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1.
J Viral Hepat ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755196

RESUMO

Real world studies examining reduction in risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients receiving antivirals are limited by the small size of the studies, or by data insufficiency and heterogeneity with short follow-up duration. We aimed to examine the real-world long-term outcome of patients receiving entecavir treatment on HCC incidence and HBsAg seroclearance. The incidence of HCC in 1225 entecavir-treated patients between 2002 and 2015 was compared with the HCC incidence estimated using the REACH-B, GAG-HCC and CU-HCC scores. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated. The impact of entecavir treatment on HBsAg seroclearance was also explored. The median follow-up of the cohort was 6.6 years, with 66 cases of HCC development. Using the REACH-B model, the reduction of HCC risk was significant from year 6 onwards with SIR of 0.68 (95% CI 0.535-0.866) at year 10. In subgroup patients without cirrhosis, consistent risk reduction was observed from the fifth year and the SIR reached 0.51 (95% CI 0.271-0.704) by year 10. Benefit in cirrhotic patients was demonstrated when using the GAG-HCC and CU-HCC score, with the SIR at year 10 being 0.38 (95% CI 0.259-0.544) and 0.46 (95% CI 0.314-0.659) respectively. The cumulative rate of HBsAg seroclearance was 5.2%. HBsAg level at third year of treatment and baseline-to-3-year percentage reduction were predictive of subsequent HBsAg seroclearance. In conclusion, long-term entecavir therapy was associated with significant reduction in the risk of HCC in the real world. However, HBsAg seroclearance rate remained low. Additional therapy may be considered in patients with adverse predictive factors for subsequent HBsAg seroclearance.

2.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 38(1): 423, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Galectins are beta-galactose specific binding proteins. In human cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), galectin-1 (Gal-1) is often found to be overexpressed. In order to combat the dismal diagnosis and death rates of HCC, gene silencing and targeted inhibition of Gal-1 was investigated for its improved therapeutic potential. METHODS: Cellular and secretory Gal-1 levels were analyzed using HCC clinical samples. The study of Gal-1 was carried by both knockdown and overexpression approaches. The stable clones were tested by in vitro assays and in vivo experiments. Mass spectrometry was used to identify downstream targets of Gal-1. The upstream regulator of Gal-1, microRNA-22 (miR-22) was characterized by functional assays. The therapeutic effect of inhibiting Gal-1 was also analyzed. RESULTS: Gal-1 overexpression was observed in HCC and correlated with aggressive clinicopathological features and poorer survival. The loss of Gal-1 resulted in hindered cell migration, invasion and anchorage independent growth. This was also observed in the animal models, in that when Gal-1 was knocked down, there were fewer lung metastases. Proteomic profiling of control and Gal-1 knockdown cells identified that the level of retention in endoplasmic reticulum 1 (RER1) was suppressed when Gal-1 level was reduced. The cell motility of Gal-1 knockdown cells was enhanced upon the rescue of RER1 expression. In HCC tissues, Gal-1 and RER1 expressions displayed a significant positive correlation. The upstream regulator of Gal-1, miR-22 was observed to be underexpressed in HCC tissues and negatively correlated with Gal-1. Silencing of miR-22 resulted in the upregulation of Gal-1 and enhanced cell growth, migration and invasion. However, such enhancement was abolished in cells treated with OTX008, an inhibitor of Gal-1. Combinational treatment of OTX008 and sorafenib significantly reduced tumor growth and size. CONCLUSIONS: Gal-1 overexpression was detected in HCC and this played a role in promoting tumorigenic processes and metastasis. The function of Gal-1 was found to be mediated through RER1. The correlations between miR-22, Gal-1 and RER1 expressions demonstrated the importance of miR-22 regulation on Gal-1/RER1 oncogenic activity. Lastly, the combinational treatment of OTX008 and sorafenib proved to be an improved therapeutic option compared to when administering sorafenib alone.

3.
Hepatology ; 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654573

RESUMO

ARC-520, the first RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutic was designed to reduce all RNA transcripts derived from cccDNA, leading to a reduction in viral antigens and HBV DNA. We aimed to evaluate the depth of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) decline in response to multiple doses of ARC-520 compared to placebo (PBO) in two randomized, multi-center studies in nucleoside/nucleotide (NUC) experienced patients with hepatitis B e antigen negative (E-neg) or positive (E-pos) disease. A total of 58 E-neg and 32 E-pos patients were enrolled and received four monthly doses of PBO (n=20 E-neg, 11 E-pos), 1 mg/kg ARC-520 (n=17 E-neg, 10 E-pos) or 2 mg/kg ARC-520 (n=21 E-neg, 11 E-pos) concomitantly with NUC. HBsAg change from baseline to 30 days after the last ARC-520 dose were compared to PBO. Both E-neg and E-pos high dose groups significantly reduced HBsAg compared to PBO with mean reductions of 0.38 and 0.54 Log IU/mL, respectively. HBsAg reductions persisted for approximately 85 days and > 85 days after the last dose in E-neg and E-pos patients respectively. The low dose groups did not reach statistical significance in either study. E-pos patients showed a dose dependent reduction in HBeAg from baseline. Mean maximum reduction was 0.23 and 0.69 Log PEIU/mL in the low dose and high dose ARC-520 groups respectively. ARC-520 was well tolerated, with only two SAEs of pyrexia possibly related to study drug observed. In conclusion, ARC-520 was active in both E-neg and E-pos, NUC experienced HBV patients, but absolute HBsAg reductions were moderate, possibly due to expression of HBsAg from integrated HBV DNA, indicating the need for RNAi therapeutics that can target viral transcripts regardless of origin.

4.
Ann Intern Med ; 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546256

RESUMO

Description: The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) 2018 clinical practice guideline for the prevention, diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an extensive update of KDIGO's 2008 guideline on HCV infection in CKD. This update reflects the major advances since the introduction of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in the management of HCV infection in the CKD population. Methods: The KDIGO work group tasked with developing the HCV and CKD guideline defined the scope of the guideline, gathered evidence, determined topics for systematic review, and graded the quality of evidence previously summarized by the evidence review team. The GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach was used to appraise the quality of evidence and rate the strength of the recommendations. Searches of the English-language literature were conducted through May 2017 and were supplemented with targeted searches for studies of DAA treatment and with abstracts from nephrology, hepatology, and transplantation conferences. A review process involving many stakeholders, subject matter experts, and industry and national organizations informed the guideline's final modification. Recommendation: The updated guideline comprises 66 recommendations. This synopsis focuses on 32 key recommendations pertinent to the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and management of HCV infection in adult CKD populations.

5.
J Viral Hepat ; 26(12): 1473-1480, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418973

RESUMO

Hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) is a novel serological marker for hepatitis B virus infection. Its clinical significance after HBeAg seroconversion has not been defined. We aimed to determine the relationship between HBcrAg levels after spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A total of 207 chronic hepatitis B patients with documented time of HBeAg seroconversion were enrolled. HBcrAg and HBsAg were checked within 3 years (as baseline), at 5 and 10 years after HBeAg seroconversion. HBV DNA was measured at the baseline. Multivariate Cox regression model was used to investigate the predictors for HCC development. The median follow-up time was 13.1 (11.8-15.5) years. Fourteen patients developed HCC (15-year cumulative incidence: 7%). The median level of HBcrAg at baseline was significantly higher in patients who developed HCC when compared with patients without HCC (5.68 vs 4.78 log U/ml, respectively; P = .003). Cox proportional hazards model indicated that age of HBeAg seroconversion older than 40 years (hazard ratio (HR): 4.60; P = .049), presence of baseline cirrhosis (HR: 6.23; P = .003) and a higher baseline HBcrAg (HR: 1.75; P = .032) were independently associated with HCC development. A cut-off value of baseline HBcrAg level ≥5.21 log U/mL yielded an AUROC of 0.74 with a negative predictive value of 97.7%. High HBcrAg levels within 3 years after HBeAg seroconversion were independently associated with the development of HCC in chronic hepatitis B patients.

6.
Dig Dis Sci ; 64(12): 3630-3641, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280390

RESUMO

AIM: Renal toxicity of adefovir disoproxil (ADV) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is a significant concern in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. Early observational clinical data suggested that telbivudine (LdT) might have renoprotective effects. METHODS: In this prospective study, consecutive CHB patients on combined lamivudine (LAM) + ADV/TDF were switched to LdT + ADV/TDF at recruitment and were followed up for 24 months. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated with the modification of diet in renal disease equation. The effects of LdT on cell viability and expression of kidney injury or apoptotic biomarkers were investigated in cultured renal tubular epithelial cell line HK-2. RESULTS: Thirty-one patients (median age 55 years, 90.3% male) were recruited (54.8% TDF: 45.2% ADV). Serum HBV DNA was undetectable at all time points. Median eGFR was 70.2 (IQR 62.6-77.9) and 81.5 (IQR 63.6-99.1) mL/min/1.73 m2 at baseline and 24 months, respectively (p < 0.001). Downstaging of chronic kidney disease was observed in eight (25.8%) patients and was more common in ADV-treated compared to TDF-treated patients (7/8 vs. 1/17, p = 0.011; OR 16, 95% CI 1.643-155.766, p = 0.017). In vitro data showed that adding LdT to ADV or TDF was associated with improved cell viability and lower expression of injury and apoptotic biomarkers compared with ADV or TDF alone. Treatment was prematurely discontinued in four(12.9%) patients due to myalgia. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical and in vitro data suggest that LdT has renoprotective effects in patients on long-term ADV/TDF treatment. LdT may be considered as an adjuvant therapy in this special group of patients with renal impairment (NCT03778567).

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: In some individuals with undetectable serum levels of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA can still be detected in serum or hepatocytes and HBV replicates at low levels-this is called occult HBV infection (OBI). OBI has been associated with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated the incidence of OBI in patients with HCC and other liver diseases. We also investigated whether, in patients with OBI and HCC, HBV DNA has integrated into the DNA of hepatocytes. METHODS: We collected clinical information and liver tissues from 110 HBsAg-negative patients (90 with HCC and 20 without HCC; median ages at surgical resection and biopsy collection, 64.1 and 48.6 years, respectively) who underwent liver resection or liver biopsy from November 2002 through July 2017 in Hong Kong. HBV DNA and covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) were analyzed and quantified by PCR in liver tissues. Integration of HBV DNA into the DNA of liver cells was detected by Alu-PCR. RESULTS: Of the 90 HBsAg-negative patients with HCC, 18 had alcoholic liver disease (20%), 14 had non-alcoholic fatty liver disease or steatohepatitis (16%), 2 had primary biliary cholangitis, 2 had recurrent pyogenic cholangitis, 1 had autoimmune hepatitis, and 53 had none of these (59%). Among the 20 patients without HCC, 7 had non-alcoholic fatty liver disease or steatohepatitis, 7 had primary biliary cholangitis, and 6 had autoimmune hepatitis. OBI was detected in 62/90 patients with HCC (69%) and 3/20 patients without HCC (15%) (P < .0001). cccDNA was detectable in liver cells of 29 patients with HCC and OBI (47%) and HBV DNA had integrated into DNA of liver cells of 43 patients with HCC and OBI (69%); cccDNA and integrated HBV DNA were not detected in the 3 patients who had OBI without HCC. There were 29 patients with integration of HBV DNA among 33 patients with undetectable cccDNA in liver tissues (88%) and 14 patients with integration of HBV DNA among the 29 patients with cccDNA in liver tissues (48%) (P = .001). HBV DNA was found to integrate near genes associated with hepatocarcinogenesis, such as those encoding telomerase reverse transcriptase, lysine methyltransferase 2B, and cyclin A2. Among the 43 patients with integration of HBV DNA, 39 (91%) did not have cirrhosis. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of clinical data and liver tissues from 90 HBsAg-negative patients with HCC, we found that almost 70% had OBI, of whom 70% had integration of HBV DNA into liver cell DNA; 90% of these patients did not have cirrhosis. HBV DNA integrated near hepatic oncogenes; these integrations might promote development of liver cancer.

8.
J Viral Hepat ; 26(10): 1229-1232, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216086

RESUMO

Sofosbuvir-velpatasvir is approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In this single-arm, open-label, phase 3, deferred treatment study, we investigated the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir-velpatasvir among patients randomized to the placebo group in the ASTRAL-1 study. Patients received sofosbuvir-velpatasvir (400/100 mg) once daily for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of patients with sustained virologic response 12 weeks after the end of therapy (SVR12). The primary safety endpoint was any adverse events (AEs) leading to the permanent discontinuation of study drug. Overall, 108/111 (97%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 92%-99%) achieved SVR12, and only one patient had virological failure. SVR12 was achieved by 61/63 (97%, 95%CI, 89%-100%) genotype 1 patients, 20/20 (100%; 95%CI, 83%-100%) with genotype 2, 19/19 (100%; 95%CI, 82%-100%) with genotype 4 and 8/9 (89%; 95% CI, 52%-100%) with genotype 6. All (19/19; 95%CI, 82-100) patients with cirrhosis and all (31/31, 95%CI, 89-100) with prior treatment experience achieved SVR12. The safety profile during treatment was similar to that observed in patients receiving placebo treatment. The most common AEs were headache, fatigue and nausea. One patient (1%) discontinued treatment due to an AE of gallbladder carcinoma, which was not considered related to treatment. Of five reported serious AEs, none were considered related to study drug. Sofosbuvir-velpatasvir for 12 weeks was effective and well tolerated among untreated and previously treated patients with HCV genotype 1, 2, 4 or 6 infection, including those with compensated cirrhosis (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02346721).

9.
J Infect Dis ; 220(6): 940-950, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seroclearance of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is a potentially achievable target of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Plasma proteins relevant to HBsAg seroclearance remain undetermined. METHODS: We prospectively recruited treatment-naive CHB patients with spontaneous HBsAg seroclearance and matched HBsAg-positive controls. Plasma protein profiling was performed using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation-based proteomics, with the expression of candidate proteins validated in a separate cohort. The predictive value of fibronectin was assessed at 3 years, 1 year (Year -1) before, and at the time (Year 0) of HBsAg seroclearance. RESULTS: Four hundred eighty-seven plasma proteins were identified via proteomics, with 97 proteins showing altered expression. In the verification cohort (n = 90), median plasma fibronectin levels in patients with HBsAg seroclearance was higher than in controls (P = .009). In the longitudinal cohort (n = 164), patients with HBsAg seroclearance, compared with controls, had a higher median fibronectin levels at Year -1 (413.26 vs 227.95 µg/mL) and Year 0 (349.45 vs 208.72 µg/mL) (both P < .001). In patients with an annual HBsAg log reduction >0.5, Year -1 fibronectin level achieved an area under the receiving operator characteristic of 0.884 in predicting HBsAg seroclearance. CONCLUSIONS: Using proteomics-based technology, plasma fibronectin may be associated with HBsAg seroclearance and a potential predictor of "functional cure".

10.
J Viral Hepat ; 26(7): 818-827, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895682

RESUMO

The degree of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection influences outcome and management. Existing data describing the long-term dynamic changes of liver fibrosis are limited. This study aimed to evaluate the evolution of liver fibrosis in CHB across a 10-year period. CHB patients with liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by transient elastography 10 years ago were recruited for follow-up LSM. Fibrosis stages were classified according to EASL-ALEH guidelines. Fibrosis progression/regression was arbitrarily defined as ≥1 fibrosis stage change from baseline. A total of 459 hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative patients (224 untreated, 235 treated with nucleos(t)ide analogues [NAs]) were recruited. The mean age at baseline LSM was 41.7 ± 9.0 years (56.2% male). Over 10 years, the proportion of patients with advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis significantly reduced from 16.3% to 5.7% (P < 0.001). Fibrosis progression and regression were observed in 8.7% and 37.5%, respectively. No treatment with NAs (OR 2.259, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.032-4.945), metabolic syndrome (OR 4.379, 95% CI: 1.128-16.999) and hepatic steatosis (OR 7.799, 95% CI: 2.271-26.776) was associated with fibrosis progression. Liver stiffness decline demonstrated positive correlation with the time after HBsAg seroclearance (r = -0.50, P < 0.001). Median liver stiffness was higher both at baseline (14.0 vs 6 kPa, P < 0.001) and 10 years (9.1 vs 4.9 kPa, P < 0.001) in patients with cirrhosis-related complications/hepatocellular carcinoma compared with those without. In conclusion, CHB-related liver fibrosis changed dynamically across 10 years. Metabolic syndrome and hepatic steatosis were associated with fibrosis progression, while antiviral therapy was associated with fibrosis regression. Patients with HBsAg seroclearance demonstrated time-dependent decline in liver stiffness.

11.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(11): 1398-1408, 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver cirrhosis is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Serum Mac-2 binding protein glycosylation isomer (M2BPGi) is a novel serological marker for fibrosis. The role of M2BPGi in prediction of HCC is unknown. AIM: To examine the role of serum M2BPGi in predicting HCC development in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative patients. METHODS: Treatment-naive CHB patients with documented spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion were recruited. Serum M2BPGi was measured at baseline (within 3 years from HBeAg seroconversion), at 5 years and 10 years after HBeAg seroconversion and expressed as cut-off index (COI). Multivariate cox regression was performed to identify predictors for HCC development. ROC analysis was used to determine the cut-off value of M2BPGi. RESULTS: Among 207 patients (57% male, median age at HBeAg seroconversion 40 years old) with median follow-up of 13.1 (11.8-15.5) years, the cumulative incidence of HCC at 15 years was 7%. Median M2BPGi levels were significantly higher in patients with HCC compared to those without HCC (baseline: 1.39 COI vs 0.38 COI, P < 0.001; 5-year: 1.45 COI vs 0.47 COI, P < 0.001; 10-year: 1.20 COI vs 0.55 COI, P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed age at HBeAg seroconversion [odds ratio (OR) = 1.196, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.034-1.382, P = 0.016] and baseline M2BPGi (OR = 4.666, 95%CI: 1.296-16.802, P = 0.018) were significant factors predictive of HCC. Using a cut-off value of 0.68 COI, baseline M2BPGi yielded AUROC of 0.883 with 91.7% sensitivity and 80.8% specificity. CONCLUSION: High serum M2BPGi within 3 years after HBeAg seroconversion was a strong predictor for subsequent HCC development in treatment-naive HBeAg-negative CHB patients.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Proteínas de Transporte/sangue , Glicoproteínas/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Adulto , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/imunologia , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B Crônica/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/patologia , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Isoformas de Proteínas/sangue , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Soroconversão
12.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 34(10): 1817-1823, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can still develop in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients receiving antiviral treatment. Serum Mac-2-binding protein glycosylation isomer (M2BPGi) is a novel marker for liver fibrosis. We investigated its role on incidence of HCC in entecavir (ETV)-treated CHB patients. METHODS: We identified HCC cases diagnosed at ≥ 1 year of ETV treatment. CHB patients without HCC (matched for age, gender, baseline hepatitis B virus-DNA, and duration of ETV treatment) were identified in approximately 1:2 ratio (HCC: non-HCC) for comparison. Serum samples were retrieved at baseline (initiation of ETV), 3, and 5 years of ETV for serum M2BPGi measurement (expressed in cut-off index [COI]). RESULTS: One hundred HCC cases were matched with 185 CHB patients without HCC (median age 56.7 years, 78.9% male, baseline hepatitis B virus-DNA 5.6 logIU/mL, and median follow-up 7.1 years). Median time from ETV initiation to incident HCC was 3.9 years. Serum M2BPGi levels were significantly higher in HCC cases compared with controls at baseline and year 3 (1.25 vs 0.98 [P = 0.004], 0.89 vs 0.74 [P = 0.018] COI, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that baseline M2BPGi was the only independent factor associated with incident HCC (odds ratio 1.241, 95% confidence interval 1.039-1.482, P = 0.017). Using a cut-off value of 1.15 COI, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of baseline serum M2BPGi in cirrhotic patients to predict incident HCC were 90%, 53.8%, 69.6%, and 82.1%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline and 3-year serum M2BPGi may be useful to identify high risk patients on antiviral treatment for subsequent HCC development.

13.
Hepatol Int ; 13(2): 148-156, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30671807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Mac-2-binding protein glycosylation isomer (M2BPGi) is a novel serum diagnostic marker for liver fibrosis in various liver diseases. We aimed to evaluate its role in assessment of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B infection (CHB) with reference to liver stiffness measurement (LSM). METHODS: CHB patients with LSM by transient elastography technology and retrievable serum samples were recruited. Ten-year re-assessments of LSM and M2BPGi were repeated in a patient subgroup. RESULTS: 240 CHB patients (M:F = 116:124; median age 47.5 years) were recruited. The median M2BPGi values for F0/F1/F2, F3 and F4 progressively increased with more advanced stages of liver fibrosis: 0.39, 0.46 and 0.82 COI, respectively (p < 0.01). M2BPGi levels correlated well with liver stiffness (r = 0.611), FIB-4 (r = 0.616), and strongly with APRI (r = 0.825) (all p < 0.001). Using cut-off values of 0.605 and 0.615 COI, the AUROCs were 0.754 and 0.799 for ≥ F3 and F4, respectively. M2BPGi identified one-quarter patients at risk of advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis otherwise classified into 'grey area' by LSM. In 86 patients with reassessment LSM, 21 (24.4%) showed significant fibrosis regression with corresponding decline in median M2BPGi level (- 0.11 COI) compared with the increase of +0.03 COI in patients without significant fibrosis regression (p = 0.011). Male gender, older age, use of potent antiviral therapy and change in serum M2BPGi were independently associated with significant fibrosis regression. CONCLUSIONS: Serum M2BPGi can risk-stratify CHB patients whose liver stiffness fell into the 'grey area'. Significant fibrosis regression occurring in one-quarter patients was reflected by a reduction in M2BPGi levels at 10-year interval.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/sangue , Adulto , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores/sangue , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Feminino , Glicosilação , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC
14.
J Infect Dis ; 219(12): 1924-1933, 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viral hepatitis epidemiological data are important for the World Health Organization plan of eliminating viral hepatitis. We aimed to document the prevalence of viral hepatitis A to E in Hong Kong. METHODS: This community-based study was open to all Hong Kong Chinese citizens aged ≥18 years. Baseline data and risk factors were collected. Hepatitis A-E serology was measured, including hepatitis B e antigen, antibodies to hepatitis B e antigen, antibodies to hepatitis D, hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive participants, and antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen and antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) in HBsAg-negative participants. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA and genotypes were determined in anti-HCV-positive participants. RESULTS: A total of 10 256 participants were recruited from February 2015 to July 2016. Overall HBsAg seroprevalence was 7.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.3%-8.3%), which was reduced significantly with HBV vaccination (odds ratio, 0.15 [95% CI, .11-.21]). Among HBsAg-negative participants, anti-HBc seroprevalence increased from 5.4% (<26 years) to 60.1% (>65 years). No hepatitis D virus (HDV) cases were detected. Anti-HCV positivity was 0.5% (95% CI, .3%-.6%). Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) and hepatitis E virus (anti-HEV) was 65.2% (95% CI, 64.2%-66.1%) and 33.3% (95% CI, 32.4%-34.2%), respectively, and were influenced by age, family income, and being born in mainland China. CONCLUSIONS: HBV seroprevalence remained high despite universal vaccination. High anti-HBc seroprevalence underlines the potential issue of HBV reactivation during profound immunosuppression. HCV and HDV remained uncommon. Anti-HAV seroprevalence had decreased whereas anti-HEV seroprevalence had risen.

15.
Kidney Int ; 94(4): 663-673, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30243313

RESUMO

Infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) has adverse liver, kidney, and cardiovascular consequences in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), including those on dialysis therapy and in those with a kidney transplant. Since the publication of the original Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) HCV Guideline in 2008, major advances in HCV management, particularly with the advent of direct-acting antiviral therapies, have now made the cure of HCV possible in CKD patients. In addition, diagnostic techniques have evolved to enable the noninvasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis. Therefore, the Work Group undertook a comprehensive review and update of the KDIGO HCV in CKD Guideline. This Executive Summary highlights key aspects of the guideline recommendations.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30243760

RESUMO

Reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a potentially fatal complication of immunosuppressive therapy, and can occur in individuals who are hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) negative but positive for hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc). While anti-HBc positivity indicates prior HBV exposure, it may also reflect clearance of HBsAg, but with viral persistence at low intrahepatic replicative and transcriptional levels.1 HBV reactivation can still occur during intense immunosuppression, including B cell-depleting therapy with anti-CD20 antibodies2 and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.3 While prevention via antiviral prophylaxis is recommended, it remains uncertain, from a global perspective, if this is an ideal and cost-effective strategy. An alternative is regular HBV DNA monitoring.4 However, this approach is problematic in resource-constrained regions, where the logistics of sample collection, transportation, and molecular analysis in dedicated facilities poses challenges.5 We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of simple monitoring strategies using routine liver biochemistry and serum HBsAg in preventing HBV-related complications during anti-CD20 therapy.

17.
J Viral Hepat ; 25(12): 1429-1437, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29974665

RESUMO

Although HCV infection is highly prevalent in East Asia, these patients have been underrepresented in HRQL studies. Here, we assess HRQL in East Asian HCV patients treated with different anti-HCV regimens. Patients completed Short Form-36 (SF-36) before, during and after treatment. A total of 989 HCV patients were enrolled in two phase 3 clinical trials [China: 60.2%, South Korea: 22.4%, Taiwan: 17.4%; genotype 1: 55.3%, treatment-naïve: 57.5%; cirrhosis: 14.0%]. Patients received pegylated interferon, sofosbuvir and ribavirin (Peg-IFN + SOF + RBV; n = 130, genotypes 1, 6) or SOF + RBV (n = 475, all genotypes) or SOF and ledipasvir (LDV/SOF; n = 384, genotype 1). The SVR-12 rates were 94.6%, 96.2% and 99.2%, respectively (P = 0.005). During treatment, Peg-IFN + SOF + RBV-treated group experienced significant declines in most HRQL scores (by the end of treatment, mean decline up to -12.0 points, all P < 0.05). Patients on SOF + RBV had milder HRQL impairment (up to -5.8 points, P < 0.05 for 5 of 8 HRQL domains). In contrast, patients receiving IFN- and RBV-free regimen with LDV/SOF had their HRQL scores improve (mean up to +4.3 points, P < 0.0001 for 3 of 8 scales). In multivariate analysis, receiving Peg-IFN + SOF + RBV was consistently independently associated with HRQL impairment during treatment (ß: -10.3 to -16.4) and after achieving SVR-12 (ß: -4.4 to -9.1) (all P < 0.01). The results were reproduced in a subgroup of patients enrolled in China. We conclude that in East Asian patients with HCV, HRQL improved from baseline after treatment with LDV/SOF but not with Peg-IFN + RBV-containing or Peg-IFN-free RBV-containing regimens. The HRQL impairment associated with the use of Peg-IFN persists even after achieving sustained virologic clearance.

18.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 9(6): 163, 2018 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29915243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mac-2-binding protein glycosylation isomer (M2BPGi), a novel serum marker for liver fibrosis, was seldom studied in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We aimed to evaluate its role on diagnosing significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in treated CHB patients. METHODS: CHB patients treated with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) with baseline liver biopsies and retrievable serum samples were recruited. Paired liver biopsies were performed in patient subgroups at 1 and 3 years. RESULTS: In total, 327 NA-treated CHB patients (M:F = 229:98; median age 38.1 years) were recruited. The median M2BPGi values were 0.26, 0.34, 0.57 and 1.21 cutoff index (COI), in liver histology with Ishak F0-1, F2, F3 and F4, respectively (p < 0.01). M2BPGi levels correlated with the Ishak scores (ρ = 0.312, p < 0.001). Using the cutoff values of 0.25, 0.45 and 0.96 COI for ≥F2, ≥F3 and F4, the AUROCs were 0.653, 0.795 and 0.914, respectively. Multivariate analysis with several other serum indices showed that M2BPGi was the most significant independent factor for ≥F3 (OR: 8.197, 95% CI: 2.699-24.897, p < 0.001). In patient subgroups with serial liver biopsies, both the proportion of F3/F4 and M2BPGi decreased at 1 year (8.3% vs. 2.8% and 0.32 vs. 0.21 COI, respectively; both p < 0.001). Histological fibrosis progression after ≥3 years of NA therapy accompanied with an increase in M2BPGi level, compared to patients without progression (+0.14 vs -0.03 COI, p = 0.045). CONCLUSION: Serum M2BPGi is a reliable non-invasive marker for diagnosing ≥F2, ≥F3 and F4. It is the only significant marker for ≥F3 among several other indices. NA produced concordant dynamic changes in M2BPGi levels and histological fibrosis.

19.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 4: 18035, 2018 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29877316

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a hepatotropic virus that can establish a persistent and chronic infection in humans through immune anergy. Currently, 3.5% of the global population is chronically infected with HBV, although the incidence of HBV infections is decreasing owing to vaccination and, to a lesser extent, the use of antiviral therapy to reduce the viral load of chronically infected individuals. The course of chronic HBV infection typically comprises different clinical phases, each of which potentially lasts for decades. Well-defined and verified serum and liver biopsy diagnostic markers enable the assessment of disease severity, viral replication status, patient risk stratification and treatment decisions. Current therapy includes antiviral agents that directly act on viral replication and immunomodulators, such as interferon therapy. Antiviral agents for HBV include reverse transcriptase inhibitors, which are nucleoside or nucleotide analogues that can profoundly suppress HBV replication but require long-term maintenance therapy. Novel compounds are being actively investigated to achieve the goal of HBV surface antigen seroclearance (functional cure), a serological state that is associated with a higher remission rate (thus, no viral rebound) after treatment cessation and a lower rate of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. This Primer addresses several aspects of HBV infection, including epidemiology, immune pathophysiology, diagnosis, prevention and management.

20.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol ; 14(5): 483-491, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29718748

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C virus protease inhibitors (PIs) are important components of many direct acting antiviral regimens. Many clinical trials and real-world studies have described the safety data for individual PIs. We aimed to review the safety of both the first and second generation PIs in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Areas covered: The unique pharmacokinetic properties of PIs partly explain their toxicities. Second generation PIs, when used without interferon and ribavirin, are well-tolerated. Use of PIs in renal impaired patients or those on dialysis appears to be safe. Decompensated cirrhosis is a contraindication for PIs use due to increased drug exposure and risk of liver decompensation. Drug-drug interactions are common and should be always monitored; some drugs should not be co-administered with PIs. In patients with co-infected hepatitis B virus, reactivation after DAA (whether PI-containing or not) is a concern. Expert opinion: Second generation PIs are key players in the current DAA era. Post-marketing surveillance is essential to monitor unknown adverse events and drug-drug interactions. Non-PI based DAA should be used in decompensated liver disease. The use of these drugs should also be explored in the paediatric population.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteases/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/farmacologia , Interações de Medicamentos , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados , Inibidores de Proteases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia
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