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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34855522

RESUMO

Simulated military operational stress (SMOS) provides a useful model to better understand resilience in humans as the stress associated with caloric restriction, sleep deficits, and fatiguing exertion degrades physical and cognitive performance. Habitual physical activity may confer resilience against these stressors by promoting favorable use-dependent neuroplasticity, but it is unclear how physical activity, resilience, and corticospinal excitability (CSE) relate during SMOS. PURPOSE: To examine associations between corticospinal excitability, physical activity, and physical performance during SMOS. METHODS: Fifty-three service members (age: 26±5yrs, 13 women) completed a five day and night intervention composed of familiarization, baseline, SMOS (two nights/days), and recovery days. During SMOS, participants performed rigorous physical and cognitive activities while receiving half of normal sleep (two 2h blocks) and caloric requirements. Lower and upper limb CSE were determined with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) stimulus-response curves. Self-reported resilience, physical activity, military-specific physical performance (TMT) and endocrine factors were compared in individuals with high (HIGH) and low CSE based on a median split of lower limb CSE at baseline. RESULTS: HIGH had greater physical activity and better TMT performance throughout SMOS. Both groups maintained physical performance despite substantial psychophysiological stress. Physical activity, resilience, and TMT performance were directly associated with lower limb CSE. CONCLUSION: Individual differences in physical activity coincide with lower (but not upper) limb CSE. Such use-dependent corticospinal excitability directly relates to resilience and physical performance during SMOS. Future studies may use non-invasive neuromodulation to clarify the interplay among CSE, physical activity, and resilience and improve physical and cognitive performance.

2.
Sleep ; 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432067

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Within-subject stability of certain sleep features across multiple nights is thought to reflect the trait-like behavior of sleep. However, to be considered a trait, a parameter must be both stable and robust. Here, we examined the stability (i.e., across the same sleep opportunity periods) and robustness (i.e., across sleep opportunity periods that varied in duration and timing) of different sleep parameters. METHODS: Sixty-eight military personnel (14 W) spent 5 nights in the sleep laboratory during a simulated military operational stress protocol. After an adaptation night, participants had an 8-hour sleep opportunity (23:00-07:00) followed by 2 consecutive nights of sleep restriction and disruption which included two 2-hour sleep opportunities (01:00-03:00; 05:00-07:00) and, lastly, another 8-hour sleep opportunity (23:00-07:00). Intra-class correlation coefficients were calculated to examine differences in stability and robustness across different sleep parameters. RESULTS: Sleep architecture parameters were less stable and robust than absolute and relative spectral activity parameters. Further, relative spectral activity parameters were less robust than absolute spectral activity. Absolute alpha and sigma activity demonstrated the highest levels of stability that were also robust across sleep opportunities of varying duration and timing. CONCLUSIONS: Stability and robustness varied across different sleep parameters, but absolute NREM alpha and sigma activity demonstrated robust trait-like behavior across variable sleep opportunities. Reduced stability of other sleep architecture and spectral parameters during shorter sleep episodes as well as across different sleep opportunities has important implications for study design and interpretation.

3.
J Psychiatr Res ; 141: 301-308, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304033

RESUMO

Posttraumatic stress disorder-related sleep disturbances may increase daytime sleepiness and compromise performance in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder. We investigated nighttime sleep predictors of sleepiness in Veterans with and without posttraumatic stress disorder. Thirty-seven post-9/11 Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder and 47 without posttraumatic stress disorder (Control) completed a 48-h lab stay. Nighttime quantitative EEG and sleep architecture parameters were collected with polysomnography. Data from daytime sleepiness batteries assessing subjective sleepiness (global vigor questionnaire), objective sleepiness (Multiple Sleep Latency Tests) and alertness (psychomotor vigilance task) were included in analyses. Independent samples t-tests and linear regressions were performed to identify group differences in sleepiness and nighttime sleep predictors of sleepiness in the overall sample and within each group. Participants with posttraumatic stress disorder had higher subjective sleepiness (t = 4.20; p < .001) and lower alertness (psychomotor vigilance task reaction time (t = -3.70; p < .001) and lapses: t = -2.13; p = .04) than the control group. Objective daytime sleepiness did not differ between groups (t = -0.79, p = .43). In the whole sample, higher rapid eye movement delta power predicted lower alertness quantified by psychomotor vigilance task reaction time (ß = 0.372, p = .013) and lapses (ß = 0.388, p = .013). More fragmented sleep predicted higher objective sleepiness in the posttraumatic stress disorder group (ß = -.467, p = .005) but no other nighttime sleep measures influenced the relationship between group and sleepiness. Objective measures of sleep and sleepiness were not associated with the increased subjective sleepiness and reduced alertness of the posttraumatic stress disorder group.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Atenção , Humanos , Desempenho Psicomotor , Sono , Sonolência , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações , Vigília
4.
Physiol Behav ; 236: 113413, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811909

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the impact of 48 h of simulated military operational stress (SMOS) on executive function, in addition to the role of trait resilience (RES) and aerobic fitness (FIT) on executive function performance. Associations between executive function and neuropeptide-Y (NPY), brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), oxytocin, and α-klotho (klotho) were assessed to elucidate potential biomarkers that may contribute to cognitive performance during a multi-factorial stress scenario. METHODS: Fifty-four service members (SM) (26.4 ± 5.4 years, 178.0 ± 6.5 cm, 85.2 ± 14.0 kg) completed the 5-day protocol, including daily physical exertion and 48 h of restricted sleep and caloric intake. Each morning subjects completed a fasted blood draw followed by Cognition, a 10-part cognitive test battery assessing executive function. SMs were grouped into tertiles [low (L-), moderate (M-), high (H-)] based on Connor Davidson Resilience Score (RES) and V˙O2peak (FIT). Repeated measures ANOVA were run to analyze the effect of day on cognitive performance and biomarker concentration. Separate two-way mixed ANOVAs were run to determine the interaction of group by day on cognitive function. Friedman test with Bonferroni-corrected pairwise comparisons were used if assumptions for ANOVA were not met. Associations between changes in biomarkers and cognitive performance were analyzed using parametric and non-parametric correlation coefficients. RESULTS: SMOS reduced SM vigilance -11.3% (p < 0.001) and working memory -5.6% (p = 0.015), and increased risk propensity +9.5% (p = 0.005). H-RES and H-FIT SMs demonstrated stable vigilance across SMOS (p > 0.05). Vigilance was compromised during SMOS in L- and M-RES (p = 0.007 and p = 0.001, respectively) as well as L- and M-FIT (p = 0.001 and p = 0.031, respectively). SMOS reduced circulating concentrations of α-klotho -7.2% (p = 0.004), NPY -6.4% (p = 0.001), and IGF-I -8.1% (p < 0.001) from baseline through the end of the protocol. BDNF declined -19.2% after the onset of sleep and caloric restriction (p = 0.005) with subsequent recovery within 48 h. Oxytocin remained stable (p > 0.05). Several modest associations between neuroendocrine biomarkers and cognitive performance were identified. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates H-FIT and H-RES may buffer the impact of SMOS on vigilance. SMOS negatively impacted circulating neuroendocrine biomarkers. While BDNF returned to baseline concentrations by the end of the 5 d protocol, NPY, IGF-I, and α-klotho may require a longer recovery period. These data suggest that the military may benefit by training and/or selection processes targeting at augmenting trait resilience and aerobic fitness for increased readiness.


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Militares , Biomarcadores , Cognição , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Aptidão Física
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preliminary evidence indicates that non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep is implicated in enhancing working memory (WM) performance across days in healthy individuals. While REM sleep has been implicated in other forms of memory, its role in WM remains unclear. Further, the relationship between sleep changes and WM improvement is largely unknown in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Examining the relationship between changes in sleep and WM improvement in healthy participants and participants with PTSD may inform cognitive enhancement strategies and intervention targets. METHODS: Repeated assessments of WM and overnight measurement of NREM and REM sleep parameters were performed in 79 participants (participants with PTSD: n = 33) during a 48-hour laboratory stay. Relationships between sleep parameter changes, WM performance changes, and clinical characteristics were analyzed in PTSD and healthy groups. RESULTS: A between-night enhancement in both NREM and REM sleep parameters in frontoparietal areas predicted across-day better WM performance in healthy participants, particularly in those with improved performance. In contrast, in participants with PTSD, an enhancement of these sleep parameters predicted a worse WM performance and was also associated with more PTSD-related sleep disturbances. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that higher sleep activity in frontoparietal areas leads to enhanced WM performance in healthy individuals, whereas in individuals with PTSD, it likely reflects the presence of sleep disturbances that interfere with WM improvement. Interventions focused on addressing sleep disturbances could therefore ameliorate cognitive impairments in individuals with PTSD.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Polissonografia , Sono
7.
Sleep Med Clin ; 15(1): 31-39, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005348

RESUMO

Sleep has a widespread impact across different domains of performance, including sensorimotor function. From an ecological dynamics perspective, sensorimotor function involves the continuous and dynamic coupling between perception and action. Sport performance relies on sensorimotor function as successful movement behaviors require accurate and efficient coupling between perceptions and actions. Compromised sleep impairs different aspects of sensorimotor performance, including perceptual attunement and motor execution. Changes in sensorimotor performance can be related to specific features of sleep, notably sleep spindles and slow waves. One unaddressed area of study is the extent to which specific sleep features contribute to overall sport-specific performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Esportes/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos
8.
J Appl Biomech ; : 1-6, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914419

RESUMO

Warfighter performance may be compromised through the impact of load carriage on dynamic postural stability. Men and women may experience this impact to differing extents due to postural stability differences. Therefore, the authors investigated the effect of load magnitude on dynamic postural stability in men and women during a landing and stabilization task. Dynamic postural stability of 32 subjects (16 women) was assessed during the unilateral landing of submaximal jumps under 3 load conditions: +0%, +20%, and +30% body weight. Dynamic postural stability was measured using the dynamic postural stability index, which is calculated from ground reaction force data sampled at 1200 Hz. Two-way mixed-measures analysis of variance compared dynamic postural stability index scores between sexes and loads. Dynamic postural stability index scores were significantly affected by load (P = .001) but not by sex or by the sex by load interaction (P > .05). Dynamic postural stability index scores increased between the 0% (0.359 ± 0.041), 20% (0.396 ± 0.034), and 30% (0.420 ± 0.028) body weight conditions. Increased load negatively affects dynamic postural stability with similar performance decrements displayed by men and women. Men and women warfighters may experience similar performance decrements under load carriage conditions of similar relative magnitudes.

9.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 90(12): 1000-1008, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747996

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Designed as a more ecological measure of reaction times, the Perception-Action Coupling Task (PACT) has shown good reliability and within-subject stability. However, a lengthy testing period was required. Perceptual-motor judgments are known to be affected by proximity of the stimulus to the action boundary. The current study sought to determine the effects of action boundary proximity on PACT performance, and whether redundant levels of stimuli, eliciting similar responses, can be eliminated to shorten the PACT.METHODS: There were 9 men and 7 women who completed 4 testing sessions, consisting of 3 familiarization cycles and 6 testing cycles of the PACT. For the PACT, subjects made judgments on whether a series of balls presented on a tablet afford "posting" (can fit) through a series of apertures. There were 8 ratios of ball to aperture size (B-AR) presented, ranging from 0.2 to 1.8, with each ratio appearing 12 times (12 trials) per cycle. Reaction times and judgment accuracy were calculated, and averaged across all B-ARs. Ratios and individual trials within each B-AR were systematically eliminated. Variables were re-averaged, and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and coefficients of variation (CVTE) were calculated in an iterative manner.RESULTS: With elimination of the 0.2 and 1.8 B-ARs, the PACT showed good reliability (ICC = 0.81-0.99) and consistent within-subject stability (CVTE = 2.2-14.7%). Reliability (ICC = 0.81-0.97) and stability (CVTE = 2.6-15.6%) were unaffected with elimination of up to 8 trials from each B-AR.DISCUSSION: The shortened PACT resulted in an almost 50% reduction in total familiarization/testing time required, significantly increasing usability.Johnson CD, LaGoy AD, Pepping G-J, Eagle SR, Beethe AZ, Bower JL, Alfano CA, Simpson RJ, Connaboy C. Action boundary proximity effects on perceptual-motor judgments. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2019; 90(12):1000-1008.


Assuntos
Percepção/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
10.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 90(2): 77-83, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The perception-action coupling task (PACT) was designed as a more ecologically valid measure of alertness/reaction times compared to currently used measures by aerospace researchers. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability, within-subject variability, and systematic bias associated with the PACT.METHODS: There were 16 subjects (men/women = 9 / 7; age = 27.8 ± 3.6 yr) who completed 4 identical testing sessions. The PACT requires subjects to make judgements on whether a virtual ball could fit into an aperture. For each session, subjects completed nine cycles of the PACT, with each cycle lasting 5 min. Judgement accuracy and reaction time parameters were calculated for each cycle. Systematic bias was assessed with repeated-measures ANOVA, reliability with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), and within-subject variability with coefficients of variation (CVTE).RESULTS: Initiation time (Mean = 0.1065 s) showed the largest systematic bias, requiring the elimination of three cycles to reduce bias, with all other variables requiring, at the most, one. All variables showed acceptable reliability (ICC > 0.70) and within-subject variability (CVTE < 20%) with only one cycle after elimination of the first three cycles.CONCLUSIONS: With a three-cycle familiarization period, the PACT was found to be reliable and stable.Connaboy C, Johnson CD, LaGoy AD, Pepping G-J, Simpson RJ, Deng Z, Ma L, Bower JL, Eagle SR, Flanagan SD, Alfano CA. Intersession reliability and within-session stability of a novel perception-action coupling task. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2019; 90(2):77-83.


Assuntos
Percepção , Tempo de Reação , Adulto , Medicina Aeroespacial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Realidade Virtual
11.
Syst Rev ; 7(1): 244, 2018 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal injuries (MSI) represent more than half of all injuries in tactical populations (i.e., military service and public safety workers including police, firefighters, emergency medical services (EMS)). Most lower extremity MSIs result from physical exertion during training, occupational tasks, and recreation. Such exertional lower extremity injuries (ELEI) produce a significant human and financial cost. Accordingly, significant efforts have been made to identify sensitive, specific, and reliable predictors of ELEI. There is a need to synthesize and evaluate the predictive value of risk factors for ELEI while addressing the influence of occupation, sex, exposure, injury characteristics, and study quality. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review and planned meta-analysis is to evaluate risk factors for ELEI in tactical populations. METHODS: After the development of a search strategy, comprehensive searches will be conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, and CINAHL databases. Articles will be screened with a multi-user process and delimited to prospective comparative cohort studies that directly measure injury occurrence in the target population(s). Extracted data will be synthesized and assessed for reporting bias, meta-bias, and overall quality, with subgroup analyses to determine the influence of participant, injury, and exposure characteristics in addition to study quality. DISCUSSION: This systematic review and planned meta-analysis will comprehensively evaluate ELEI risk factors. Information gained will inform injury prevention protocols, facilitate the use of improved measurements, and identify requirements for future research. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The systematic review protocol was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) on 3 Jan 2018 (registration number CRD42018056977 ).


Assuntos
Socorristas , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Militares , Sistema Musculoesquelético/lesões , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
12.
Syst Rev ; 7(1): 73, 2018 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29729666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exertional lower body musculoskeletal injuries (ELBI) cost billions of dollars and compromise the readiness and job performance of military service and public safety workers (i.e., tactical populations). The prevalence and burden of such injuries underscores the importance of prevention efforts during activities necessary to sustain core occupational competencies. Attempts to synthesize prevention techniques specific to tactical populations have provided limited insight on the comparative efficacy of interventions that do not modify physical training practices. There is also a need to assess the influence of sex, exposure, injury classification scheme, and study design. Thus, the primary purpose of the systematic review and planned meta-analysis detailed in this protocol is to evaluate the comparative efficacy of ELBI prevention strategies in tactical populations. METHODS: A systematic search strategy will be implemented in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, and CINAHL. A multi-tiered process will be used to capture randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies that directly assess the prevention of ELBI in tactical population(s). Extracted data will be used to compare prevention strategies and assess the influence of heterogeneity related to occupation, sex, exposure, injury characteristics, and study quality. In addition, individual risk of bias, meta-bias, and the quality of the body of evidence will be rigorously tested. DISCUSSION: This systematic review and planned meta-analysis will comprehensively evaluate ELBI mitigation strategies in tactical populations, elucidate factors that influence responses to treatment, and assess the overall quality of the body of research. Results of this work will guide the prioritization of ELBI prevention strategies and direct future research efforts, with direct relevance to tactical, health and rehabilitation science, and human performance optimization stakeholders. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: The systematic review protocol was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) on 3 Jan 2018 (registration number CRD42018081799 ).


Assuntos
Socorristas , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Militares , Sistema Musculoesquelético/lesões , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle
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