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1.
Support Care Cancer ; 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761002

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) score is used to risk stratify outpatients with febrile neutropenia (FN). However, it is rarely used in hospital settings. We aimed to describe management, use of MASCC score, and outcomes among hospitalized patients with FN. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with cancer and FN. We collected patient demographics, cancer characteristics, microbiological profile, MASCC score, utilization of critical care therapies, documentation of goals of care (GOC), and inpatient deaths. Outcomes associated with low- (≥ 21) versus high-risk (< 21) MASCC scores are presented as absolute differences. RESULTS: Of 193 patients, few (2%, n = 3) had MASCC scores documented, but when calculated, 52% (n = 101) had a high-risk score (< 21). GOC were discussed in 12% (n = 24) of patients. Twenty one percent (n = 40) required intermediate/ICU level of care, and 12% (n = 23) died in the hospital. Those with a low-risk score were 33% less likely to require intermediate/ICU care (95% CI 23 to 44%) and 19% less likely to die in the hospital (95% CI 10% to 27%) compared to those with high-risk score. CONCLUSIONS: MASCC score was rarely used for hospitalized patients with FN, but high-risk score was associated with worse outcomes. Education efforts to incorporate MASCC score into the workflow may help identify patients at high risk for complications and help clinicians admit these patients to a higher level of care (e.g., intermediate/ICU care) or guide them to initiate earlier GOC discussions.

2.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 52, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546651

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a clinical risk prediction score for noninvasive ventilation (NIV) failure defined as intubation after a trial of NIV in non-surgical patients. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of a multihospital electronic health record database. PATIENTS: Non-surgical adult patients receiving NIV as the first method of ventilation within two days of hospitalization. MEASUREMENT: Primary outcome was intubation after a trial of NIV. We used a non-random split of the cohort based on year of admission for model development and validation. We included subjects admitted in years 2010-2014 to develop a risk prediction model and built a parsimonious risk scoring model using multivariable logistic regression. We validated the model in the cohort of subjects hospitalized in 2015 and 2016. MAIN RESULTS: Of all the 47,749 patients started on NIV, 11.7% were intubated. Compared with NIV success, those who were intubated had worse mortality (25.2% vs. 8.9%). Strongest independent predictors for intubation were organ failure, principal diagnosis group (substance abuse/psychosis, neurological conditions, pneumonia, and sepsis), use of invasive ventilation in the prior year, low body mass index, and tachypnea. The c-statistic was 0.81, 0.80 and 0.81 respectively, in the derivation, validation and full cohorts. We constructed three risk categories of the scoring system built on the full cohort; the median and interquartile range of risk of intubation was: 2.3% [1.9%-2.8%] for low risk group; 9.3% [6.3%-13.5%] for intermediate risk category; and 35.7% [31.0%-45.8%] for high risk category. CONCLUSIONS: In patients started on NIV, we found that in addition to factors known to be associated with intubation, neurological, substance abuse, or psychiatric diagnoses were highly predictive for intubation. The prognostic score that we have developed may provide quantitative guidance for decision-making in patients who are started on NIV.


Assuntos
Regras de Decisão Clínica , Intubação Intratraqueal/estatística & dados numéricos , Ventilação não Invasiva , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Asma/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Respiratória/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Sepse/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Falha de Tratamento
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591063

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation (AACVPR) recommends that patients starting cardiac rehabilitation (CR) undergo stratification to identify risk for exercise-related adverse events (AE), but this tool has not been recently evaluated. METHODS: Among patients who enrolled in CR in 2016, we used the AACVPR risk stratification tool to evaluate the risk for AE and clinical events (CE). We defined AE as signs or symptoms that precluded or interrupted exercise during CR, and CE as events requiring an urgent evaluation outside of CR exercise sessions. RESULTS: During the study period, 657 patients with cardiovascular diagnoses were included and classified as high (58%), medium (31%), or low risk (11%). Over the course of CR (76 d, 17 sessions), there were 63 AE and 33 CE. Adverse events were mostly minor (no cardiac arrests or deaths) and managed by CR staff members. When compared with the low- or medium-risk groups, the high-risk group was more likely to have AE (HR 3.0 [95% CI, 1.7-5.9], P = .002) and CE (HR 3.7 [95% CI, 1.5-10.8], P = .002) with fair model discrimination (area under the curve: 0.637, P < .001). CONCLUSION: The AACVPR risk stratification tool was predictive of both AE and CE with fair discrimination, although event rates were low and mostly minor. Thus, the AACVPR model may require reevaluation to better identify truly at-risk patients for major AE.

5.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(2): 297-306, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523739

RESUMO

More than sixty-one million Americans have disabilities, and increasing evidence documents that they experience health care disparities. Although many factors likely contribute to these disparities, one little-studied but potential cause involves physicians' perceptions of people with disability. In our survey of 714 practicing US physicians nationwide, 82.4 percent reported that people with significant disability have worse quality of life than nondisabled people. Only 40.7 percent of physicians were very confident about their ability to provide the same quality of care to patients with disability, just 56.5 percent strongly agreed that they welcomed patients with disability into their practices, and 18.1 percent strongly agreed that the health care system often treats these patients unfairly. More than thirty years after the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 was enacted, these findings about physicians' perceptions of this population raise questions about ensuring equitable care to people with disability. Potentially biased views among physicians could contribute to persistent health care disparities affecting people with disability.

7.
Heart Lung ; 50(2): 230-234, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) patients may benefit from cardiac rehabilitation (CR). OBJECTIVES: The purpose to this study is to examine utilization of CR in TCM. METHODS: We conducted a review of hospitalized TCM patients at Baystate Medical Center between 2010 and 2017. We evaluated rates of referral, enrollment, adherence, and changes in exercise capacity. Predictors of CR utilization were analyzed using t-test, chi-square/odds ratio and multivariable hierarchical modeling when appropriate. RESULTS: Over 8 years, 35% of 590 patients with TCM were evaluated by phase I (inpatient) and 13.6% enrolled in phase II (outpatient) CR. Inpatient CR evaluation (OR 21, 95% CI 7-64) and cardiac catheterization (OR 5.7, 95% CI 1.9-17) were strong predictors of outpatient CR participation. Patients enrolling in CR attended 15±14 sessions and increased their exercise capacity by 1.2 METs (95% CI 0.9-1.5). CONCLUSION: CR is inconsistently used in TCM, despite the potential physiologic benefits of exercise in TCM.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Cardíaca , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo , Exercício Físico , Terapia por Exercício , Tolerância ao Exercício , Humanos
8.
Chest ; 2020 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines recommend against routine Legionella pneumophila testing, but recommend that hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia receive empiric treatment covering Legionella. Testing, empiric treatment, and outcomes for patients with Legionella have not been well described. RESEARCH QUESTION: Is testing for Legionella pneumophila appropriate, and could it impact treatment? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a large retrospective cohort analysis using Premier Healthcare Database data from 2010 to 2015. We included adults with a principal diagnosis code for pneumonia (or a principal diagnosis of respiratory failure or sepsis with secondary diagnosis of pneumonia) if they also received treatment for pneumonia on hospital days 1-3. We categorized Legionella-tested patients by test result, identified patient characteristics associated with testing and test result, and examined seasonal and regional patterns of Legionella pneumonia (LP) diagnoses. Empiric therapy for LP was defined as a macrolide, quinolone, or doxycycline, administered on each of the first two hospital days. RESULTS: Of 166,689 eligible patients, 43,070 (26%) were tested for Legionella, and 642 (1.5%) tested positive. Although only 36% of tests were ordered from June to October, 70% of positive test results occurred during this time. Only 30% of patients with hyponatremia, 32% with diarrhea, and 27% in the ICU were tested. Of patients with positive test results, 495 of 642 (77%) had received empiric Legionella therapy. Patients with LP did not have more severe presentation. They had more frequent late decompensation, but similar mortality to patients without LP. INTERPRETATION: Legionella is an uncommon cause of community-acquired pneumonia, occurring primarily from late spring through early autumn. Testing is uncommon, even among patients with risk factors, and many patients with positive test results failed to receive empiric coverage for LP.

9.
Heart Lung ; 49(6): 824-828, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current guidelines poorly define hypertensive urgency and recommend Oral (PO) medications over intravenous (IV). OBJECTIVE: To describe hospital management of hypertensive urgency and compare characteristics and outcomes of PO vs. IV medications. METHODS: We used descriptive statistics and created generalized linear models to evaluate within-subject blood pressure (BP) changes over 24 hours. RESULTS: 179 patients had an average age of 62 and 58% female. Chronic hypertension was common (165, 88%), as was chronic renal disease (40.6%). IV medications were common (146, 81.6%) and associated with higher comorbidity burden, prior kidney disease, and longer length of stay (2.5, 1.6-3.8 vs. 1.4, 0.9-2.2, p=0.007). 66 (35.3%) developed and 43 (23.5%) new organ dysfunction, but outcomes were similar between groups. BP was similar between groups after 12 hours. CONCLUSIONS: IV medication use was common and decreased BP more rapidly. Outcomes including BP were similar to PO administration, except for length of stay.

11.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 26(12): 2335-2345, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961375

RESUMO

Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is an effective treatment for many hematologic malignancies, and its utilization continues to rise. However, due to the difficult logistics and high cost of HCT, there are significant barriers to accessing the procedure; these barriers are likely greater for older patients. Although numerous factors may influence HCT access, no formal analysis has detailed the cumulative barriers that have been studied thus far. We conducted a systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines to better categorize the barriers to access and referral to HCT, with a focus on the subgroup of older patients. We searched for articles published in English from PubMed, Embase, Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials between the database inception and January 31, 2020. We selected articles that met the following inclusion criteria: (1) study design: qualitative, cross-sectional, observational cohort, or mixed-method study designs; (2) outcomes: barriers related to patient and physician access to HCT; and (3) population: adults aged ≥18 years with hematologic malignancies within the United States. Abstracts without full text were excluded. QUALSYST methodology was used to determine article quality. Data on the barriers to access and referral for HCT were extracted, along with other study characteristics. We summarized the findings using descriptive statistics. We included 26 of 3859 studies screened for inclusion criteria. Twenty studies were retrospective cohorts and 4 were cross-sectional. There was 1 prospective cohort study and 1 mixed-method study. Only 1 study was rated as high quality, and 16 were rated as fair. Seventeen studies analyzed age as a potential barrier to HCT referral and access, with 16 finding older age to be a barrier. Other consistent barriers to HCT referral and access included nonwhite race (n = 16/20 studies), insurance status (n = 13/14 studies), comorbidities (n = 10/11 studies), and lower socioeconomic status (n = 7/8 studies). High-quality studies are lacking related to HCT barriers. Older age and nonwhite race were consistently linked to reduced access to HCT. To produce a more just health care system, strategies to overcome these barriers for vulnerable populations should be prioritized. Examples include patient and physician education, as well as geriatric assessment guided care models that can be readily incorporated into clinical practice.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonadherence to cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is common despite the benefits of completing a full program. Adherence might be improved if patients at risk of early dropout were identified and received an intervention. METHODS: Using records from patients who completed ≥1 CR session in 2016 (derivation cohort), we employed multivariable logistic regression to identify independent patient-level characteristics associated with attending <12 sessions of CR in a predictive model. We then evaluated model discrimination and validity among patients who enrolled in 2017 (validation cohort). RESULTS: Of the 657 patients in our derivation cohort, 318 (48%) completed <12 sessions. Independent risk factors for not attending ≥12 sessions were age <55 yr (OR = 0.23, P < .001), age 55 to 64 yr (OR = 0.35, P < .001), age ≥75 yr (OR = 0.64, P = .06), smoker within 30 d of CR enrollment (OR = 0.40, P = .001), low risk for exercise adverse events (OR = 0.54, P = .03), and nonsurgical referral diagnosis (OR = 0.66, P = .02). Our model predicted nonadherence risk from 23-90%, had acceptable discrimination and calibration (C-statistics = 0.70, Harrell's E50 and E90 2.0 and 3.6, respectively) but had fair validity among 542 patients in the validation cohort (C-statistic = 0.62, Harrell's E50 and E90 2.1 and 11.3, respectively). CONCLUSION: We developed and evaluated a single-center simple risk model to predict nonadherence to CR. Although the model has limitations, this tool may help clinicians identify patients at risk of early dropout and guide intervention efforts to improve adherence so that the full benefits of CR can be realized for all patients.

14.
Disabil Health J ; : 100951, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the growing population of U.S. adults with obesity and mobility disability, physicians will need to accommodate these patients. OBJECTIVE: To explore attitudes and practices of US physicians related to caring for patients with obesity and mobility disability. METHODS: Three open-ended, semi-structured, web-based focus group interviews with practicing physicians in selected specialties, which reached data saturation. Interviews were video recorded and transcribed for qualitative, conventional content analysis. Measurements included commonly expressed themes around caring for patients with obesity. RESULTS: Physicians recognized obesity as a disability that poses challenges to high quality, safe, and efficient patient care. Observations coalesced around four themes: (1) difficulty routinely tracking weight; (2) reluctance to transfer obese patients to exam tables; (3) barriers to diagnostic testing; and (4) weight stigma. Physicians described difficulties accurately assessing weight, performing complete physical examinations, arranging diagnostic imaging, and providing prenatal care for obese patients. Lack of accessible medical diagnostic equipment impeded care for patients with obesity. Other participants did not contest comments of individual participants' that suggested weight stigma. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that important gaps may remain in providing equitable access to care for patients with obesity, requiring additional training and accessible medical diagnostic equipment to safely accommodate these patients.

15.
J Asthma Allergy ; 13: 193-203, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636652

RESUMO

Objective: To examine predictors of spirometry use at a tertiary academic health system and association between receipt of spirometry and outcomes. Patients and Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult patients with an ICD-9 CM diagnostic code for asthma and a 2014 outpatient visit in either a community health center or private practice associated with a tertiary academic medical center. The main outcome was receipt of spirometry during a 2007-2015 "exposure period." We secondarily examined future hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits during a follow-up period (2016-2019). Results: In a sample of 394 patients, the majority were white (48%; n=188) and female (72%; n=284). Mean (SD) age was 52 years. Approximately half (185, 47%) of the patients received spirometry and 25% (n=97) saw a specialist during the exposure period. Nearly, 88% (n=85) of patients who saw a specialist received spirometry. More than half of the cohort (220/394, 56%) had an ED visit or admission during the follow-up period. Of these, 168 (76.4%) had not seen a specialist and 111 (50.5%) had not received spirometry within the exposure period. We saw no association between spirometry in the exposure window and future ED visit or hospitalization. Conclusion: In a cohort of patients at a tertiary medical center, spirometry was underused. We observed a strong association between seeing a specialist and use of spirometry, suggesting a need to better incorporate spirometry into routine primary care for patients with asthma. Among 220 patients who had an asthma-related hospitalization or ED visit in 2016-2019, the majority had no record of receiving spirometry and no documentation indicating a prior specialist visit.

18.
JAMA ; 323(18): 1813-1823, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396181

RESUMO

Importance: Meta-analyses have suggested that initiating pulmonary rehabilitation after an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was associated with improved survival, although the number of patients studied was small and heterogeneity was high. Current guidelines recommend that patients enroll in pulmonary rehabilitation after hospital discharge. Objective: To determine the association between the initiation of pulmonary rehabilitation within 90 days of hospital discharge and 1-year survival. Design, Setting, and Patients: This retrospective, inception cohort study used claims data from fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized for COPD in 2014, at 4446 acute care hospitals in the US. The final date of follow-up was December 31, 2015. Exposures: Initiation of pulmonary rehabilitation within 90 days of hospital discharge. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was all-cause mortality at 1 year. Time from discharge to death was modeled using Cox regression with time-varying exposure to pulmonary rehabilitation, adjusting for mortality and for unbalanced characteristics and propensity to initiate pulmonary rehabilitation. Additional analyses evaluated the association between timing of pulmonary rehabilitation and mortality and between number of sessions completed and mortality. Results: Of 197 376 patients (mean age, 76.9 years; 115 690 [58.6%] women), 2721 (1.5%) initiated pulmonary rehabilitation within 90 days of discharge. A total of 38 302 (19.4%) died within 1 year of discharge, including 7.3% of patients who initiated pulmonary rehabilitation within 90 days and 19.6% of patients who initiated pulmonary rehabilitation after 90 days or not at all. Initiation within 90 days was significantly associated with lower risk of death over 1 year (absolute risk difference [ARD], -6.7% [95% CI, -7.9% to -5.6%]; hazard ratio [HR], 0.63 [95% CI, 0.57 to 0.69]; P < .001). Initiation of pulmonary rehabilitation was significantly associated with lower mortality across start dates ranging from 30 days or less (ARD, -4.6% [95% CI, -5.9% to -3.2%]; HR, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.67 to 0.82]; P < .001) to 61 to 90 days after discharge (ARD, -11.1% [95% CI, -13.2% to -8.4%]; HR, 0.40 [95% CI, 0.30 to 0.54]; P < .001). Every 3 additional sessions was significantly associated with lower risk of death (HR, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.85 to 0.98]; P = .01). Conclusions and Relevance: Among fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized for COPD, initiation of pulmonary rehabilitation within 3 months of discharge was significantly associated with lower risk of mortality at 1 year. These findings support current guideline recommendations for pulmonary rehabilitation after hospitalization for COPD, although the potential for residual confounding exists and further research is needed.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/reabilitação , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Pontuação de Propensão , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Tempo para o Tratamento , Estados Unidos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231430

RESUMO

Rationale: Current guidelines recommend that patients hospitalized for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) initiate pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) shortly after discharge from the hospital. However, fewer than 2 percent of Medicare beneficiaries do so. Few studies have examined hospitalized patients' perceptions of the barriers and facilitators to enroll in PR. The aim of this study was to develop an understanding of these factors by interviewing patients. Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews with patients during a hospitalization for COPD exacerbation in a large teaching hospital. Directed content analysis was used to code and analyze interview transcripts. Results: Of the 15 patients we interviewed, 9 had participated in PR prior to their hospitalization, 10 were women; 4 were black, and 1 was Hispanic. Facilitators of enrollment included a desire to learn more about the disease, social support, and trust in the health-care provider recommending PR. Barriers to enrollment included lack of awareness, family obligations, lack of motivation, and transportation. For those who had previous experience with PR, but who did not complete the program, another barrier was not feeling well enough. Facilitators to adherence included the educational component of the program; feeling better through exercise; and a social connection with both participants and staff. For some patients. PR contributed to a renewed sense of hope or meaning. Most interviewees expressed interest in a peer coaching program. Conclusion: Our results highlight the importance of increasing awareness of PR and building trust between the provider and patients to facilitate initial enrollment. Future interventions to improve enrollment and adherence should address the need for education about the benefits of PR and the value of social support.

20.
Chest ; 157(5): 1130-1137, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) after hospitalization for an exacerbation of COPD, but few patients enroll in PR. We explored whether density of PR programs explained regional variation and racial disparities in receipt of PR. METHODS: We used Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services data from 223,832 Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized for COPD during 2012 who were eligible for PR postdischarge. We used Hospital-Referral Regions (HRR) as the unit of analysis. For each HRR, we calculated the density of PR programs as a measure of program access and estimated risk-standardized rates of PR within 6 months of discharge overall, and for non-Hispanic, white, and black beneficiaries. We used linear regression to examine the relationship between access to PR and HRR PR rates. We tested for racial disparity in PR rates among non-Hispanic white and black beneficiaries living in the same HRRs. RESULTS: Across 306 HRRs, the median number of PR programs per 1,000 Medicare beneficiaries was 0.06 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.04-0.10). Risk-standardized rates of PR ranged from 0.53% to 6.67% (median, 1.93%). Density of PR programs was positively associated with PR rates overall and among non-Hispanic white beneficiaries (P < .001), but this relationship was not observed among black beneficiaries. Rates were higher among non-Hispanic white beneficiaries (median, 2.08%; IQR, 1.54%-2.87%) compared with black beneficiaries (median, 1.19%; IQR, 1.15%-1.20%). CONCLUSIONS: Greater PR program density was associated with higher rates of PR for non-Hispanic white but not black beneficiaries. Further research is needed to identify reasons for this discrepancy and strategies to increase receipt of PR for black patients.

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