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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) explanation of smoking cessation intentions consists of gender differences. The purpose of this study is to adopt the extended TPB to discuss factors influencing the smoking cessation intentions of young adult volunteer soldiers and to further compare the respective factors for both genders. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. Data were collected from 139 and 165 male and female volunteer soldiers who smoked, respectively. Research participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that comprised items pertaining to the participants' demographic characteristics, smoking behaviours, smoking cessation experiences, social environments, and TPB variables. RESULTS: Subjective norms (friends) are a positive key factor for young adult male (ß = 0.033, p = 0.012) and female (ß = 0.076, p < 0.001) volunteer soldiers' smoking cessation intentions, and perceived behavioural control is a key factor for male young (ß = 0.226, p = 0.040) adult volunteer soldiers' smoking cessation intention. The extended TPB accounted for 27.9% and 53.2% of the variance in the intention to quit smoking in the male and female volunteer soldiers, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that smoking cessation strategies can reinforce gender-specific intervention strategies to assist young adult volunteer soldiers in smoking cessation.


Assuntos
Militares , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Teoria Psicológica , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
2.
Occup Environ Med ; 78(9): 661-668, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We hypothesised that occupational exposures differently affect subtypes of adult-onset asthma. OBJECTIVE: We investigated potential relations between occupation and three subtypes of adult asthma, namely atopic asthma, non-atopic asthma and asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). METHODS: This is a population-based case-control study of incident asthma among working-age adults living in Pirkanmaa Hospital District in Southern Finland. The determinant of interest was occupation at the time of diagnosis of asthma or the job that the subject had quit due to respiratory symptoms. Asthma was divided into three mutually exclusive subtypes on the basis of any positive IgE antibody (atopic and non-atopic asthma) and presence of persistent airways obstruction in spirometry (ACOS). We applied unconditional logistic regression analysis to estimate adjusted OR (aOR), taking into account gender, age and smoking. RESULTS: The following occupational groups showed significantly increased risk of atopic asthma: chemical industry workers (aOR 15.76, 95% CI 2.64 to 94.12), bakers and food processors (aOR 4.69, 95% CI 1.18 to 18.69), waiters (aOR 4.67, 95% CI 1.40 to 15.56) and those unemployed (aOR 3.06, 95% CI 1.52 to 6.17). The following occupations showed clearly increased risk of non-atopic asthma: metal workers (aOR 8.37, 95% CI 3.77 to 18.59) and farmers and other agricultural workers (aOR 2.36, 95% CI 1.10 to 5.06). Some occupational groups showed statistically significantly increased OR of ACOS: electrical and electronic production workers (aOR 30.6, 95% CI 6.10 to 153.35), fur and leather workers (aOR 16.41, 95% CI 1.25 to 215.85) and those retired (aOR 5.55, 95% CI 1.63 to 18.97). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that different occupations are associated with different subtypes of adult-onset asthma.


Assuntos
Asma Ocupacional/etiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Asma Ocupacional/classificação , Asma Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Sobreposição da Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica e Asma/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Sobreposição da Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica e Asma/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Indústria Química , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Indústria Alimentícia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Restaurantes , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Investig Med ; 69(5): 999-1007, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648982

RESUMO

Our study was aimed to investigate the association between the use of antidepressants and the risk of preterm birth in pregnant women who have had perinatal depression. We extracted data from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) and analyzed them using multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models. Identified from the NHIRD, we matched 1789 women aged 18-55 years who were using antidepressants during pregnancy and 1789 women who were experiencing depression but who were not using antidepressants during pregnancy for age, index date, and medical comorbidities. We enrolled the women in our study, which we conducted using 12 years' worth of data between 2000 and 2012, and then followed up individually with them for up to 1 year to identify any occurrence of preterm birth. Results highlighted that, compared with the women with perinatal depression who were not using antidepressants during pregnancy, the women taking antidepressants had a 1.762-fold risk of preterm birth (adjusted HR=1.762, 95% CI 1.351 to 2.294, p<0.001). The use of antidepressants in women with perinatal depression may increase the risk of preterm birth. However, the decision to start, stop, or change the use of antidepressants during pregnancy requires evaluating the risks of treatment versus untreated depression for both mother and child.

5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 215: 112144, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743405

RESUMO

Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5) has been linked to adverse health outcomes in welding workers. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of chronic exposure to metal fume PM2.5 in shipyard workers with health outcomes. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the effects of metal fume PM2.5 on FeNO, urinary metals, urinary oxidative stress, inflammation, and stress hormones in workers. There were 20 office workers and 49 welding workers enrolled in this study who were followed-up for a second year. We observed that Fe, Zn, and Mn were abundant in PM2.5 to which welding workers were personally exposed, whereas PM2.5 to which office workers were personally exposed was dominated by Pb, Cu, and Zn. We observed in the first and/or second visits that urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2-α (PGF2α) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxy guanosine (8-OHdG) were significantly increased by exposure. An increase in urinary interleukin (IL)-6 and decreases in urinary serotonin and cortisol were observed in the first and/or second visits after exposure. PM2.5 was associated with decreases in urinary 8-OHdG and cortisol among workers. Next, we observed that urinary Ni, Co, and Fe had significantly increased among workers after a year of exposure. Urinary metals were associated with decreases in urinary 8-iso-PGF2α and cortisol among workers. Urinary Ni, Cu, and Fe levels were associated with an increase in urinary IL-6 and a decrease in urinary cortisol among workers. In conclusion, chronic exposure to metal fume PM2.5 was associated with inflammation and a cortisol deficiency in shipyard workers, which could associate with adrenal glands dysfunction.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona/sangue , Metais , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina , Adulto , Gases , Humanos , Inflamação , Interleucina-6 , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Estresse Oxidativo , Soldagem
6.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 233: 113708, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588194

RESUMO

Indium tin oxide exposure poses a potential health risk, but the exposure assessment in occupational setting remains incomplete and continues to be a significant challenge. To this end, we investigated the association of work type, airborne indium concentration, respirable fraction of total indium, and cumulative indium exposure index (CEI) with the levels of plasma indium (P-In) and urinary indium (U-In) among 302 indium tin oxide target manufacturing and recycling workers in Taiwan. We observed that recycling-crushing produced the highest concentrations of total indium (area: 2084.8 µg/m3; personal: 3494.5 µg/m3) and respirable indium (area: 533.4 µg/m3; personal: 742.0 µg/m3). Powdering produced the highest respirable fraction of total indium (area: 58.6%; personal: 81.5%), where the workers had the highest levels of P-In (geometric mean: 2.0 µg/L) and U-In (1.0 µg/g creatinine). After adjusting for the confounder, the CEIs of powdering (ßPR = 0.78; ßPR = 0.44), bonding (ßPT = 0.61; ßPT = 0.37), and processing workers (ßPT = 0.43; ßPT = 0.28) showed significant associations with P-In and U-In, validating its utility in monitoring the exposure. Also, the respirable fraction of total indium significantly contributed to the increased levels of P-In and U-In among workers. The varying levels of relationship noted between indium exposure and the levels of P-In and U-In among workers with different work types suggested that setting the exposure limits among different work types is warranted.

7.
Environ Geochem Health ; 43(1): 37-45, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710234

RESUMO

Occupational polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure has been shown to increase the risk of various cancers and may be associated with carcinogenic mortality. However, no study has explored the relationship between environmental PAH exposure and mortality in general population. The aim of our study was to explore the association between PAH exposure and all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in a general US adult population. We analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2001-2006) based on the information in this dataset on 692 males and 717 females. PAH exposure was detected using biomarkers from urine samples. Follow-up data on mortality were derived from initial examination of the subjects until death or 31 December 2006 in the NHANES database. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) of PAH metabolites among all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality using the multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model after adjusting for covariates. Among males, 3-phenanthrene was positively associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR 1.043, 95%CI 1.019-1.066). Female participants with higher 2-napthol (HR 1.043, 95%CI 1.014-1.072), 3-fluorene (HR 2.159, 95%CI 1.233-3.779), and 1-phenanthrene (HR = 1.259, 95%CI 1.070-1.481) levels had increased all-cause mortality. In addition, high 3-phenanthrene (HR 1.333, 95%CI 1.008-1.763) and 1-phenanthrene (HR 1.463, 95%CI 1.126-1.900) levels increased the risk of cardiovascular mortality. However, there were no significant findings for cancer mortality in both genders. Environmental PAH exposure among the adult population is associated with non-carcinogenic but not cancer mortality. Future studies are warranted to determine the underlying mechanisms related to these findings.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Biomarcadores/urina , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/urina , Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1371, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acid mist can suspend in the air and enter the body via skin contact, the respiratory tract, or even oral intake, which pose various health hazards. Previous studies have shown that occupational exposure to acid mist or acidic solutions is a major risk factor for oral diseases. However, the findings are inconsistent and do not consider individual factors and lifestyles that may cause the same oral diseases. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive oral health survey and collected detail information to confirm the effect of acidic solution exposure on worker's oral health. METHODS: From 4 acidic solution factories, a total of 309 subjects (157 in control and 152 in exposed group) was enrolled. All participants competed oral examinations and self-report questionnaire, including the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index, community periodontal index (CPI), loss of attachment (LA) index, and tooth erosion. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between the acidic solution exposure and oral health. RESULTS: The results showed that acid exposure was correlated with soft oral tissue injury rather than hard oral tissue in our survey. In the multivariate model (adjusted for sex, age, worked years, education level, mouthwash use, dental floss use, tooth brushing, mask use, smoking, drinking, chewing areca and dietary habits with acidic foods), significant relationships of acid exposure with LA score were observed (OR = 2.32, 95% CI 1.03-5.26). However, the presence of acid exposure was not significantly associated with tooth erosion, DMFT, and CPITN. CONCLUSION: Our study highlighted that occupational acid exposure was an independent risk factor for periodontal health, especially LA. It is important to strengthen occupational hazard control, educate workers on oral disease and related factors, and raise the awareness of oral hygiene.


Assuntos
Ácidos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Saúde Bucal , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Índice Periodontal , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/induzido quimicamente , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Erosão Dentária/induzido quimicamente , Perda de Dente/induzido quimicamente , Local de Trabalho
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110920, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800255

RESUMO

Advanced glycation end products (AGE) and the receptor for AGE (RAGE) have been found to be pivotal biomarkers to predict the risk of inflammation and oxidative stress. Limited evidence focuses on the influence of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and metal fumes on AGE and RAGE in shipyard welders. Our aim was to determine the relationships among PAH, metal exposure, and inflammatory biomarkers. From September 1 to December 31, 2017, 53 welding workers (exposed group) and 29 office workers (control group) were enrolled in the study. Comprehensive workups included demographic characteristics, laboratory data, AGE, RAGE, Interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α, PAH, and urinary metal concentrations. RAGE levels were measured by flow cytometric analysis. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) was used as a biomarker of exposure to PAH. Several metals were elevated in the personal fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples, including Mn, Fe, V, Co, Zn, and Cu. The exposed group had significantly higher exposure to PM2.5 (p = 0.015), RAGE (p = 0.020), IL-6 (p = 0.008) than the control group. After adjusting for pertinent variables, there was still a significant and positive association between Ni level and AGE (ß = 0.101; 95% CI, 0.031-0.172). Significant relationship between Cr and Cd levels and RAGE was observed (ß = 0.173; 95% CI, 0.017-0.329; ß = 0.084; 95% CI, 0.011-0.157, respectively). Participants with elevated 1-OHP level had higher odds of high RAGE level in the model 1 (OR = 3.466, 95% CI, 1.053-11.412) and model 2 (OR = 3.454, 95% CI, 1.034-11.536). The RAGE expression of participants was significantly associated with IL-6 levels in the fully adjusted model (ß = 0.294; 95% CI, 0.083-0.732). Our findings highlighted that urinary metal levels and PAH were associated with increased AGE and RAGE formation in shipyard workers. Elevated serum RAGE might induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines and trigger ensuing inflammatory cascades.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Metais/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Biomarcadores/urina , Gases/análise , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/sangue , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Metais/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Soldagem
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(6): 5932-5940, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863379

RESUMO

The adverse impacts of lead and cadmium exposure on health outcomes have been reported in the past. Few studies have been conducted on the relationship between lead and cadmium exposures and disability. We evaluated whether lead and cadmium exposures were associated with functional dependence including the total number of disabilities, activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), leisure and social activities (LSA), lower extremity mobility (LEM), and general physical activities (GPA) in an elderly population. A total of 5513 eligible subjects were enrolled in the study from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2006. Serum lead and cadmium exposure assessments were performed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Functional dependence was assessed by 19 structured questions. The relationships between lead and cadmium exposures and functional dependence were investigated using by multivariable linear regression models. Q2, Q3, and Q4 of lead exposure were significantly associated with the total number of disabilities, with ß coefficients of - 0.62 (95% CI - 0.99, - 0.24), - 0.64 (95% CI - 1.02, - 0.26), and - 0.81 (95% CI - 1.19, - 0.42), respectively. This relationship remained significant in males. Furthermore, we analyzed the relationships between lead and cadmium exposure quartiles and various functional dependence metrics, and we determined that lead content was significantly associated with decreased ADL, LEM, and GPA (p < 0.05) and cadmium content was inversely associated with ADL (p < 0.05). Our study demonstrated a strong relationship between exposure to lead and cadmium and functional dependence in an elderly population.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Cádmio/metabolismo , Pessoas com Deficiência , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais
11.
Cancer ; 126(6): 1225-1234, 2020 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A return to work (RTW) is a challenge for survivors of oral cancer. Further light could be shed on the RTW of patients with oral cancer, which remains largely uninvestigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the trajectories of RTW and their impact on survival in workers with oral cancer. METHODS: In total, 12,222 workers who were newly diagnosed with oral cancer were identified during the period from 2004 to 2015 and were included in this cohort study. The associations between independent variables and RTW were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: Overall, 8793 workers returned to work in the first years after a diagnosis of oral cancer. Chemotherapy (hazard ratio [HR], 0.88; 95% CI, 0.78-0.99) and radiation therapy (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.75-0.92) were inversely associated with RTW. Patients who had received surgical treatment (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01-1.53) were more likely to RTW. Employees with stage I (HR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.47-1.87), stage II (HR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.35-1.72), and stage III (HR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.16-1.51) disease were associated with an increased likelihood of RTW in the fifth year after diagnosis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated better survival for the RTW group versus the non-RTW group in patients with stage III and IV oral cancer (P < .001). The fully adjusted HR indicated that the RTW group had significantly better outcomes than the non-RTW group in all-cause mortality (P < .001; HR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.33-0.39). CONCLUSIONS: Sociodemographic and medical factors affect the RTW of cancer survivors. RTW may have a beneficial effect on survival of patients with oral cancer.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Bucais/mortalidade , Retorno ao Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Comorbidade , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Neoplasias Bucais/terapia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/mortalidade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795521

RESUMO

Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the development of diseases induced by welding fumes. To our knowledge, little information is available on the relationship between multiple heavy metal exposure and oxidative stress in welders. We assessed the relationship between multiple heavy metal exposure and oxidative damage by analyzing 174 nonsmoking male welders in a shipyard. Urinary metals were used as the internal dose of exposure to metals in welding fumes, and urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was used as an oxidative DNA damage marker. The relationship between workers' metal levels and 8-OHdG was estimated using a multiple linear regression model. The geometric mean levels of urinary chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) were considerably higher in welders than in controls. Urinary Cr and Ni were determined as effective predictors of urinary 8-OHdG levels after adjusting for covariates. Oxidative DNA damage was associated with both Cr and Ni of welding fume exposure in shipyard welders (Ln Cr: ß = 0.33, 95%C.I. = 0.16-0.49; Ln Ni: ß = 0.27, 95%C.I. = 0.12-0.43). In this study, we investigated the significantly positive relationship between urinary metals (especially Cr and Ni) and 8-OHdG in nonsmoking shipyard welders. Moreover, the use of particulate respirators did not reduce metal exposure and oxidative damage. Therefore, we infer that hazard identification for welders should be conducted.


Assuntos
8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina/análise , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Soldagem , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Biomarcadores/urina , Dano ao DNA , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Metais Pesados/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167441

RESUMO

Background: Health disparities related to environmental exposure exist in different industries. Cancer is currently a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Much remains unknown about the types of work and industries that face the greatest cancer risks. In this study, we aimed to provide the overall and specific cancer incidences among all workers from 2004 to 2015. We also aimed to show the all-cause mortality for all employees with a first-ever cancer diagnosis. Methods: All workers in Taiwan in the labor insurance database in 2004-2015 were linked to the national health insurance databases. The annual overall and specific cancer incidences in 2004-2015 were calculated and stratified by industry and gender. Age-standardized incidence rates were also calculated. Results: A total of 332,575 workers (46.5% male) who had a first-ever cancer diagnosis from 2004-2015 were identified from 16,720,631 employees who provided 1,564,593 person-years of observation. The fishing, wholesale, construction, and building industries were identified as high-risk industries, with at least 5% of employees within them receiving a first-ever cancer diagnosis. Temporal trends of cancer incidences showed a range from 235.5 to 294.4 per 100,000 with an overall upward trend and an increase of 1.3-fold from 2004 to 2015. There were significant increases over that time for breast cancer (25%); colon cancer (8%); lung, bronchial, and tracheal cancers (11%); and oral cancer (1.7%). However, the incidence rates of cervical cancer and liver and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma decreased by 11.2% and 8.3%, respectively. Among the 332,575 workers with a first-ever cancer diagnosis, there were 110,692 deaths and a mortality rate of 70.75 per 1000 person-years. Conclusions: The overall incidence of cancer increased over the 10-year study period, probably due to the aging of the working population. High-risk industries are concentrated in the labor-intensive blue-collar class, which is related to aging and socioeconomic status intergradation.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Bases de Dados Factuais , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Indústrias , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Neoplasias/economia , Sistema de Registros , Classe Social , Taiwan/epidemiologia
14.
BMJ Open ; 9(5): e026203, 2019 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072854

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To use the extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to predict smoking cessation counsellors' intentions to offer smoking cessation support. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study SETTING: Taiwanese military PARTICIPANTS: A survey of 432 smoking cessation counsellors was conducted in 2017. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: All participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that solicited information concerning demographics, smoking behaviour, self-rated suitability for being a counsellor, the knowledge and skills learnt from training courses and the TPB construct. RESULTS: The factors of perceived behavioural control (ß=0.590, p<0.001), self-rated suitability for being a counsellor (acceptable vs not suitable, ß=0.436, p=0.001; suitable vs not suitable, ß=0.510, p<0.001), knowledge (ß=0.298, p=0.020) and professional specialty (military doctor vs non-military doctor, ß=0.198, p=0.034) were found to be correlated with intention. However, attitude, subjective norms and descriptive norms were determined to be non-significant correlates. The model explained 59.7% of the variance for the intention to offer smoking cessation support (F[12,343]=44.864, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: To encourage smoking cessation counsellors to offer cessation support to smokers, policies should aim to increase their perceived behavioural control, knowledge and self-rated suitability for being a counsellor.


Assuntos
Conselheiros/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Conselheiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan/epidemiologia
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(11): 10719-10726, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778934

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmental pollutants. Exposure to PAHs is associated with several adverse health outcomes. However, no previous study has examined the relationship between PAH exposure and functional dependence in an elderly population. Our aim was to examine whether PAH exposure was associated with functional dependence including total disability, activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), leisure and social activities (LSA), lower extremity mobility (LEM), and general physical activities (GPA) in an elderly population. A total of 5816 elderly adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2001 to 2006 were examined. PAH exposure was measured by urinary biomarkers. Functional dependence was assessed by 19 structured questions. The association between PAH exposures with functional dependence was performed by using a multivariable linear regression model. After adjusting for pertinent variables, positive associations were observed between the total number of disabilities and 2-naphthalene and 1-pyrene quartiles (all Ptrend < 0.05). There was a dose-dependent relationship between 1-pyrene quartiles and all functional dependence domains, and the higher quartile of 1-pyrene was more closely associated with functional impairment (all Ptrend < 0.05). PAH exposure is associated with functional dependence in American elderly adults. Future research is needed to bring to light the pathophysiological underlying mechanisms related to these findings.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/urina , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/urina , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos
16.
Obes Res Clin Pract ; 12(6): 541-546, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054155

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the prediction of aerobic exercise and resistance training on incidental metabolic syndrome (MetS) and diabetes in a Taiwanese cohort. METHODS: The participant underwent annual health examinations and physical fitness tests, including 2-min push-up, 2-min sit-up, and endurance 3000-m none weight-bearing running exercise test from 2013 to 2015, were recruited. The cohort study involved 27,787 participants aged ≥20years in military services. Multivariate logistic regression odd ratios models were used to explore the associations between the performance of physical fitness and the development of MetS and diabetes. RESULTS: The male participants without MetS at baseline with poor performance in aerobic and resistance exercise tests were likely to develop the MetS and diabetes two years later; while the female participants did not show the same results in statistical significance. Additionally, only poor performance measuring by resistance training exercise test was significantly associated with increased risk of metabolic components numbers at follow-up in all subjects without MetS (all P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The poor performance in aerobic and resistance exercise tests might be predicting tools for MetS and diabetes in Taiwanese men without MetS at baseline. And resistance exercise displayed a substantial predicting ability in development of metabolic abnormality, MetS and diabetes in our study.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia
17.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 3573, 2018 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29476104

RESUMO

Emerging evidences addressed an association between phosphate and muscle function. Because little attention was focused on this issue, the objective of our study was to explore the relationship of phosphate with muscle strength, dynapenia, and sarcopenia. From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 7421 participants aged 20 years or older were included in our study with comprehensive examinations included anthropometric parameters, strength of the quadriceps muscle, and appendicular lean masses. Within the normal range of serum phosphate, we used quartile-based analyses to determine the potential relationships of serum phosphate with dynapenia, and sarcopenia through multivariate regression models. After adjusting for the pertinent variables, an inverse association between the serum phosphate quartiles and muscle strength was observed and the linear association was stronger than other anthropometric parameters. Notably, the significant association between phosphate and muscle strength was existed in >65 years old age group, not in 20-65 years old. The higher quartiles of phosphate had higher likelihood for predicting the presence of dynapenia rather than sarcopenia in entire population. Our study highlighted that higher quartiles of phosphate had significant association with lower muscle strength and higher risks for predicting the presence of dynapenia.


Assuntos
Força Muscular/fisiologia , Fosfatos/sangue , Sarcopenia/sangue , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia
18.
Clin Chim Acta ; 478: 68-73, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29278722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing number of studies are available to shed some light on the association between uric acid (UA) and cardiovascular diseases. However, there have been few studies to support a causal link between UA, metabolic syndrome (MetS), diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HTN) in young subjects. METHODS: From the Health Examination Registration System of Taiwanese military service during the period 2013-2015, there were 46,561 eligible participants who were 20years old or older in our study. Different analytical steps of analysis were performed to examine the association between UA and cardiometabolic risk using logistic regression, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and Cox regression. RESULTS: For total population, serum UA had significant associations with the presence of MetS (OR=2.08, 95% CI=1.51-2.87), DM (OR=2.59, 95% CI=1.09-6.19) and HTN (OR=1.49, 95% CI=1.07-2.07) in the cross-sectional analysis. According to the cut-off values of UA calculating by the ROC curve analysis in each sex/age subgroup, the association between UA and incident adverse outcomes were analyzed in a longitudinal study. In male, higher UA significantly increased the risks for developing MetS in 30-40years (HR=1.12, 95% CI=1.01-1.25), DM in <30years (HR=2.75, 95% CI=1.38-5.45) and HTN in all subgroups (HR=1.17, 95% CI=1.01-1.37; HR=1.65, 95% CI=1.08-2.53; HR=1.72, 95% CI=1.22-2.43). In females, a higher UA was significantly associated with an increased risk of incident MetS in >40years (HR=2.99, 95% CI=1.34-6.64), HTN in >40years (HR=2.58, 95% CI=1.02-6.55), and no increased risk of DM. CONCLUSIONS: Our study concluded that serum UA is an important predictor for the risk of incident MetS, DM, and HTN in adults, especially in male population.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol ; 28(1): 76-83, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28120834

RESUMO

This study evaluates levels of biomarkers of oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in 105 male workers at 16 electroplating companies who had been exposed to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). The study participants were 230 non-smoking male workers, comprising 105 electroplating workers who had been exposed to chromium and 125 control subjects who performed office tasks. Personal air samples, spot urine samples, hair samples, fingernail samples and questionnaires were used to quantify exposure to Cr(VI), oxidative DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, and environmental pollutants. Both the geometric mean personal concentrations of Cr(VI) of the Cr-exposed workers and the total Cr concentrations in the air to which they were exposed significantly exceeded those for the control subjects. The geometric mean concentrations of Cr in urine, hair and fingernails, and the urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the Cr(VI) exposed workers exceeded those in the control subjects. Daily cumulative Cr(VI) exposure and urinary Cr were significantly correlated with urinary 8-OHdG levels following adjustments for covariates. A ten-fold increase in urinary Cr level was associated with a 1.73-fold increase in urinary 8-OHdG level. Daily cumulative Cr(VI) exposure and urinary Cr level were significantly correlated with urinary MDA level following adjustments for covariates. A ten-fold increase in urinary Cr was associated with a 1.45-fold increase in urinary MDA. Exposure to Cr(VI) increased oxidative DNA injury and the oxidative deterioration of lipids in electroplating workers.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/urina , Biomarcadores/análise , Cromo/urina , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Adulto , Biomarcadores/urina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Galvanoplastia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Unhas/química , Estresse Oxidativo , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Environ Pollut ; 232: 523-532, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28988870

RESUMO

Sleep disorders may pose a risk to workers in the workplace. We aimed to investigate the associations between metal fume fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and sleep quality in workers. We assessed the effects of personal exposure to metal fume PM2.5 on lung functions, urinary biomarkers, and sleep quality in shipyard welding workers. In total, 96 welding workers and 54 office workers were recruited in the present study; office workers were exposed to 82.1 ± 94.1 µg/m3 PM2.5 and welding workers were exposed to 2166.5 ± 3149.1 µg/m3. Welding workers had significantly lower levels of FEV25-75 than office workers (p < 0.05). An increase in 1 µg/m3 PM2.5 was associated with a decrease of 0.003 ng/mL in urinary serotonin (95% CI = -0.007-0.000, p < 0.05) in all workers and with a decrease of 0.001 ng/mL in serotonin (95% CI = -0.004-0.002, p < 0.05) in welding workers, but these were not observed in office workers. There was no significant association of PM2.5 with urinary cortisol observed in any workers. Urinary serotonin was associated with urinary Cu, Mn, Co, Ni, Cd, and Pb. Urinary cortisol was associated with Cu, Mn, Co, Ni, Cd, and Pb. Sixteen subjects were randomly selected from each of the office and welding workers for personal monitoring of sleep quality using a wearable device. We observed that welding workers had greater awake times than did office workers (p < 0.05). Our study observed that exposure to heavy metals in metal fume PM2.5 may disrupt sleep quality in welding workers.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Soldagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Gases , Humanos , Pulmão/química , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/análise
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