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1.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848197

RESUMO

Over the past decade, pharmacogenetics (PGx) became an essential tool for personalized medicine although its clinical implementation is still limited. We aimed to assess the current level of knowledge, applications, and expectations of Flemish pharmacists and physicians towards PGx and determine the factors that influence healthcare professionals' knowledge of PGx, aiming to guide future implementation initiatives. A web-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from 8 March 2019 to 8 April 2019, targeting pharmacists, physicians, and trainees of both professions. Ten questions were used to assess the participants' knowledge about PGx. Multivariable linear regression was used to assess the association of profession, experience, practice setting, and prior education with the level of PGx knowledge. In total, 201 Flemish healthcare providers participated, including 100 pharmacists, 73 physicians, and 28 trainees. The majority (78%) of participants were unfamiliar with the basic principles of PGx and its application in clinical practice. The mean percentage of correct answers achieved for the knowledge assessment questions was 34%. Only 9% had counseled patients, while 8% assisted other healthcare professionals on PGx tests the past year. Participants' PGx knowledge was significantly affected by their profession, practice setting, and level of prior education independent of years of experience. These findings provide insight into factors affecting the knowledge of PGx and the current level of PGx implementation in Flemish clinical practice. This may form a basis for developing educational initiatives to enhance the clinical application of PGx in Flanders.

2.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(7): 696-708, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic factors influence chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk, but the individual variants that have been identified have small effects. We hypothesised that a polygenic risk score using additional variants would predict COPD and associated phenotypes. METHODS: We constructed a polygenic risk score using a genome-wide association study of lung function (FEV1 and FEV1/forced vital capacity [FVC]) from the UK Biobank and SpiroMeta. We tested this polygenic risk score in nine cohorts of multiple ethnicities for an association with moderate-to-severe COPD (defined as FEV1/FVC <0·7 and FEV1 <80% of predicted). Associations were tested using logistic regression models, adjusting for age, sex, height, smoking pack-years, and principal components of genetic ancestry. We assessed predictive performance of models by area under the curve. In a subset of studies, we also studied quantitative and qualitative CT imaging phenotypes that reflect parenchymal and airway pathology, and patterns of reduced lung growth. FINDINGS: The polygenic risk score was associated with COPD in European (odds ratio [OR] per SD 1·81 [95% CI 1·74-1·88] and non-European (1·42 [1·34-1·51]) populations. Compared with the first decile, the tenth decile of the polygenic risk score was associated with COPD, with an OR of 7·99 (6·56-9·72) in European ancestry and 4·83 (3·45-6·77) in non-European ancestry cohorts. The polygenic risk score was superior to previously described genetic risk scores and, when combined with clinical risk factors (ie, age, sex, and smoking pack-years), showed improved prediction for COPD compared with a model comprising clinical risk factors alone (AUC 0·80 [0·79-0·81] vs 0·76 [0·75-0·76]). The polygenic risk score was associated with CT imaging phenotypes, including wall area percent, quantitative and qualitative measures of emphysema, local histogram emphysema patterns, and destructive emphysema subtypes. The polygenic risk score was associated with a reduced lung growth pattern. INTERPRETATION: A risk score comprised of genetic variants can identify a small subset of individuals at markedly increased risk for moderate-to-severe COPD, emphysema subtypes associated with cigarette smoking, and patterns of reduced lung growth. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health, Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Capacidade Vital
3.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 193, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common lung disorder characterized by persistent and progressive airflow limitation as well as systemic changes. Metabolic changes in blood may help detect COPD in an earlier stage and predict prognosis. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive study of circulating metabolites, measured by proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, in relation with COPD and lung function. The discovery sample consisted of 5557 individuals from two large population-based studies in the Netherlands, the Rotterdam Study and the Erasmus Rucphen Family study. Significant findings were replicated in 12,205 individuals from the Lifelines-DEEP study, FINRISK and the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) studies. For replicated metabolites further investigation of causality was performed, utilizing genetics in the Mendelian randomization approach. RESULTS: There were 602 cases of COPD and 4955 controls used in the discovery meta-analysis. Our logistic regression results showed that higher levels of plasma Glycoprotein acetyls (GlycA) are significantly associated with COPD (OR = 1.16, P = 5.6 × 10- 4 in the discovery and OR = 1.30, P = 1.8 × 10- 6 in the replication sample). A bi-directional two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis suggested that circulating blood GlycA is not causally related to COPD, but that COPD causally increases GlycA levels. Using the prospective data of the same sample of Rotterdam Study in Cox-regression, we show that the circulating GlycA level is a predictive biomarker of COPD incidence (HR = 1.99, 95%CI 1.52-2.60, comparing those in the highest and lowest quartile of GlycA) but is not significantly associated with mortality in COPD patients (HR = 1.07, 95%CI 0.94-1.20). CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that circulating blood GlycA is a biomarker of early COPD pathology.

6.
Eur Respir J ; 55(5)2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108044

RESUMO

There is an emerging role for blood eosinophil count (EOS) as a biomarker to guide inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy in COPD. Since ICS administration could influence EOS, we hypothesised that change in EOS following treatment with ICS may predict outcomes of long-term therapy.In a post hoc analysis of ISOLDE, a 3-year, double-blind trial comparing 500 µg fluticasone propionate twice daily with placebo in 751 patients with moderate-to-severe COPD, we evaluated whether the initial changes in EOS during ICS treatment were predictive of ICS treatment response.EOS change within 1 year after the introduction of ICS was strongly predictive of treatment response. A suppressed EOS was associated with treatment effect. Characteristically, in patients with EOS suppression of ≥200 cells·µL-1, ICS use was associated with a decelerated rate of decline of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), by 32 mL·year-1, and a 30% reduction in the exacerbation rate. In contrast, in patients experiencing an increase in EOS of ≥200 cells·µL-1, ICS use was associated with an accelerated rate of decline of FEV1, by 37 mL·year-1 and an 80% increase in the exacerbation rate (p<0.0001). EOS change was not predictive of clinical response with regards to health status evaluated using the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire.These findings suggest that EOS change after ICS administration may predict clinical response to ICS therapy in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD at risk of exacerbations. ICS administration may be associated with more frequent exacerbations and an accelerated lung function decline in the 20% of patients in whom EOS increases after the administration of ICS. These hypothesis-generating observations will need validation in prospectively designed studies.The ISOLDE trial was conducted before the ICJME recommended a prospective registration of RCT protocols.

7.
Nat Med ; 26(1): 110-117, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932804

RESUMO

Progress in high-throughput metabolic profiling provides unprecedented opportunities to obtain insights into the effects of drugs on human metabolism. The Biobanking BioMolecular Research Infrastructure of the Netherlands has constructed an atlas of drug-metabolite associations for 87 commonly prescribed drugs and 150 clinically relevant plasma-based metabolites assessed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance. The atlas includes a meta-analysis of ten cohorts (18,873 persons) and uncovers 1,071 drug-metabolite associations after evaluation of confounders including co-treatment. We show that the effect estimates of statins on metabolites from the cross-sectional study are comparable to those from intervention and genetic observational studies. Further data integration links proton pump inhibitors to circulating metabolites, liver function, hepatic steatosis and the gut microbiome. Our atlas provides a tool for targeted experimental pharmaceutical research and clinical trials to improve drug efficacy, safety and repurposing. We provide a web-based resource for visualization of the atlas (http://bbmri.researchlumc.nl/atlas/).


Assuntos
Estudos Epidemiológicos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Metaboloma/genética , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fatores de Confusão Epidemiológicos , Endofenótipos , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas
8.
Eur Respir J ; 55(1)2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601717

RESUMO

Preserved ratio impaired spirometry (PRISm) is a heterogeneous condition but its course and disease progression remain to be elucidated. We aimed to examine its prevalence, trajectories and prognosis in the general population.In the Rotterdam Study (population-based prospective cohort) we examined prevalence, trajectories and prognosis of subjects with normal spirometry (controls; forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ≥0.7, FEV1  ≥80%), PRISm (FEV1/FVC ≥0.7, FEV1 <80%) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (FEV1/FVC <0.7) at two study visits. Hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals for mortality (until December 30, 2018) were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, current smoking and pack-years.Of 5487 subjects (age 69.1±8.9 years; 7.1% PRISm), 1603 were re-examined after 4.5 years. Of the re-examined PRISm subjects, 15.7% transitioned to normal spirometry and 49.4% to COPD. Median lung function decline was highest in subjects with incident PRISm (FEV1 -92.8 mL·year-1, interquartile range (IQR) -131.9- -65.8 mL·year-1; FVC -93.3 mL·year-1, IQR -159.8- -49.1 mL·year-1), but similar in persistent PRISm (FEV1 -30.2 mL·year-1, IQR -67.9- -7.5 mL·year-1; FVC -20.1 mL·year-1, IQR -47.7-21.7 mL·year-1) and persistent controls (FEV1 -39.6 mL·year-1, IQR -64.3--12.7 mL·year-1; FVC -20.0 mL·year-1, IQR -55.4-18.8 mL·year-1). Of 5459 subjects with informed consent for follow-up, 692 (12.7%) died during 9.3 years (maximum) follow-up: 10.3% of controls, 18.7% of PRISm subjects and 20.8% of COPD subjects. Relative to controls, subjects with PRISm and COPD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2-4 had increased all-cause mortality (PRISm: HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.0; COPD GOLD 2-4: HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.4-2.1) and cardiovascular mortality (PRISm: HR 2.8, 95% CI 1.5-5.1; COPD 2-4: HR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.6). Mortality within <1 year was highest in PRISm, with patients often having cardiovascular comorbidities (heart failure or coronary heart disease; 70.0%).PRISm is associated with increased mortality and this population encompasses at least three distinct subsets: one that develops COPD during follow-up, a second with high cardiovascular burden and early mortality, and a third with persistent PRISm and normal age-related lung function decline.

9.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 268, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Active smoking is the main risk factor for COPD. Here, epigenetic mechanisms may play a role, since cigarette smoking is associated with differential DNA methylation in whole blood. So far, it is unclear whether epigenetics also play a role in subjects with COPD who never smoked. Therefore, we aimed to identify differential DNA methylation associated with lung function in never smokers. METHODS: We determined epigenome-wide DNA methylation levels of 396,243 CpG-sites (Illumina 450 K) in blood of never smokers in four independent cohorts, LifeLines COPD&C (N = 903), LifeLines DEEP (N = 166), Rotterdam Study (RS)-III (N = 150) and RS-BIOS (N = 206). We meta-analyzed the cohort-specific methylation results to identify differentially methylated CpG-sites with FEV1/FVC. Expression Quantitative Trait Methylation (eQTM) analysis was performed in the Biobank-based Integrative Omics Studies (BIOS). RESULTS: A total of 36 CpG-sites were associated with FEV1/FVC in never smokers at p-value< 0.0001, but the meta-analysis did not reveal any epigenome-wide significant CpG-sites. Of interest, 35 of these 36 CpG-sites have not been associated with lung function before in studies including subjects irrespective of smoking history. Among the top hits were cg10012512, cg02885771, annotated to the gene LTV1 Ribosome Biogenesis factor (LTV1), and cg25105536, annotated to Kelch Like Family Member 32 (KLHL32). Moreover, a total of 11 eQTMS were identified. CONCLUSIONS: With the identification of 35 CpG-sites that are unique for never smokers, our study shows that DNA methylation is also associated with FEV1/FVC in subjects that never smoked and therefore not merely related to smoking.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Valores de Referência , Fumantes , Fumar/genética
10.
Eur Respir Rev ; 28(154)2019 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722892

RESUMO

COPD is associated with a progressive loss of muscle mass and function. However, there is an unmet need to define and standardise methods to estimate the prevalence of sarcopenia in COPD patients.We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of this extrapulmonary manifestation in COPD patients. We searched Embase, Medline (Ovid), CINAHL (EBSCO), Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar for studies published up to January 17, 2019, assessing sarcopenia in COPD patients based on low muscle mass and decreased muscle function. Interventional studies, in vitro experiments, protocols or reviews and meta-analyses were excluded. We estimated heterogeneity (I2) and assessed significance (Q) using a Chi-squared test for estimates obtained from random-effects models.4465 articles were initially identified. After removing the duplicates and applying the selection criteria, we reviewed 62 full-text articles. Finally, 10 articles (n=2565 COPD patients) were included in this systematic review and meta-analyses. Overall, the prevalence of sarcopenia in patients with COPD was 21.6% (95% CI 14.6-30.9%, I2=94%), ranging from 8% in population-based to 21% in clinic-based studies, and 63% in COPD patients residing in nursing homes.Sarcopenia is frequently observed in COPD patients, with varying prevalence across population settings. Sarcopenia in COPD should be assessed using standardised tests and cut-off points from sarcopenia consensus criteria for clinical practice and international comparisons.

11.
12.
Atherosclerosis ; 291: 107-113, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: COPD is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, potentially by mechanisms of atherosclerosis. Insight into location-specific vulnerability to atherosclerosis in COPD, including intracranial arteries, is lacking. We aimed to investigate the relation between COPD and atherosclerosis in multiple vessel beds within a large population-based cohort study. METHODS: From 2003 to 2006, a random sample of 2187 elderly participants (mean age, 69.6 ±â€¯6.8 years; 50.9% female; 11.7% COPD) from the population-based Rotterdam Study underwent computed tomography to quantify atherosclerotic coronary artery calcification (CAC), aortic arch calcification (AAC), extracranial carotid artery calcification (ECAC), and intracranial carotid artery calcification (ICAC). We investigated the association of COPD [ratio of forced expiratory volume in the first second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) < 70%] with the presence of calcification and with calcification volumes in each vessel bed using logistic and linear regression, with adjustments for cardiovascular risk factors including smoking. RESULTS: The prevalence of CAC, AAC and ECAC was significantly higher in subjects with COPD compared to those without. After adjusting for age and smoking, COPD remained associated with the presence of ECAC (odds ratio 1.46 [95% confidence interval, 1.02-2.07, p = 0.037]). COPD was significantly associated with larger calcification volumes in all four vessel beds in people in whom calcification was present. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that COPD plays a role in extracranial carotid artery atherosclerosis initiation and systemic atherosclerosis aggravation.

13.
J Clin Med ; 8(11)2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683975

RESUMO

The role of the ß2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unclear. We investigated the association between ADRB2 variants and the risk of exacerbations in COPD patients treated with inhaled ß2-agonists. Within the Rotterdam Study, a population-based cohort study, we followed 1,053 COPD patients until the first COPD exacerbation or end of follow-up and extracted rs1042713 (16Arg > Gly) and rs1042714 (27Gln > Glu) in ADRB2. Exposure to inhaled ß2-agonists was categorised into current, past or non-use on the index date (date of COPD exacerbation for cases and on the same day of follow-up for controls). COPD exacerbations were defined as acute episodes of worsening symptoms requiring systemic corticosteroids and/or antibiotics (moderate exacerbations), or hospitalization (severe exacerbations). The associations between ADRB2 variants and COPD exacerbations were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for age, sex, use of inhaled corticosteroids, daily dose of ß2-agonists, and smoking. In current users of ß2-agonists, the risk of COPD exacerbation decreased by 30% (hazard ratio (HR); 0.70, 95% CI: 0.59-0.84) for each copy of the Arg allele of rs1042713 and by 20% (HR; 0.80, 95% CI: 0.69-0.94) for each copy of the Gln allele of rs1042714. Furthermore, current users carrying the Arg16/Gln27 haplotype had a significantly lower risk (HR; 0.70, 95% CI: 0.59-0.85) of COPD exacerbation compared to the Gly16/Glu27 haplotype. In conclusion, we observed that the Arg16/Gln27 haplotype in ADRB2 was associated with a reduced risk of COPD exacerbation in current users of inhaled ß2-agonists.

14.
Thorax ; 74(12): 1182-1184, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611340

RESUMO

Serum IgA ≤70 mg/dL (low IgA) is associated with exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The association of low IgA with longitudinal lung function is poorly defined. This study included 917 World Trade Center (WTC)-exposed firefighters with longitudinal spirometry measured between September 2001 and September 2018 and IgA measured between October 2001 and March 2002. Low IgA, compared with IgA >70 mg/dL, was associated with lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) % predicted in the year following 11 September 2001 (94.1% vs 98.6%, p<0.001), increased risk of FEV1/FVC <0.70 (HR 3.8, 95% CI 1.6 to 8.8) and increased antibiotic treatment (22.5/100 vs 11.6/100 person-years, p=0.002). Following WTC exposure, early IgA ≤70 mg/dL was associated with worse lung function and increased antibiotic treatment.

15.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 179, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395084

RESUMO

Since novel treatments to target eosinophilic inflammation in Type 2 asthma are emerging, we aimed to evaluate and meta-analyze the efficacy of monoclonal antibodies to reduce exacerbation rate. PubMed and Web of Science were searched for phase II and phase III randomized clinical trials with monoclonal antibodies targeting key mediators of type 2-associated asthma. Thirty trials were selected involving biologics that target the IL-5 pathway, IL-13, the common IL-4 and IL-13 receptor, IL-9, IL-2 and TSLP. As no head-to-head trials were retrieved from literature, we performed an arm-based network meta-analysis to compare effects on exacerbation rate between the different treatments.Mepolizumab, reslizumab and benralizumab significantly reduced the risk of exacerbations compared to placebo (by 47-52%, 50-60%, and 28-51% respectively). Reslizumab and benralizumab also improved lung function. Dupilumab and tezepelumab improved lung function in frequent exacerbators. Lebrikizumab had no significant effect on the number of exacerbations, symptom control or health-related quality of life. Tralokinumab improved lung function compared to placebo. Network meta-analysis of all treatment and placebo arms, showed no superiority of one biologic over the others. Large reductions in exacerbation rates were observed compared to placebo, though only benralizumab was sufficiently powered (n = 2051) to demonstrate significantly decreased exacerbation rates in the subgroup analysis of IL-5 acting agents compared to placebo.Monoclonal antibodies such as mepolizumab, reslizumab and benralizumab have proven their benefit to reduce exacerbation rates in severe persistent eosinophilic asthma in the published trials. However, no statistically significant superiority was observed of one biologic over the other in the network meta-analysis. More studies with direct head to head comparisons and better defined endotypes are required.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Antiasmáticos/sangue , Anticorpos Monoclonais/sangue , Asma/sangue , Asma/diagnóstico , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos
16.
J Clin Med ; 8(8)2019 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357728

RESUMO

Various phenotypes exist in asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). These are important to identify in order to guide treatment decisions. We aim to investigate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of obstructive airway diseases in the middle-aged population. We estimated the prevalence of COPD and/or asthma in the Asklepios cohort study (Belgium), using information from the third European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS3), medical records, and spirometry. Respiratory symptoms, respiratory medication, and current disease status distinguished clinical from sub-clinical cases. In addition, we compared the blood eosinophil count/µL (median [IQR]) between cases and controls. Of the 2221 participants (mean age 56.1 ± 5.9 years; 48.7% males), 138 (6.2%) participants had clinical current asthma, 22 (1.0%) participants had sub-clinical ever asthma, 102 (4.6%) had sub-clinical spirometry-defined COPD, 104 (4.6%) participants had clinical spirometry-confirmed COPD, and 11 (0.5%) had asthma and COPD overlap (ACO). Clinical current asthma (160.0 [110.0-250.0]), sub-clinical ever asthma (170.0 [110.0-230.0]), and clinical COPD (160.0 [110.0-220.0])-but less sub-clinical COPD (140.0 [90.0-210.0])-had higher eosinophil counts, compared to controls (130.0 [80.0-200.0]). We conclude that obstructive airway diseases are prevalent in the middle-aged Asklepios cohort. Moreover, the systemic eosinophil count is increased in clinical COPD cases, and in asthma cases regardless of clinical remission.

17.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152171

RESUMO

Many workers are daily exposed to occupational agents like gases/fumes, mineral dust or biological dust, which could induce adverse health effects. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, have been suggested to play a role. We therefore aimed to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) upon occupational exposures in never-smokers and investigated if these DMRs associated with gene expression levels. To determine the effects of occupational exposures independent of smoking, 903 never-smokers of the LifeLines cohort study were included. We performed three genome-wide methylation analyses (Illumina 450 K), one per occupational exposure being gases/fumes, mineral dust and biological dust, using robust linear regression adjusted for appropriate confounders. DMRs were identified using comb-p in Python. Results were validated in the Rotterdam Study (233 never-smokers) and methylation-expression associations were assessed using Biobank-based Integrative Omics Study data (n = 2802). Of the total 21 significant DMRs, 14 DMRs were associated with gases/fumes and 7 with mineral dust. Three of these DMRs were associated with both exposures (RPLP1 and LINC02169 (2×)) and 11 DMRs were located within transcript start sites of gene expression regulating genes. We replicated two DMRs with gases/fumes (VTRNA2-1 and GNAS) and one with mineral dust (CCDC144NL). In addition, nine gases/fumes DMRs and six mineral dust DMRs significantly associated with gene expression levels. Our data suggest that occupational exposures may induce differential methylation of gene expression regulating genes and thereby may induce adverse health effects. Given the millions of workers that are exposed daily to occupational exposures, further studies on this epigenetic mechanism and health outcomes are warranted.

19.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 49(7): 953-968, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009112

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Asthma is a common chronic respiratory airway disease influenced by environmental factors and possibly their interaction with the human genome causing epigenetic changes. Epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) have mainly investigated DNA methylation and its association with disease or traits, exposure factors or gene expression. This systematic review aimed to identify all EWAS assessing differentially methylated sites associated with asthma in humans. DESIGN: Structured systematic literature search following PRISMA guidelines, Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for cohort studies was used for bias assessment. DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed and Embase databases from 2005 to 2019. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Epigenome-wide association studies testing association between differential methylation and asthma in humans. RESULTS: Overall, we identified 16 EWAS studies complying with our search criteria. Twelve studies were conducted on children, and 10 were conducted on sample sizes <150 subjects. Four hundred and nineteen CpGs were reported in children studies after correction for multiple testing. In the adult studies, thousands of differentially methylated sites were identified. Differential methylation in inflammatory-related genes correlated with higher levels of gene expressions of inflammatory modulators in asthma. Differentially methylated genes associated with asthma included SMAD3, SERPINC1, PROK1, IL13, RUNX3 and TIGIT. Forty-one CpGs were replicated at least once in blood samples, and 28 CpGs were replicated in nasal samples. CONCLUSION: Although many differentially methylated CpGs in genes known to be involved in asthma have been identified in EWAS to date, we conclude that further studies of larger sample sizes and analyses of differential methylation between different phenotypes are needed in order to comprehensively evaluate the role of epigenetic factors in the pathophysiology and heterogeneity of asthma, and the potential clinical utility to predict or classify patients with asthma.

20.
BMC Pulm Med ; 19(1): 58, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Airflow obstruction is a hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and is defined as either the ratio between forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) < 70% or < lower limit of normal (LLN). This study aimed to assess the overlap between genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on airflow obstruction using these two definitions in the same population stratified by smoking. METHODS: GWASes were performed in the LifeLines Cohort Study for both airflow obstruction definitions in never-smokers (NS = 5071) and ever-smokers (ES = 4855). The FEV1/FVC < 70% models were adjusted for sex, age, and height; FEV1/FVC < LLN models were not adjusted. Ever-smokers models were additionally adjusted for pack-years and current-smoking. The overlap in significantly associated SNPs between the two definitions and never/ever-smokers was assessed using several p-value thresholds. To quantify the agreement, the Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between the p-values and ORs. Replication was performed in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen study (NS = 432, ES = 823). The overlapping SNPs with p < 10- 4 were validated in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen and Rotterdam Study cohorts (NS = 1966, ES = 3134) and analysed for expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) in lung tissue (n = 1087). RESULTS: In the LifeLines cohort, 96% and 93% of the never- and ever-smokers were classified concordantly based on the two definitions. 26 and 29% of the investigated SNPs were overlapping at p < 0.05 in never- and ever-smokers, respectively. At p < 10- 4 the overlap was 4% and 6% respectively, which could be change findings as shown by simulation studies. The effect estimates of the SNPs of the two definitions correlated strongly, but the p-values showed more variation and correlated only moderately. Similar observations were made in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen study. Two overlapping SNPs in never-smokers (NFYC and FABP7) had the same direction of effect in the validation cohorts and the NFYC SNP was an eQTL for NFYC-AS1. NFYC is a transcription factor that binds to several known COPD genes, and FABP7 may be involved in abnormal pulmonary development. CONCLUSIONS: The definition of airflow obstruction and the population under study may be important determinants of which SNPs are associated with airflow obstruction. The genes FABP7 and NFYC(-AS1) could play a role in airflow obstruction in never-smokers specifically.


Assuntos
Fator de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Proteína 7 de Ligação a Ácidos Graxos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Fumar/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Homologia de Genes/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Espirometria , Capacidade Vital , Adulto Jovem
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