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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5071, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417470

RESUMO

Identification of causal variants and genes underlying genome-wide association study (GWAS) loci is essential to understand the biology of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and drinks per week (DPW). Multi-omics integration approaches have shown potential for fine mapping complex loci to obtain biological insights to disease mechanisms. In this study, we use multi-omics approaches, to fine-map AUD and DPW associations at single SNP resolution to demonstrate that rs56030824 on chromosome 11 significantly reduces SPI1 mRNA expression in myeloid cells and lowers risk for AUD and DPW. Our analysis also identifies MAPT as a candidate causal gene specifically associated with DPW. Genes prioritized in this study show overlap with causal genes associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Multi-omics integration analyses highlight, genetic similarities and differences between alcohol intake and disordered drinking, suggesting molecular heterogeneity that might inform future targeted functional and cross-species studies.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Feto/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Loci Gênicos , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Mapeamento Físico do Cromossomo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
2.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) frequently co-occur, and large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified significant genetic correlations between these disorders. METHODS: We used the largest published GWAS for AUD (total cases = 77 822) and SCZ (total cases = 46 827) to identify genetic variants that influence both disorders (with either the same or opposite direction of effect) and those that are disorder specific. RESULTS: We identified 55 independent genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms with the same direction of effect on AUD and SCZ, 8 with robust effects in opposite directions, and 98 with disorder-specific effects. We also found evidence for 12 genes whose pleiotropic associations with AUD and SCZ are consistent with mediation via gene expression in the prefrontal cortex. The genetic covariance between AUD and SCZ was concentrated in genomic regions functional in brain tissues (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide further evidence that SCZ shares meaningful genetic overlap with AUD.

3.
Behav Genet ; 51(5): 543-558, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117972

RESUMO

Genetic predispositions and environmental influences both play an important role in adolescent externalizing behavior; however, they are not always independent. To elucidate gene-environment interplay, we examined the interrelationships between externalizing polygenic risk scores, parental knowledge, and peer substance use in impacting adolescent externalizing behavior across two time-points in a high-risk longitudinal sample of 1,200 adolescents (764 European and 436 African ancestry; Mage = 12.99) from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism. Results from multivariate path analysis indicated that externalizing polygenic scores were directly associated with adolescent externalizing behavior but also indirectly via peer substance use, in the European ancestry sample. No significant polygenic association nor indirect effects of genetic risk were observed in the African ancestry group, likely due to more limited power. Our findings underscore the importance of gene-environment interplay and suggest peer substance use may be a mechanism through which genetic risk influences adolescent externalizing behavior.

4.
Ann Neurol ; 90(1): 76-88, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938021

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to search for genes/variants that modify the effect of LRRK2 mutations in terms of penetrance and age-at-onset of Parkinson's disease. METHODS: We performed the first genomewide association study of penetrance and age-at-onset of Parkinson's disease in LRRK2 mutation carriers (776 cases and 1,103 non-cases at their last evaluation). Cox proportional hazard models and linear mixed models were used to identify modifiers of penetrance and age-at-onset of LRRK2 mutations, respectively. We also investigated whether a polygenic risk score derived from a published genomewide association study of Parkinson's disease was able to explain variability in penetrance and age-at-onset in LRRK2 mutation carriers. RESULTS: A variant located in the intronic region of CORO1C on chromosome 12 (rs77395454; p value = 2.5E-08, beta = 1.27, SE = 0.23, risk allele: C) met genomewide significance for the penetrance model. Co-immunoprecipitation analyses of LRRK2 and CORO1C supported an interaction between these 2 proteins. A region on chromosome 3, within a previously reported linkage peak for Parkinson's disease susceptibility, showed suggestive associations in both models (penetrance top variant: p value = 1.1E-07; age-at-onset top variant: p value = 9.3E-07). A polygenic risk score derived from publicly available Parkinson's disease summary statistics was a significant predictor of penetrance, but not of age-at-onset. INTERPRETATION: This study suggests that variants within or near CORO1C may modify the penetrance of LRRK2 mutations. In addition, common Parkinson's disease associated variants collectively increase the penetrance of LRRK2 mutations. ANN NEUROL 2021;90:82-94.


Assuntos
Serina-Treonina Proteína Quinase-2 com Repetições Ricas em Leucina/genética , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Idoso , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Penetrância
5.
Am J Psychiatry ; : appiajp202020091390, 2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), a 10-item screen for alcohol use disorder (AUD), have elucidated novel loci for alcohol consumption and misuse. However, these studies also revealed that GWASs can be influenced by numerous biases (e.g., measurement error, selection bias), which may have led to inconsistent genetic correlations between alcohol involvement and AUD, as well as paradoxically negative genetic correlations between alcohol involvement and psychiatric disorders and/or medical conditions. The authors used genomic structural equation modeling to elucidate the genetics of alcohol consumption and problematic consequences of alcohol use as measured by AUDIT. METHODS: To explore these unexpected differences in genetic correlations, the authors conducted the first item-level and the largest GWAS of AUDIT items (N=160,824) and applied a multivariate framework to mitigate previous biases. RESULTS: The authors identified novel patterns of similarity (and dissimilarity) among the AUDIT items and found evidence of a correlated two-factor structure at the genetic level ("consumption" and "problems," rg=0.80). Moreover, by applying empirically derived weights to each of the AUDIT items, the authors constructed an aggregate measure of alcohol consumption that was strongly associated with alcohol dependence (rg=0.67), moderately associated with several other psychiatric disorders, and no longer positively associated with health and positive socioeconomic outcomes. Lastly, by conducting polygenic analyses in three independent cohorts that differed in their ascertainment and prevalence of AUD, the authors identified novel genetic associations between alcohol consumption, alcohol misuse, and health. CONCLUSIONS: This work further emphasizes the value of AUDIT for both clinical and genetic studies of AUD and the importance of using multivariate methods to study genetic associations that are more closely related to AUD.

6.
Genes Brain Behav ; : e12738, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893716

RESUMO

The National Institute on Drug Abuse and Joint Institute for Biological Sciences at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory hosted a meeting attended by a diverse group of scientists with expertise in substance use disorders (SUDs), computational biology, and FAIR (Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability, and Reusability) data sharing. The meeting's objective was to discuss and evaluate better strategies to integrate genetic, epigenetic, and 'omics data across human and model organisms to achieve deeper mechanistic insight into SUDs. Specific topics were to (a) evaluate the current state of substance use genetics and genomics research and fundamental gaps, (b) identify opportunities and challenges of integration and sharing across species and data types, (c) identify current tools and resources for integration of genetic, epigenetic, and phenotypic data, (d) discuss steps and impediment related to data integration, and (e) outline future steps to support more effective collaboration-particularly between animal model research communities and human genetics and clinical research teams. This review summarizes key facets of this catalytic discussion with a focus on new opportunities and gaps in resources and knowledge on SUDs.

7.
Heart Lung ; 50(1): 51-58, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε2, ε4 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met alleles have been associated with cognition. Associations of these alleles with cognition in heart failure (HF) and influences of HF across the cognitive spectrum (i.e., cognitively normal to Alzheimer's dementia [AD]) remain unexplored. OBJECTIVES: To investigate influences of APOE ε2, ε4, BDNF Met and HF on cognition among participants across the cognitive spectrum. METHODS: Genetic association study using national databases (N = 7,166). RESULTS: APOE ε2 frequencies were similar across the cognitive spectrum among participants with HF. APOE ε4 frequency was lower among participants with HF and AD than non-HF participants with AD. BDNF Met frequencies did not differ across the spectrum. HF was associated with worse attention and language. In the HF subsample, ε4 was associated with worse memory. CONCLUSION: Associations between APOE and cognition may differ in HF but need to be tested in a larger sample.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Cognição , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Humanos
8.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 186(3): 151-161, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652861

RESUMO

African Americans (AA) have lower prevalence of alcohol dependence and higher subjective response to alcohol than European Americans. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genes/variants associated with alcohol dependence specifically in AA; however, the sample sizes are still not large enough to detect variants with small effects. Admixture mapping is an alternative way to identify alcohol dependence genes/variants that may be unique to AA. In this study, we performed the first admixture mapping of DSM-IV alcohol dependence diagnosis, DSM-IV alcohol dependence criterion count, and two scores from the self-rating of effects of ethanol (SRE) as measures of response to alcohol: the first five times of using alcohol (SRE-5) and average of SRE across three times (SRE-T). Findings revealed a region on chromosome 4 that was genome-wide significant for SRE-5 (p value = 4.18E-05). Fine mapping did not identify a single causal variant to be associated with SRE-5; instead, conditional analysis concluded that multiple variants collectively explained the admixture mapping signal. PPARGC1A, a gene that has been linked to alcohol consumption in previous studies, is located in this region. Our finding suggests that admixture mapping is a useful tool to identify genes/variants that may have been missed by current GWAS approaches in admixed populations.

9.
Psychol Med ; 51(7): 1147-1156, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders have distinct genetic backgrounds. METHODS: We examined whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for consumption and problem subscales of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C, AUDIT-P) in the UK Biobank (UKB; N = 121 630) correlate with alcohol outcomes in four independent samples: an ascertained cohort, the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA; N = 6850), and population-based cohorts: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 5911), Generation Scotland (GS; N = 17 461), and an independent subset of UKB (N = 245 947). Regression models and survival analyses tested whether the PRS were associated with the alcohol-related outcomes. RESULTS: In COGA, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with alcohol dependence, AUD symptom count, maximum drinks (R2 = 0.47-0.68%, p = 2.0 × 10-8-1.0 × 10-10), and increased likelihood of onset of alcohol dependence (hazard ratio = 1.15, p = 4.7 × 10-8); AUDIT-C PRS was not an independent predictor of any phenotype. In ALSPAC, the AUDIT-C PRS was associated with alcohol dependence (R2 = 0.96%, p = 4.8 × 10-6). In GS, AUDIT-C PRS was a better predictor of weekly alcohol use (R2 = 0.27%, p = 5.5 × 10-11), while AUDIT-P PRS was more associated with problem drinking (R2 = 0.40%, p = 9.0 × 10-7). Lastly, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with ICD-based alcohol-related disorders in the UKB subset (R2 = 0.18%, p < 2.0 × 10-16). CONCLUSIONS: AUDIT-P PRS was associated with a range of alcohol-related phenotypes across population-based and ascertained cohorts, while AUDIT-C PRS showed less utility in the ascertained cohort. We show that AUDIT-P is genetically correlated with both use and misuse and demonstrate the influence of ascertainment schemes on PRS analyses.

10.
Mol Psychiatry ; 26(4): 1142-1151, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477794

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of complex traits, such as alcohol use disorders (AUD), usually identify variants in non-coding regions and cannot by themselves distinguish whether the associated variants are functional or in linkage disequilibrium with the functional variants. Transcriptome studies can identify genes whose expression differs between alcoholics and controls. To test which variants associated with AUD may cause expression differences, we integrated data from deep RNA-seq and GWAS of four postmortem brain regions from 30 subjects with AUD and 30 controls to analyze allele-specific expression (ASE). We identified 88 genes with differential ASE in subjects with AUD compared to controls. Next, to test one potential mechanism contributing to the differential ASE, we analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 3' untranslated regions (3'UTR) of these genes. Of the 88 genes with differential ASE, 61 genes contained 437 SNPs in the 3'UTR with at least one heterozygote among the subjects studied. Using a modified PASSPORT-seq (parallel assessment of polymorphisms in miRNA target-sites by sequencing) assay, we identified 25 SNPs that affected RNA levels in a consistent manner in two neuroblastoma cell lines, SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2). Many of these SNPs are in binding sites of miRNAs and RNA-binding proteins, indicating that these SNPs are likely causal variants of AUD-associated differential ASE. In sum, we demonstrate that a combination of computational and experimental approaches provides a powerful strategy to uncover functionally relevant variants associated with the risk for AUD.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Alcoolismo/genética , Alelos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
11.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 44(12): 2494-2518, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of alcohol dependence (AD) and related phenotypes have identified multiple loci, but the functional variants underlying the loci have in most cases not been identified. Noncoding variants can influence phenotype by affecting gene expression; for example, variants in the 3' untranslated regions (3'UTR) can affect gene expression posttranscriptionally. METHODS: We adapted a high-throughput assay known as PASSPORT-seq (parallel assessment of polymorphisms in miRNA target sites by sequencing) to identify among variants associated with AD and related phenotypes those that cause differential expression in neuronal cell lines. Based upon meta-analyses of alcohol-related traits in African American and European Americans in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism, we tested 296 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with meta-analysis p values ≤ 0.001) that were located in 3'UTRs. RESULTS: We identified 60 SNPs that affected gene expression (false discovery rate [FDR] < 0.05) in SH-SY5Y cells and 92 that affected expression in SK-N-BE(2) cells. Among these, 30 SNPs altered RNA levels in the same direction in both cell lines. Many of these SNPs reside in the binding sites of miRNAs and RNA-binding proteins and are expression quantitative trait loci of genes including KIF6,FRMD4A,CADM2,ADD2,PLK2, and GAS7. CONCLUSION: The SNPs identified in the PASSPORT-seq assay are functional variants that might affect the risk for AD and related phenotypes. Our study provides insights into gene regulation in AD and demonstrates the value of PASSPORT-seq as a tool to screen genetic variants in GWAS loci for one potential mechanism of action.

12.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(12): 1032-1045, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variation in liability to cannabis use disorder has a strong genetic component (estimated twin and family heritability about 50-70%) and is associated with negative outcomes, including increased risk of psychopathology. The aim of the study was to conduct a large genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify novel genetic variants associated with cannabis use disorder. METHODS: To conduct this GWAS meta-analysis of cannabis use disorder and identify associations with genetic loci, we used samples from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Substance Use Disorders working group, iPSYCH, and deCODE (20 916 case samples, 363 116 control samples in total), contrasting cannabis use disorder cases with controls. To examine the genetic overlap between cannabis use disorder and 22 traits of interest (chosen because of previously published phenotypic correlations [eg, psychiatric disorders] or hypothesised associations [eg, chronotype] with cannabis use disorder), we used linkage disequilibrium score regression to calculate genetic correlations. FINDINGS: We identified two genome-wide significant loci: a novel chromosome 7 locus (FOXP2, lead single-nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] rs7783012; odds ratio [OR] 1·11, 95% CI 1·07-1·15, p=1·84 × 10-9) and the previously identified chromosome 8 locus (near CHRNA2 and EPHX2, lead SNP rs4732724; OR 0·89, 95% CI 0·86-0·93, p=6·46 × 10-9). Cannabis use disorder and cannabis use were genetically correlated (rg 0·50, p=1·50 × 10-21), but they showed significantly different genetic correlations with 12 of the 22 traits we tested, suggesting at least partially different genetic underpinnings of cannabis use and cannabis use disorder. Cannabis use disorder was positively genetically correlated with other psychopathology, including ADHD, major depression, and schizophrenia. INTERPRETATION: These findings support the theory that cannabis use disorder has shared genetic liability with other psychopathology, and there is a distinction between genetic liability to cannabis use and cannabis use disorder. FUNDING: National Institute of Mental Health; National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine and the Centre for Integrative Sequencing; The European Commission, Horizon 2020; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Health Research Council of New Zealand; National Institute on Aging; Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium; UK Research and Innovation Medical Research Council (UKRI MRC); The Brain & Behavior Research Foundation; National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA); National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Australia; Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program of the University of California; Families for Borderline Personality Disorder Research (Beth and Rob Elliott) 2018 NARSAD Young Investigator Grant; The National Child Health Research Foundation (Cure Kids); The Canterbury Medical Research Foundation; The New Zealand Lottery Grants Board; The University of Otago; The Carney Centre for Pharmacogenomics; The James Hume Bequest Fund; National Institutes of Health: Genes, Environment and Health Initiative; National Institutes of Health; National Cancer Institute; The William T Grant Foundation; Australian Research Council; The Virginia Tobacco Settlement Foundation; The VISN 1 and VISN 4 Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Centers of the US Department of Veterans Affairs; The 5th Framework Programme (FP-5) GenomEUtwin Project; The Lundbeck Foundation; NIH-funded Shared Instrumentation Grant S10RR025141; Clinical Translational Sciences Award grants; National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; National Institute of General Medical Sciences.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Abuso de Maconha/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco
13.
Alcohol ; 89: 103-112, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paternal alcohol abuse is a well-recognized risk factor for the development of an alcohol use disorder (AUD). In addition to genetic and environmental risk factors, heritable epigenetic factors also have been proposed to play a key role in the development of AUD. However, it is not clear whether epigenetic factors contribute to the genetic inheritance in families affected by AUD. We used reciprocal crosses of the alcohol-preferring (P) and -nonpreferring (NP) rat lines to test whether epigenetic factors also impacted alcohol drinking in up to two generations of offspring. METHODS: F1 offspring derived by reciprocal breeding of P and NP rats were tested for differences in alcohol consumption using a free-choice protocol of 10% ethanol, 20% ethanol, and water that were available concurrently. In a separate experiment, an F2 population was tested for alcohol consumption not only due to genetic differences. These rats were generated from inbred P (iP) and iNP rat lines that were reciprocally bred to produce genetically identical F1 offspring that remained alcohol-naïve. Intercrosses of the F1 generation animals produced the F2 generation. Alcohol consumption was then assessed in the F2 generation using a standard two-bottle choice protocol, and was analyzed using genome-wide linkage analysis. Alcohol consumption measures were also analyzed for sex differences. RESULTS: Average alcohol consumption was higher in the F1 offspring of P vs. NP sires and in the F2 offspring of F0 iP vs. iNP grandsires. Linkage analyses showed the maximum LOD scores for alcohol consumption in both male and female offspring were on chromosome 4 (Chr 4). The LOD score for both sexes considered together was higher when the grandsire was iP vs. iNP (5.0 vs. 3.35, respectively). Furthermore, the F2 population displayed enhanced alcohol consumption when the P alleles from the F0 sire were present. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that epigenetic and/or non-genetic factors mapping to rat chromosome 4 contribute to a transgenerational paternal effect on alcohol consumption in the P and NP rat model of AUD.

14.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 108(3): 625-634, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562552

RESUMO

Microtubule targeting agents (MTAs) are anticancer therapies commonly prescribed for breast cancer and other solid tumors. Sensory peripheral neuropathy (PN) is the major dose-limiting toxicity for MTAs and can limit clinical efficacy. The current pharmacogenomic study aimed to identify genetic variations that explain patient susceptibility and drive mechanisms underlying development of MTA-induced PN. A meta-analysis of genomewide association studies (GWAS) from two clinical cohorts treated with MTAs (Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 40502 and CALGB 40101) was conducted using a Cox regression model with cumulative dose to first instance of grade 2 or higher PN. Summary statistics from a GWAS of European subjects (n = 469) in CALGB 40502 that estimated cause-specific risk of PN were meta-analyzed with those from a previously published GWAS of European ancestry (n = 855) from CALGB 40101 that estimated the risk of PN. Novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in an enhancer region downstream of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1 encoding S1PR1 ; e.g., rs74497159, ßCALGB 40101 per allele log hazard ratio (95% confidence interval (CI)) = 0.591 (0.254-0.928), ßCALGB 40502 per allele log hazard ratio (95% CI) = 0.693 (0.334-1.053); PMETA  = 3.62 × 10-7 ) were the most highly ranked associations based on P values with risk of developing grade 2 and higher PN. In silico functional analysis identified multiple regulatory elements and potential enhancer activity for S1PR1 within this genomic region. Inhibition of S1PR1 function in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived human sensory neurons shows partial protection against paclitaxel-induced neurite damage. These pharmacogenetic findings further support ongoing clinical evaluations to target S1PR1 as a therapeutic strategy for prevention and/or treatment of MTA-induced neuropathy.


Assuntos
Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/genética , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Esfingosina-1-Fosfato/genética , Moduladores de Tubulina/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuritos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuritos/metabolismo , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/prevenção & controle , Farmacogenética , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433515

RESUMO

Aberrant connectivity of large-scale brain networks has been observed among individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) as well as in those at risk, suggesting deficits in neural communication between brain regions in the liability to develop AUD. Electroencephalographical (EEG) coherence, which measures the degree of synchrony between brain regions, may be a useful measure of connectivity patterns in neural networks for studying the genetics of AUD. In 8810 individuals (6644 of European and 2166 of African ancestry) from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA), we performed a Multi-Trait Analyses of genome-wide association studies (MTAG) on parietal resting-state theta (3-7 Hz) EEG coherence, which previously have been associated with AUD. We also examined developmental effects of GWAS findings on trajectories of neural connectivity in a longitudinal subsample of 2316 adolescent/young adult offspring from COGA families (ages 12-30) and examined the functional and clinical significance of GWAS variants. Six correlated single nucleotide polymorphisms located in a brain-expressed lincRNA (ENSG00000266213) on chromosome 18q23 were associated with posterior interhemispheric low theta EEG coherence (3-5 Hz). These same variants were also associated with alcohol use behavior and posterior corpus callosum volume, both in a subset of COGA and in the UK Biobank. Analyses in the subsample of COGA offspring indicated that the association of rs12954372 with low theta EEG coherence occurred only in females, most prominently between ages 25 and 30 (p < 2 × 10-9). Converging data provide support for the role of genetic variants on chromosome 18q23 in regulating neural connectivity and alcohol use behavior, potentially via dysregulated myelination. While findings were less robust, genome-wide associations were also observed with rs151174000 and parieto-frontal low theta coherence, rs14429078 and parieto-occipital interhemispheric high theta coherence, and rs116445911 with centro-parietal low theta coherence. These novel genetic findings highlight the utility of the endophenotype approach in enhancing our understanding of mechanisms underlying addiction susceptibility.

16.
Mol Psychiatry ; 25(8): 1673-1687, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32099098

RESUMO

To provide insights into the biology of opioid dependence (OD) and opioid use (i.e., exposure, OE), we completed a genome-wide analysis comparing 4503 OD cases, 4173 opioid-exposed controls, and 32,500 opioid-unexposed controls, including participants of European and African descent (EUR and AFR, respectively). Among the variants identified, rs9291211 was associated with OE (exposed vs. unexposed controls; EUR z = -5.39, p = 7.2 × 10-8). This variant regulates the transcriptomic profiles of SLC30A9 and BEND4 in multiple brain tissues and was previously associated with depression, alcohol consumption, and neuroticism. A phenome-wide scan of rs9291211 in the UK Biobank (N > 360,000) found association of this variant with propensity to use dietary supplements (p = 1.68 × 10-8). With respect to the same OE phenotype in the gene-based analysis, we identified SDCCAG8 (EUR + AFR z = 4.69, p = 10-6), which was previously associated with educational attainment, risk-taking behaviors, and schizophrenia. In addition, rs201123820 showed a genome-wide significant difference between OD cases and unexposed controls (AFR z = 5.55, p = 2.9 × 10-8) and a significant association with musculoskeletal disorders in the UK Biobank (p = 4.88 × 10-7). A polygenic risk score (PRS) based on a GWAS of risk-tolerance (n = 466,571) was positively associated with OD (OD vs. unexposed controls, p = 8.1 × 10-5; OD cases vs. exposed controls, p = 0.054) and OE (exposed vs. unexposed controls, p = 3.6 × 10-5). A PRS based on a GWAS of neuroticism (n = 390,278) was positively associated with OD (OD vs. unexposed controls, p = 3.2 × 10-5; OD vs. exposed controls, p = 0.002) but not with OE (p = 0.67). Our analyses highlight the difference between dependence and exposure and the importance of considering the definition of controls in studies of addiction.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Aditivo/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/genética , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Feminino , Genoma Humano/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial/genética
17.
Addict Biol ; 25(2): e12800, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270906

RESUMO

The level of response (LR) to alcohol as measured with the Self-Report of the Effects of Alcohol Retrospective Questionnaire (SRE) evaluates the number of standard drinks usually required for up to four effects. The need for a higher number of drinks for effects is genetically influenced and predicts higher risks for heavy drinking and alcohol problems. We conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) in the African-American (COGA-AA, N = 1527 from 309 families) and European-American (COGA-EA, N = 4723 from 956 families) subsamples of the Collaborative Studies on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) for two SRE scores: SRE-T (average of first five times of drinking, the period of heaviest drinking, and the most recent 3 months of consumption) and SRE-5 (the first five times of drinking). We then meta-analyzed the two COGA subsamples (COGA-AA + EA). Both SRE-T and SRE-5 were modestly heritable (h2 : 21%-31%) and genetically correlated with alcohol dependence (AD) and DSM-IV AD criterion count (rg : 0.35-0.76). Genome-wide significant associations were observed (SRE-T: chromosomes 6, rs140154945, COGA-EA P = 3.30E-08 and 11, rs10647170, COGA-AA+EA P = 3.53E-09; SRE-5: chromosome13, rs4770359, COGA-AA P = 2.92E-08). Chromosome 11 was replicated in an EA dataset from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism intramural program. In silico functional analyses and RNA expression analyses suggest that the chromosome 6 locus is an eQTL for KIF25. Polygenic risk scores derived using the COGA SRE-T and SRE-5 GWAS predicted 0.47% to 2.48% of variances in AD and DSM-IV AD criterion count in independent datasets. This study highlights the genetic contribution of alcohol response phenotypes to the etiology of alcohol use disorders.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/genética , Etanol/farmacologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Neurology ; 94(5): e481-e488, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732565

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate to what extent low-frequency genetic variants (with minor allele frequencies <5%) affect the risk of intracranial aneurysms (IAs). METHODS: One thousand fifty-six patients with IA and 2,097 population-based controls from the Netherlands were genotyped with the Illumina HumanExome BeadChip. After quality control (QC) of samples and single nucleotide variants (SNVs), we conducted a single variant analysis using the Fisher exact test. We also performed the variable threshold (VT) test and the sequence kernel association test (SKAT) at different minor allele count (MAC) thresholds of >5 and >0 to test the hypothesis that multiple variants within the same gene are associated with IA risk. Significant results were tested in a replication cohort of 425 patients with IA and 311 controls, and results of the 2 cohorts were combined in a meta-analysis. RESULTS: After QC, 995 patients with IA and 2,080 controls remained for further analysis. The single variant analysis comprising 46,534 SNVs did not identify significant loci at the genome-wide level. The gene-based tests showed a statistically significant association for fibulin 2 (FBLN2) (best p = 1 × 10-6 for the VT test, MAC >5). Associations were not statistically significant in the independent but smaller replication cohort (p > 0.57) but became slightly stronger in a meta-analysis of the 2 cohorts (best p = 4.8 × 10-7 for the SKAT, MAC ≥1). CONCLUSION: Gene-based tests indicated an association for FBLN2, a gene encoding an extracellular matrix protein implicated in vascular wall remodeling, but independent validation in larger cohorts is warranted. We did not identify any significant associations for single low-frequency genetic variants.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Exoma/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Aneurisma Intracraniano/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
19.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 309, 2019 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740666

RESUMO

Cannabis, the most widely used illicit drug, can induce hallucinations. Our understanding of the biology of cannabis-induced hallucinations (Ca-HL) is limited. We used the Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism (SSADDA) to identify cannabis-induced hallucinations (Ca-HL) among long-term cannabis users (used cannabis ≥1 year and ≥100 times). A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted by analyzing European Americans (EAs) and African Americans (AAs) in Yale-Penn 1 and 2 cohorts individually, then meta-analyzing the two cohorts within population. In the meta-analysis of Yale-Penn EAs (n = 1917), one genome-wide significant (GWS) signal emerged at the CHRM3 locus, represented by rs115455482 (P = 1.66 × 10-10), rs74722579 (P = 2.81 × 10-9), and rs1938228 (P = 1.57 × 10-8); signals were GWS in Yale-Penn 1 EAs (n = 1092) and nominally significant in Yale-Penn 2 EAs (n = 825). Two SNPs, rs115455482 and rs74722579, were available from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism data (COGA; 3630 long-term cannabis users). The signals did not replicate, but when meta-analyzing Yale-Penn and COGA EAs, the two SNPs' association signals were increased (meta-P-values 1.32 × 10-10 and 2.60 × 10-9, respectively; n = 4291). There were no significant findings in AAs, but in the AA meta-analysis (n = 3624), nominal significance was seen for rs74722579. The rs115455482*T risk allele was associated with lower CHRM3 expression in the thalamus. CHRM3 was co-expressed with three psychosis risk genes (GABAG2, CHRNA4, and HRH3) in the thalamus and other human brain tissues and mouse GABAergic neurons. This work provides strong evidence for the association of CHRM3 with Ca-HL and provides insight into the potential involvement of thalamus for this trait.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Alucinações/induzido quimicamente , Abuso de Maconha/genética , Receptor Muscarínico M3/genética , Afro-Americanos , Alelos , Animais , Cannabis , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Abuso de Maconha/complicações , Camundongos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
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