Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 121
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
J Nutr ; 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) genetic variants that predispose individuals to type 2 diabetes (T2D) show inconsistent associations with anthropometric traits. Interaction between TCF7L2 genotypes and dietary factors may help explain these observations. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the potential modulation of TCF7L2-rs7903146 and rs12255372 on anthropometric markers by a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet). METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 1120 participants (aged 45-75 y) of the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study. Anthropometric variables were measured, and polymorphisms were genotyped using standardized protocols. Diet was assessed using a validated FFQ. The MedDiet was defined based on adherence to 9 food and nutrient components using sex-specific population-based median cut-offs; high adherence was defined as meeting ≥4 components. Haplotypes were tested for association with obesity traits, independently and via interaction with the MedDiet. RESULTS: TCF7L2-rs7903146 showed significant interaction with the MedDiet influencing BMI, weight, and waist circumference. The T risk-allele carriers (CT + TT) with a high MedDiet score had lower weight (77.3 ± 1.0 compared with CC 80.9 ± 1.0 kg; P = 0.013) and waist circumference (99.2 ± 0.9 compared with CC 102.2 ± 0.9 cm; P = 0.021), when compared with CC participants. A low MedDiet score resulted in no significant differences between genotypes. For TCF7L2-rs12255372, we found significant interactions with the MedDiet for weight (P-interaction = 0.034) and BMI (P-interaction = 0.036). The T allele carriers with a higher MedDiet score showed a trend of lower but no significant differences when compared with CC participants for BMI (P = 0.19), weight (P = 0.09), and waist circumference (P = 0.11). We found significant interactions between the 2 risk-carrying haplotypes and the MedDiet compared with the common haplotype (GC), with lower BMI (ß ± SE, TT: -1.53 ± 0.68; P-interaction = 0.024), weight (TT: -4.16 ± 1.77; P-interaction = 0.019), and waist circumference (GT: -5.07 ± 2.50; P-interaction = 0.042) at a high MedDiet score. CONCLUSION: Puerto Ricans with the TCF7L2-rs7903146 and rs12255372 T2D risk genotypes, although still high, had better anthropometric profiles when adhering to a MedDiet, suggesting that this diet may offset unfavorable genetic predisposition.

2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(9): e1910915, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539074

RESUMO

Importance: Observational studies have shown associations of birth weight with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and glycemic traits, but it remains unclear whether these associations represent causal associations. Objective: To test the association of birth weight with T2D and glycemic traits using a mendelian randomization analysis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This mendelian randomization study used a genetic risk score for birth weight that was constructed with 7 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The associations of this score with birth weight and T2D were tested in a mendelian randomization analysis using study-level data. The association of birth weight with T2D was tested using both study-level data (7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used as an instrumental variable) and summary-level data from the consortia (43 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used as an instrumental variable). Data from 180 056 participants from 49 studies were included. Main Outcomes and Measures: Type 2 diabetes and glycemic traits. Results: This mendelian randomization analysis included 49 studies with 41 155 patients with T2D and 80 008 control participants from study-level data and 34 840 patients with T2D and 114 981 control participants from summary-level data. Study-level data showed that a 1-SD decrease in birth weight due to the genetic risk score was associated with higher risk of T2D among all participants (odds ratio [OR], 2.10; 95% CI, 1.69-2.61; P = 4.03 × 10-5), among European participants (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.42-2.71; P = .04), and among East Asian participants (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.18-1.62; P = .04). Similar results were observed from summary-level analyses. In addition, each 1-SD lower birth weight was associated with 0.189 SD higher fasting glucose concentration (ß = 0.189; SE = 0.060; P = .002), but not with fasting insulin, 2-hour glucose, or hemoglobin A1c concentration. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, a genetic predisposition to lower birth weight was associated with increased risk of T2D and higher fasting glucose concentration, suggesting genetic effects on retarded fetal growth and increased diabetes risk that either are independent of each other or operate through alterations of integrated biological mechanisms.

3.
Diabetes Care ; 42(9): 1784-1791, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213470

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)-associated genetic variants and examine their implications for glycemic status evaluated by HbA1c in U.S. Hispanics/Latinos with diverse genetic ancestries. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of HbA1c in 9,636 U.S. Hispanics/Latinos without diabetes from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, followed by a replication among 4,729 U.S. Hispanics/Latinos from three independent studies. RESULTS: Our GWAS and replication analyses showed 10 previously known and novel loci associated with HbA1c at genome-wide significance levels (P < 5.0 × 10-8). In particular, two African ancestry-specific variants, HBB-rs334 and G6PD-rs1050828, which are causal mutations for sickle cell disease and G6PD deficiency, respectively, had ∼10 times larger effect sizes on HbA1c levels (ß = -0.31% [-3.4 mmol/mol]) and -0.35% [-3.8 mmol/mol] per minor allele, respectively) compared with other HbA1c-associated variants (0.03-0.04% [0.3-0.4 mmol/mol] per allele). A novel Amerindian ancestry-specific variant, HBM-rs145546625, was associated with HbA1c and hematologic traits but not with fasting glucose. The prevalence of hyperglycemia (prediabetes and diabetes) defined using fasting glucose or oral glucose tolerance test 2-h glucose was similar between carriers of HBB-rs334 or G6PD-rs1050828 HbA1c-lowering alleles and noncarriers, whereas the prevalence of hyperglycemia defined using HbA1c was significantly lower in carriers than in noncarriers (12.2% vs. 28.4%, P < 0.001). After recalibration of the HbA1c level taking HBB-rs334 and G6PD-rs1050828 into account, the prevalence of hyperglycemia in carriers was similar to noncarriers (31.3% vs. 28.4%, P = 0.28). CONCLUSIONS: This study in U.S. Hispanics/Latinos found several ancestry-specific alleles associated with HbA1c through erythrocyte-related rather than glycemic-related pathways. The potential influences of these nonglycemic-related variants need to be considered when the HbA1c test is performed.

4.
J Nutr ; 149(7): 1116-1121, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary intervention (DI) is a primary strategy to attenuate some of the metabolic abnormalities associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS), including low HDL cholesterol. There is no biomarker that can identify individuals who respond to DI by increasing HDL cholesterol. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the predictive power of a genetic predisposition score (GPS) in Mexican adults with MetS to identify HDL cholesterol responders to DI. METHODS: This study followed a prospective cohort design. Sixty-seven Mexican adults aged 20-60 y (21% men) with BMI ≥25 and ≤39.9 kg/m², who had at least 3 of 5 positive criteria for MetS, were included. Participants consumed a low saturated fat diet for 2.5 mo (<7% energy as saturated fat, <200 mg of cholesterol/d) and reduced their usual diet by ∼440 kcal/d, a reduction in total energy intake of about 25%. Anthropometry and serum biochemical markers, including HDL cholesterol, were measured before and after DI. A multilocus GPS was constructed using previously reported genetic variants associated with response to diet in subjects with MetS. GPS values, designed to predict the response of HDL cholesterol to the DI, were computed for each individual as the sum of the number of effect alleles across 14 SNPs. RESULTS: Individuals were dichotomized as high and low GPS according to median GPS (-2.12) and we observed a difference in HDL cholesterol changes on DI of +3 mg/dL (6.3%) in subjects with low GPS, whereas those with high GPS had HDL cholesterol decreases of -3 mg/dL (-7.9%) (P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with low GPS showed greater increases in their HDL cholesterol than those with high GPS. Therefore, the GPS can be useful for predicting the HDL cholesterol response to diet.

5.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 19(12): 960-972, 2018 Dec..
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30507079

RESUMO

Royal jelly (RJ) from honeybee has been widely used as a health promotion supplement. The major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs) have been identified as the functional component of RJ. However, the question of whether MRJPs have anti-senescence activity for human cells remains. Human embryonic lung fibroblast (HFL-I) cells were cultured in media containing no MRJPs (A), MRJPs at 0.1 mg/ml (B), 0.2 mg/ml (C), or 0.3 mg/ml (D), or bovine serum albumin (BSA) at 0.2 mg/ml (E). The mean population doubling levels of cells in media B, C, D, and E were increased by 12.4%, 31.2%, 24.0%, and 10.4%, respectively, compared with that in medium A. The cells in medium C also exhibited the highest relative proliferation activity, the lowest senescence, and the longest telomeres. Moreover, MRJPs up-regulated the expression of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) and down-regulated the expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (MTOR), catenin beta like-1 (CTNNB1), and tumor protein p53 (TP53). Raman spectra analysis showed that there were two unique bands related to DNA synthesis materials, amide carbonyl group vibrations and aromatic hydrogens. These results suggest that MRJPs possess anti-senescence activity for the HFL-I cell line, and provide new knowledge illustrating the molecular mechanism of MRJPs as anti-senescence factors.

6.
Biofactors ; 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30488487

RESUMO

Harsh climate induces physiological stress thus compromising organismal survival. Our previous studies demonstrated that curcumin (CUR) supplementation increased survival of turtle under heat stress (HS). Here, we span this work to investigate the survival and lifespan of HS Drosophila fed a diet supplemented with CUR. For this purpose, female and male flies were fed basal diet (N) and CUR diet (0.2 mg/g), and exposed to three conditions: 25°C and 29°C continuously, and 34 °C for 2 h at days 1, 4, and 7, then kept at 25 °C. Lifespan analysis showed that, compared to N-25 °C flies, the mean lifespans of N-29 °C and N-34 °C flies were decreased significantly by 8.5-15.7% in males, and 3.7-7.9% in females. Conversely, in the CUR-supplemented diet, mean lifespans of C-29 °C and C-34 °C flies were significantly extended by 8.7-16.4% in males, and by 8.9-12.8% in females, compared to that of temperature-matched flies fed basal diets. The MDA levels of C-34 °C flies were significantly lower than those of N-34 °C flies, indicating CUR reduced oxidative stress caused by HS. Furthermore, CUR palliated the increased oxidative stress caused by HS, by increasing the expression of SOD1, CAT, and PHGPx and decreasing the expression of Hsp70 and Hsp83. Our results indicated that CUR supplementation increases the survival rate of Drosophila by enhancing thermal tolerance. © 2018 BioFactors, 2018.

7.
FASEB J ; : fj201800554RR, 2018 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096038

RESUMO

We recently reported that epicatechin, a bioactive compound that occurs naturally in various common foods, promoted general health and survival of obese diabetic mice. It remains to be determined whether epicatechin extends health span and delays the process of aging. In the present study, epicatechin or its analogue epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) (0.25% w/v in drinking water) was administered to 20-mo-old male C57BL mice fed a standard chow. The goal was to determine the antiaging effect. The results showed that supplementation with epicatechin for 37 wk strikingly increased the survival rate from 39 to 69%, whereas EGCG had no significant effect. Consistently, epicatechin improved physical activity, delayed degeneration of skeletal muscle (quadriceps), and shifted the profiles of the serum metabolites and skeletal muscle general mRNA expressions in aging mice toward the profiles observed in young mice. In particular, we found that dietary epicatechin significantly reversed age-altered mRNA and protein expressions of extracellular matrix and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor pathways in skeletal muscle, and reversed the age-induced declines of the nicotinate and nicotinamide pathway both in serum and skeletal muscle. The present study provides evidence that epicatechin supplementation can exert an antiaging effect, including an increase in survival, an attenuation of the aging-related deterioration of skeletal muscles, and a protection against the aging-related decline in nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism.-Si, H., Wang, X., Zhang, L., Parnell, L. D., Admed, B., LeRoith, T., Ansah, T.-A., Zhang, L., Li, J., Ordovás, J. M., Si, H., Liu, D., Lai, C.-Q. Dietary epicatechin improves survival and delays skeletal muscle degeneration in aged mice.

8.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 108(1): 188-200, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29901700

RESUMO

Background: The putative functional variant -265T>C (rs5082) within the APOA2 promoter has shown consistent interactions with saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake to influence the risk of obesity. Objective: The aim of this study was to implement an integrative approach to characterize the molecular basis of this interaction. Design: We conducted an epigenome-wide scan on 80 participants carrying either the rs5082 CC or TT genotypes and consuming either a low-SFA (<22 g/d) or high-SFA diet (≥22 g/d), matched for age, sex, BMI, and diabetes status in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (BPRHS). We then validated the findings in selected participants in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) Study (n = 379) and the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) (n = 243). Transcription and metabolomics analyses were conducted to determine the relation between epigenetic status, APOA2 mRNA expression, and blood metabolites. Results: In the BPRHS, we identified methylation site cg04436964 as exhibiting significant differences between CC and TT participants consuming a high-SFA diet, but not among those consuming low-SFA. Similar results were observed in the GOLDN Study and the FHS. Additionally, in the FHS, cg04436964 methylation was negatively correlated with APOA2 expression in the blood of participants consuming a high-SFA diet. Furthermore, when consuming a high-SFA diet, CC carriers had lower APOA2 expression than those with the TT genotype. Lastly, metabolomic analysis identified 4 pathways as overrepresented by metabolite differences between CC and TT genotypes with high-SFA intake, including tryptophan and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) pathways. Interestingly, these pathways were linked to rs5082-specific cg04436964 methylation differences in high-SFA consumers. Conclusions: The epigenetic status of the APOA2 regulatory region is associated with SFA intake and APOA2 -265T>C genotype, promoting an APOA2 expression difference between APOA2 genotypes on a high-SFA diet, and modulating BCAA and tryptophan metabolic pathways. These findings identify potential mechanisms by which this highly reproducible gene-diet interaction influences obesity risk, and contribute new insights to ongoing investigations of the relation between SFA and human health. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03452787.

9.
EBioMedicine ; 31: 150-156, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29703528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Modulation of genetic variants on the effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplements on blood lipids is still unclear. METHODS: In a double-blind randomized controlled trial, 150 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) were randomized into omega-3 fatty acid group (n = 56 for fish oil and 44 for flaxseed oil) and control group (n = 50) for 180 days. All patients were genotyped for genetic variants at CD36 (rs1527483), NOS3 (rs1799983) and PPARG (rs1801282). Linear regression was used to examine the interaction between omega-3 fatty acid intervention and CD36, NOS3 or PPARG variants for blood lipids. FINDINGS: Significant interaction with omega-3 fatty acid supplements was observed for CD36 on triglycerides (p-interaction = 0.042) and PPAGR on low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (p-interaction = 0.02). We also found a significant interaction between change in erythrocyte phospholipid omega-3 fatty acid composition and NOS3 genotype on triglycerides (p-interaction = 0.042), total cholesterol (p-interaction = 0.013) and ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p-interaction = 0.015). The T2D patients of CD36-G allele, PPARG-G allele and NOS3-A allele tended to respond better to omega-3 fatty acids in improving lipid profiles. The interaction results of the omega-3 fatty acid group were mainly attributed to the fish oil supplements. INTERPRETATION: This study suggests that T2D patients with different genotypes at CD36, NOS3 and PPARG respond differentially to intervention of omega-3 supplements in blood lipid profiles.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD36 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Suplementos Nutricionais , Epistasia Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Lipídeos/sangue , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III , PPAR gama , Idoso , Antígenos CD36/genética , Antígenos CD36/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Gravidez
10.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 19(3): 245-252, 2018 Mar..
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29504317

RESUMO

Turmeric residue (TR), containing residual levels of curcumin, is a solid by-product waste generated after the extraction and separation of curcumin from turmeric root. A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of TR on the survival of Chinese soft-shelled turtles (SSTs), Pelodiscus sinensis, under a high ambient temperature. A total of 320 female SSTs were assigned randomly to two diets: basal diet (the control group, n=160) and an interventional diet supplemented with 10% TR (the TR group, n=160). Our results demonstrated that supplementation of TR increased the SST survival rate by 135.5%, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of SST liver by 112.8%, and decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) content of SST liver by 36.4%, compared to the control group. The skin of the SST fed TR showed a golden color. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that the concentrations of curcumin in TR and the skin of the SST fed TR were (1.69±0.30) and (0.14±0.03) µg/g, respectively. Our observation suggests that supplementation of TR increased the survival rate of SST under high ambient temperatures. We speculated that the increased survival rate and tolerance at the high ambient temperature were associated with the anti-oxidation activity of curcumin from TR. Moreover, curcumin in TR could be deposited in SST skin, which made it more favored in the market of China. Our findings provide new knowledge and evidence to effectively reuse TR as a feed additive in animal and aquatic farming.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tartarugas/fisiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Curcuma , Curcumina/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Taxa de Sobrevida
12.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(4): 1380-1392, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29325163

RESUMO

Context: Vitamin D inadequacy is common in the adult population of the United States. Although the genetic determinants underlying vitamin D inadequacy have been studied in people of European ancestry, less is known about populations with Hispanic or African ancestry. Objective: The Trans-Ethnic Evaluation of Vitamin D (TRANSCEN-D) genomewide association study (GWAS) consortium was assembled to replicate genetic associations with 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations from the Study of Underlying Genetic Determinants of Vitamin D and Highly Related Traits (SUNLIGHT) meta-analyses of European ancestry and to identify genetic variants related to vitamin D concentrations in African and Hispanic ancestries. Design: Ancestry-specific (Hispanic and African) and transethnic (Hispanic, African, and European) meta-analyses were performed with Meta-Analysis Helper software (METAL). Patients or Other Participants: In total, 8541 African American and 3485 Hispanic American (from North America) participants from 12 cohorts and 16,124 European participants from SUNLIGHT were included in the study. Main Outcome Measures: Blood concentrations of 25(OH)D were measured for all participants. Results: Ancestry-specific analyses in African and Hispanic Americans replicated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GC (2 and 4 SNPs, respectively). An SNP (rs79666294) near the KIF4B gene was identified in the African American cohort. Transethnic evaluation replicated GC and DHCR7 region SNPs. Additionally, the transethnic analyses revealed SNPs rs719700 and rs1410656 near the ANO6/ARID2 and HTR2A genes, respectively. Conclusions: Ancestry-specific and transethnic GWASs of 25(OH)D confirmed findings in GC and DHCR7 for African and Hispanic American samples and revealed findings near KIF4B, ANO6/ARID2, and HTR2A. The biological mechanisms that link these regions with 25(OH)D metabolism warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/etnologia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/genética , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/genética , Deficiência de Vitamina D/genética , Adulto Jovem
13.
Curr Opin Lipidol ; 29(1): 30-35, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29135687

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Postprandial lipemia (PPL), the prolonged increase in plasma triglyceride-rich lipoproteins following food consumption, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Genetic variation, environment and the interplay between these direct an individual's postprandial lipid response. From such interplay, inducible and reversible epigenetic changes arise. Increasing evidence suggests epigenetic variation contributes to postprandial response in lipids and risk. RECENT FINDINGS: Diet and exercise are central agents affecting postprandial lipemia - triglyceride, but heterogeneity of the findings warrant more and larger studies. Several epigenetic loci identified from a human intervention study account for a substantial proportion of PPL phenotype variation, but the burden to conduct an intervention study of postprandial responses likely limits translation to personalized nutrition. SUMMARY: The impact of both DNA methylation patterns and environmental factors such as diet, exercise, sleep and medication on PPL is multifaceted. Discovery of interactions that modify the association between CpG (oligodeoxydinucleotide) methylation and postprandial phenotypes is unfolding.

14.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 62(3)2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28941034

RESUMO

SCOPE: Body weight responds variably to the intake of dairy foods. Genetic variation may contribute to inter-individual variability in associations between body weight and dairy consumption. METHODS AND RESULTS: A genome-wide interaction study to discover genetic variants that account for variation in BMI in the context of low-fat, high-fat and total dairy intake in cross-sectional analysis was conducted. Data from nine discovery studies (up to 25 513 European descent individuals) were meta-analyzed. Twenty-six genetic variants reached the selected significance threshold (p-interaction <10-7) , and six independent variants (LINC01512-rs7751666, PALM2/AKAP2-rs914359, ACTA2-rs1388, PPP1R12A-rs7961195, LINC00333-rs9635058, AC098847.1-rs1791355) were evaluated meta-analytically for replication of interaction in up to 17 675 individuals. Variant rs9635058 (128 kb 3' of LINC00333) was replicated (p-interaction = 0.004). In the discovery cohorts, rs9635058 interacted with dairy (p-interaction = 7.36 × 10-8) such that each serving of low-fat dairy was associated with 0.225 kg m-2 lower BMI per each additional copy of the effect allele (A). A second genetic variant (ACTA2-rs1388) approached interaction replication significance for low-fat dairy exposure. CONCLUSION: Body weight responses to dairy intake may be modified by genotype, in that greater dairy intake may protect a genetic subgroup from higher body weight.

15.
Lipids ; 52(12): 969-980, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29080057

RESUMO

Blood lipids are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Moreover, circulating lipid and fatty acid levels vary between men and women, and evidence demonstrates these traits may be influenced by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Sex-genotype interactions related to blood lipids and fatty acids have been poorly investigated and may help elucidate sex differences in CVD risk. The goal of this study was to investigate if the influence of SNPs previously associated with blood lipids and fatty acids varies in a sex-specific manner. Lipids and fatty acids were measured in serum and red blood cells (RBC), respectively, in 94 adults (18-30 years) from the GONE FISHIN' cohort and 118 age-matched individuals from the GOLDN cohort. HDL-c levels were higher and the total cholesterol/HDL-c (TC/HDL-c) ratio was lower in women versus men (p < 0.01). RBC palmitoleic acid and the stearoyl-CoA desaturase index were both higher in women (p < 0.01). Fatty acid desaturase (FADS) pathway activity (estimated using the ratio of eicosapentaenoic acid/alpha-linolenic acid) was higher in men (p < 0.01). The AA genotype for rs1800775 in CETP had a lower TC/HDL-c ratio in men, but not women (p int = 0.03). Independent of sex, major alleles for rs174537 in FADS1 (GG) and rs3211956 in CD36 (TT) had higher arachidonic acid, lower dihomo-γ-linoleic acid, and a higher FADS1 activity compared to minor alleles. The current study showed that blood lipid and fatty acid levels vary between healthy young men and women, but that the observed sex differences are not associated with common variants in candidate lipid metabolism genes.


Assuntos
HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/sangue , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adolescente , Adulto , Antígenos CD36/genética , Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/genética , Adulto Jovem
16.
Stat Med ; 36(22): 3547-3559, 2017 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28707299

RESUMO

Gene-environment interaction (GxE) is emphasized as one potential source of missing genetic variation on disease traits, and the ultimate goal of GxE research is prediction of individual risk and prevention of complex diseases. However, there are various challenges in statistical analysis of GxE. In this paper, we focus on the three methodological challenges: (i) the high dimensions of genes; (ii) the hierarchical structure between interaction effects and their corresponding main effects; and (iii) the correlation among subjects from family-based population studies. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that approaches all three challenges simultaneously. This is the first penalized method focusing on an interaction search based on a linear mixed effect model. For verification, we compare the empirical performance of our new method with other existing methods in simulation study. The results demonstrate the superiority of our method under overall simulation setup. In particular, the outperformance obviously becomes greater as the correlation among subjects increases. In addition, the new method provides a robust estimate for the correlation among subjects. We also apply the new method on Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network study data. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Genéticos , Teorema de Bayes , Simulação por Computador , Fatores de Confusão (Epidemiologia) , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 65(15): 3151-3159, 2017 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28362493

RESUMO

Royal jelly (RJ) produced by worker honeybees is the sole food for the queen bee throughout her life as well as the larvae of worker bees for the first 3 days after hatching. Supplementation of RJ in the diet has been shown to increase spatial memory in rodents. However, the key constituents in RJ responsible for improvement of cognitive function are unknown. Our objective was to determine if the major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs) extracted from RJ can improve the spatial memory of aged rats. The spatial memory assay using the Morris water maze test was administered once to rats after a 14-week feeding. Metabolomics analysis based on quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was conducted to examine the differences in compounds from urine. Aged male rats fed MRJPs showed improved spatial memory up to 48.5% when compared to the control male aged rats fed distilled water. The metabolite pattern of the MRJPs-fed aged rats was regressed to that of the young rats. Compounds altered by MRJPs were mapped to nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, cysteine taurine metabolism, and energy metabolism pathways. In summary, MRJPs may improve spatial memory and possess the potential for prevention of cognitive impairment via the cysteine and taurine metabolism and energy metabolism pathways in aged rats.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Memória Espacial , Envelhecimento/urina , Animais , Abelhas , Ácidos Graxos/química , Humanos , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Masculino , Metabolômica , Ratos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
18.
J Bone Miner Metab ; 35(4): 448-455, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27628044

RESUMO

Population admixture plays a role in the risk of chronic conditions that are related to body composition; however, our understanding of these associations in Puerto Ricans, a population characterized by multiple ancestries, is limited. This study investigated the relationship between genetic admixture and body composition in 652 Puerto Ricans from the Boston Puerto Rican Osteoporosis Study. Genetic ancestry was estimated from 100 ancestry-informative markers. Body composition measures were obtained from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Multivariable linear regression analyses examined associations between bone mineral density (BMD) of the hip and lumbar spine and percent fat mass and lean mass with genetic admixture. In Puerto Ricans living on the US mainland, European ancestry was associated with lower BMD at the trochanter (P = 0.039) and femoral neck (P = 0.01), and Native American ancestry was associated with lower BMD of the trochanter (P = 0.04). African ancestry was associated with a higher BMD at the trochanter (P = 0.004) and femoral neck (P = 0.001). Ancestry was not associated with percent fat mass or lean mass or waist circumference. Our findings are consistent with existing research demonstrating inverse associations between European and Native American ancestries and BMD and positive relationships between African ancestry and BMD. This work contributes to our understanding of the high prevalence of chronic disease experienced by this population and has implications for other ethnic minority groups, particularly those with multiple ancestries. Future research should consider interactions between ancestry and environmental factors, as this may provide individualized approaches for disease prevention.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/genética , Osteoporose/genética , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adiposidade/genética , Adulto , Densidade Óssea/genética , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Boston , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Porto Rico , Circunferência da Cintura/genética
19.
J Lipid Res ; 57(12): 2200-2207, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27777315

RESUMO

Postprandial lipemia (PPL), the increased plasma TG concentration after consuming a high-fat meal, is an independent risk factor for CVD. Individual responses to a meal high in fat vary greatly, depending on genetic and lifestyle factors. However, only a few loci have been associated with TG-PPL response. Heritable epigenomic changes may be significant contributors to the unexplained inter-individual PPL variability. We conducted an epigenome-wide association study on 979 subjects with DNA methylation measured from CD4+ T cells, who were challenged with a high-fat meal as a part of the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network study. Eight methylation sites encompassing five genes, LPP, CPT1A, APOA5, SREBF1, and ABCG1, were significantly associated with PPL response at an epigenome-wide level (P < 1.1 × 10-7), but no methylation site reached epigenome-wide significance after adjusting for baseline TG levels. Higher methylation at LPP, APOA5, SREBF1, and ABCG1, and lower methylation at CPT1A methylation were correlated with an increased TG-PPL response. These PPL-associated methylation sites, also correlated with fasting TG, account for a substantially greater amount of phenotypic variance (14.9%) in PPL and fasting TG (16.3%) when compared with the genetic contribution of loci identified by our previous genome-wide association study (4.5%). In summary, the epigenome is a large contributor to the variation in PPL, and this has the potential to be used to modulate PPL and reduce CVD.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Epigênese Genética , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Período Pós-Prandial
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 64(29): 5803-12, 2016 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27388939

RESUMO

The major royal-jelly proteins (MRJPs) are the main constituents responsible for the specific physiological role of royal jelly (RJ) in honeybees. Male and female Drosophila flies were fed diets containing either no MRJPs (A) or casein (B) at 1.25% (w/w) of diet or MRJPs at 1.25% (C), 2.50% (D), or 5.00% (E). Diets B, C, D, and E increased mean lifespan by 4.3%, 9.0%, 12.4%, and 13.9% in males and by 5.8%, 9.7%, 20.0%, and 11.8% in females in comparison to results from diet A, respectively. The diet supplemented with 2.50% MRJPs seems to have the optimal dose to improve both physiological and biochemical measures related to aging in both sexes. Interestingly, lifespan extension by MRJPs in Drosophila was positively associated with feeding and fecundity and up-regulation of copper and zinc-superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and the Egfr-mediated signaling pathway. This study provides strong evidence that MRJPs are important components of RJ for prolonging lifespan in Drosophila.


Assuntos
Drosophila/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Animais , Abelhas/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Fertilidade , Longevidade , Masculino
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA