in 40 cases) between December 2012 and December 2016 at a single centre, 21 patients experienced systemic irAEs. The types and the prevalence of irAEs were as follows: immune thrombocytopenia (0.2%), Sjögren syndrome (0.3%), rheumatoid arthritis (0.2%), polymyalgia rheumatica (0.2%), psoriatic arthritis (0.2%), seronegative polyarthritis (0.7%) and sarcoidosis (0.2%). Patients with Sjögren syndrome or seronegative polyarthritis were more likely to have received combination therapy with ipilimumab (2.5% for both). We described these 21 cases, together with nine additional cases from five other centres. Most irAE were moderately severe (grade 2, 63%). The median time to onset was 57°days (interquartile range (IQR) 24-117). The ICI was withdrawn in 12 cases, 25 patients (83%) received corticosteroids, and five patients (17%) received immunosuppressant/immunomodulatory agents. The irAEs resolved fully or partially in 28 cases (93%). CONCLUSION: Although systemic, immunohaematological and rheumatic diseases are rarely associated with ICI use, the prevalence is higher when two ICIs are combined. Corticosteroids are often effective and may enable the continued administration of ICIs. Studies designed to identify at-risk patients are warranted.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/epidemiologia , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores
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