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1.
Front Oncol ; 12: 852583, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35530345

RESUMO

Background: Rechallenge with EGFR inhibitors represents a promising strategy for patients with RAS wild type (WT) colorectal cancer (CRC) but definitive selection criteria are lacking. Recently, the RAS WT status on circulating tumor DNA (ct-DNA) emerged as a potential watershed for this strategy. Our study explored the liquid biopsy-driven cetuximab rechallenge in a RAS and BRAF WT selected population. Methods: CRC patients with RAS and BRAF WT both on tumor tissue and on ct-DNA at baseline receiving rechallenge with cetuximab were eligible for our analysis. Ct-DNA was analyzed for RAS-BRAF mutations with pyro-sequencing and nucleotide sequencing assays. Real-time PCR and droplet digital PCR were performed to confirm the RAS-BRAF mutational status. Results: A total of 26 patients were included in our analysis. In the global population, RR was 25.0%, median overall survival (mOS) was 5.0 months, and median progression-free survival (mPFS) was 3.5 months. Previous response to anti-EGFR was associated with improved mPFS (5.0 vs. 2.0 months, HR: 0.26, p = 0.048); anti-EGFR free interval > 14 months and anti-EGFR free interval > 16 months were associated with improved mPFS (respectively 7.0 vs. 3.0 months, HR: 0.27, p = 0.013 and not reached vs. 3.0 months, HR: 0.20, p = 0.002) and with improved mOS (respectively 13.0 vs. 5.0 months, HR: 0.27, p = 0.013 and 13.0 vs. 5.0 months, HR: 0.20, p = 0.002). Previous lines >2 were correlated with improved mPFS (4.0 vs. 1.0 month, HR: 0.05, p = 0.041) and with improved mOS (7.0 vs. 1.0 month, HR: 0.045, p = 0.034). In a multiple logistic regression model, only the anti-EGFR free interval was confirmed to be a significant predictor for mOS and mPFS. Conclusions: Liquid biopsy-driven cetuximab rechallenge was confirmed to be effective. The clinical outcome was consistent with available results from phase II studies. In addition to the molecular selection through the analysis of ct-DNA for RAS, the long anti-EGFR free interval is confirmed as a prospective selection criterion for this therapeutic option.

2.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 173: 103674, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35364261

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to clarify the current knowledge on the use of immunotherapy in patients with advanced gastric(G)/gastroesophageal(GEJ) cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A meta-analysis was done to evaluate the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors(ICIs) in G/GEJ cancer both in the unselected population and in that stratified for combined positive score (CPS)≥ 1 and ≥ 10 patients. RESULTS: In the unselected population the result showed 21%(P < 0.00001), and 29%(P < 0.00001) reduction of death and progression risk for patients treated with ICIs compared without ICIs, while in CPS≥ 1 and≥ 10 populations, the result showed a death reduction of 19%(P = 0.001) and 33%(P < 0.00001) respectively, and, and 23% (P < 0.00001) and 43% (P < 0.00001) progression risk reduction respectively, for patients treated with and without ICIs. CONCLUSION: overall survival(OS) and progression free survival(PFS) data obtained in our meta-analysis, are in favor to use ICIs in association with standard first line chemotherapy for G/GEJ cancer patients regardless to CPS status.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas , Neoplasias Gástricas , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Junção Esofagogástrica , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Br J Cancer ; 2022 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35177798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biliary tract cancers (BTC) are rare but highly aggressive tumours with poor prognosis, usually detected at advanced stages. Herein, we aimed at identifying BTC-specific DNA methylation alterations. METHODS: Study design included statistical power and sample size estimation. A genome-wide methylation study of an explorative cohort (50 BTC and ten matched non-tumoral tissue samples) has been performed. BTC-specific altered CpG islands were validated in over 180 samples (174 BTCs and 13 non-tumoral controls). The final biomarkers, selected by a machine-learning approach, were validated in independent tissue (18 BTCs, 14 matched non-tumoral samples) and bile (24 BTCs, five non-tumoral samples) replication series, using droplet digital PCR. RESULTS: We identified and successfully validated BTC-specific DNA methylation alterations in over 200 BTC samples. The two-biomarker panel, selected by an in-house algorithm, showed an AUC > 0.97. The best-performing biomarker (chr2:176993479-176995557), associated with HOXD8, a pivotal gene in cancer-related pathways, achieved 100% sensitivity and specificity in a new series of tissue and bile samples. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a novel fully efficient BTC biomarker, associated with HOXD8 gene, detectable both in tissue and bile by a standardised assay ready-to-use in clinical trials also including samples from non-invasive matrices.

4.
J Chemother ; : 1-7, 2022 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35156913

RESUMO

Biliary tract cancer's (BTC) treatment main stone for advanced stages is constituted by chemotherapy. Surgical centralization and physicians' confidence in the use of new technologies and molecular analysis turned out to be of interest and potentially influencing survival. After applying a random-effect model, the relationship between each clinical variable on the main outcome was investigated through multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression. The risk-standardized outcomes were calculated for each centre involved. In the unadjusted cohort the median survival was 8.6 months (95%C.I.: 7.8-9.3) with a 9-month survival rate of 48.3% (95%C.I.: 45.0-51.5). A substantial heterogeneity across hospitals was found (I2: 70.3%). In multilevel mixed effect logistic regression, male, being treated for gallbladder cancer, higher ECOG, increased NLR, CEA and Ca 19.9 and low value of haemoglobin showed to increase the odds for 9-month mortality. The model estimated that the residual variance observed in 9-month mortality was attributable for the 2.6% to the treating hospital. Through a multilevel mixed effect model, average risk-standardized mortality within 9 months was 50.1%. As noticeable, all hospital's risk-standardized mortality falls within 95%C.I., thus all participating centres provided similar outcomes when adjusted for patient case-mix. Heterogenicity between hospital did not affect the outcome in term of overall survival.

5.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 170: 103579, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35007699

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have led to a significant change in the treatment of urological tumors where several agents are currently approved. Yet, most patients discontinue treatment due to disease progression or after the onset of severe immune-related adverse events (IRAEs). Following promising results in melanoma patients, retreatment with an ICI is receiving increasing attention as an attractive option for selected patients. We performed a literature review focusing on the feasibility, safety, timing and activity of ICI rechallenge in genitourinary cancers where very little information is available. We classified the different ICI retreatment strategies into three main clinical scenarios: retreatment after terminating a prior course of ICI while still on response; retreatment after interruption due to IRAEs; retreatment after progression while on ICI therapy. The pros and cons of these options in the field of urological tumors are then discussed, and critical suggestions proffered for the design of future clinical trials.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Urogenitais , Neoplasias Urológicas , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Retratamento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Urogenitais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Urológicas/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 71(4): 865-874, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognostic relevance of early immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in patients affected by non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) upon immunotherapy is not fully understood. METHODS: The Leading to Treatment Discontinuation cohort included 24 patients experiencing severe irAEs after one of two administrations of single anti-PD-1/PD-L1 in any line setting for metastatic NSCLC between November 2015 and June 2019. The control cohort was composed of 526 patients treated with single anti-PD-1/PD-L1 in any line setting with no severe irAE reported. The primary end points were median progression-free survival, overall survival, objective response rate, risk of progression of disease and risk of death. The correlation of clinic pathological features with early severe irAEs represented the secondary end point. RESULTS: Median PFS was 9.3 and 8.4 months, median OS was 12.0 months and 14.2 months at a median follow-up of 18.1 and 22.6 months in the LTD cohort and in the control cohort, respectively. The ORR was 40% (95% CI 17.2-78.8) in the LTD cohort and 32.7% (95% CI 27.8-38.2) in the control cohort. The risk of disease progression was higher in the LTD cohort (HR 2.52 [95% 1.10-5.78], P = .0288). CONCLUSIONS: We found no survival benefit in LTD cohort compared to the control cohort. However, early and severe irAEs might underly an immune anti-tumor activation. We identified a significant association with first-line immune checkpoints inhibitors treatment and good PS. Further studies on risk prediction and management of serious and early irAEs in NSCLC patients are needed.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1 , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Expert Opin Ther Targets ; 25(11): 987-1005, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806517

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite available treatment options, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is frequently lethal. Recent immunotherapy strategies have failed to yield any notable impact. Therefore, research is focussed on unearthing new drug targets and therapeutic strategies to tackle this malignancy and attain more positive outcomes for patients. AREAS COVERED: In this perspective article, we evaluate the main resistance mechanisms to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and the approaches to circumvent them. We also offer an assessment of concluded and ongoing trials of PDAC immunotherapy. Literature research was performed on Pubmed accessible through keywords such as: 'pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma,' 'immunotherapy,' 'immunotherapy resistance,' 'immune escape,' 'biomarkers.' Papers published between 2000 and 2021 were selected. EXPERT OPINION: The tumor microenvironment is a critical variable of treatment resistance because of its role as a physical barrier and inhibitory immune signaling. Promising therapeutic strategies appear to be a combination of immunotherapeutics with other targeted treatments. Going forward, predictive biomarkers are required to improve patient selection. Biomarker-driven trials could enhance approaches for assessing the role of immunotherapy in PDAC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral
8.
Hepatol Res ; 51(12): 1229-1241, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advanced Hepatocarcinoma (HCC) is an important health problem worldwide. Recently, the REFLECT trial demonstrated the non-inferiority of Lenvatinib compared to Sorafenib in I line setting, thus leading to the approval of new first-line standard of care, along with Sorafenib. AIMS AND METHODS: With aim to evaluate the optimal choice between Sorafenib and Lenvatinib as primary treatment in clinical practice, we performed a multicentric analysis with the propensity score matching on 184 HCC patients. RESULTS: The median overall survival (OS) were 15.2 and 10.5 months for Lenvatinib and Sorafenib arm, respectively. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 7.0 and 4.5 months for Lenvatinib and Sorafenib arm, respectively. Patients treated with Lenvatinib showed a 36% reduction of death risk (p = 0.0156), a 29% reduction of progression risk (p = 0.0446), a higher response rate (p < 0.00001) and a higher disease control rate (p = 0.002). Sorafenib showed to be correlated with more hand-foot skin reaction and Lenvatinib with more hypertension and fatigue. We highlighted the prognostic role of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG-PS), bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase and eosinophils for Sorafenib. Conversely, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase and Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) resulted prognostic in Lenvatinib arm. Finally, we highlighted the positive predictive role of albumin > Normal Value (NV), ECOG > 0, NLR < 3, absence of Hepatitis C Virus positivity, and presence of portal vein thrombosis in favor of Lenvatinib arm. Eosinophil < 50 and ECOG > 0 negatively predicted the response to Sorafenib. CONCLUSION: SLenvatinib showed to better perform in a real-word setting compared to Sorafenib. More researches are needed to validate the predictor factors of response to Lenvatinib rather than Sorafenib.

9.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; 21(11): 1253-1264, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551663

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the past, targeted therapies have not shown positive results as they have been used without adequate molecular selection of patients with biliary tract cancer (BTC). This has led to an expansion of research on characteristics and molecular selection to identify new effective strategies in this setting. Improved knowledge of the molecular biology of these neoplasms has highlighted their extraordinary heterogeneity and has made it possible to identify targetable gene alterations, including fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 2 gene fusions, and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations. The FDA recently approved ivosidenib and pemigatinib for the treatment of BTCs. AREAS COVERED: We review data in the literature regarding targeted therapies for the treatment of BTCs, as well as on the prospects deriving from the extraordinary molecular heterogeneity of these neoplasms. EXPERT OPINION: At present, it is essential to evaluate the expression of the genetic alterations expressed by these neoplasms to offer patients an increasingly personalized therapeutic approach. Studies are needed to better define the limits and potentials of targeted therapies and their role in the therapeutic algorithm to improve the poor prognosis of these patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar , Colangiocarcinoma , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/genética , Colangiocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos
10.
Clin Colorectal Cancer ; 20(4): e253-e262, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regorafenib is a key agent in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), but no validated factors predicting longer survival are available. PATIENTS AND METHODS: REALITY was a retrospective multicenter trial in regorafenib-treated mCRC patients with overall survival (OS) ≥ 6 months. We aimed to assess the association between clinical parameters and outcome to define a panel identifying long term survivors among regorafenib candidates. Primary and secondary endpoints were OS and progression free survival (PFS), respectively. Statistical analysis was performed with MedCalc (survival distribution: Kaplan-Meier; survival comparison: log-rank test; independent role of significant variables at univariate analysis: logistic regression). RESULTS: Hundred regorafenib-treated mCRC patients with OS ≥ 6 months were enrolled. Median OS was 11.5 m (95%CI:9.60-12.96); median PFS was 4.2 months (95% CI:3.43-43.03). The absence of liver progression and of dose and/or schedule changes during the first 4 cycles (mainly for good tolerability) were independently correlated at multivariate analysis with OS (Exp(b)1.8869, P= .0277and Exp(b)2.2000, P = .0313) and PFS (Exp(b)2.1583, P = .0065 and Exp(b)2.3036, P= .0169). Patients with neither of these variables had a significantly improved OS (n = 14, 20.8 months; 95% CI:12.967-55.267) versus others (n = 86, 10 months; 95% CI:8.367-12.167; HR = 0.4902, P = .0045) and PFS (11.3 months, 95%CI:4.267-35.8 vs. 3.9 months, 95% CI:3.167-43.033; HR = 0.4648, P = .0086). CONCLUSION: These 2 factors might allow clinicians to better identify patients more likely to benefit from regorafenib. Toxicity management remains crucial.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Compostos de Fenilureia , Piridinas , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Br J Cancer ; 125(10): 1321-1332, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262146

RESUMO

Despite continued research, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains one of the main causes of cancer death. Interest is growing in the role of the tumour suppressors breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) and BRCA2-typically associated with breast and ovarian cancer-in the pathogenesis of PDAC. Indeed, both germline and sporadic mutations in BRCA1/2 have been found to play a role in the development of PDAC. However, data regarding BRCA1/2-mutant PDAC are lacking. In this review, we aim to outline the specific landscape of BRCA-mutant PDAC, focusing on heritability, clinical features, differences between BRCA1 and 2 mutations and between germline and sporadic alterations, as well as established therapeutic strategies and those that are still under evaluation.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Mutação , Medicina de Precisão
12.
Target Oncol ; 16(4): 517-527, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preclinical and clinical data indicate that p53 expression might modulate the activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), influencing response/resistance to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. However, the association between p53 status and clinical outcome has not been clarified yet. OBJECTIVE: In our study, we evaluated the role of p53 expression in patients with RAS/BRAF wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) receiving irinotecan/cetuximab in an exploratory and a validation cohort. PATIENTS AND METHODS: p53 expression was analysed in patients with RAS/BRAF wild-type mCRC receiving second-line or third-line irinotecan/cetuximab. Survival distribution was assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method, while the log-rank test was used for survival comparison. RESULTS: Among 120 patients with RAS/BRAF wild-type mCRC included in our analysis, 52 (59%) and 19 (59%) patients showed p53 overexpression in the exploratory and validation cohort, respectively. In the exploratory cohort, low p53 expression was correlated with better median progression-free survival (hazard ratio 0.39; p < 0.0001), median overall survival (hazard ratio: 0.23; p < 0.0001) and response rate (p < 0.0001). These results were confirmed by data of the validation cohort where we observed better median progression-free survival (hazard ratio: 0.48; p = 0.0399), median overall survival (hazard ratio: 0.26; p = 0.0027) and response rate (p =0.0007) in patients with p53 normal expression mCRC. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, p53 overexpression was associated with anti-EGFR treatment resistance in patients with RAS/BRAF WT mCRC, as confirmed in a validation cohort. Larger studies are needed to validate the role of p53 and investigate EGFR cross-talk in these patients.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Cetuximab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Irinotecano/uso terapêutico , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Cetuximab/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Irinotecano/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica
13.
Front Oncol ; 11: 637823, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041019

RESUMO

Targeting tumor-driven angiogenesis is an effective strategy in the management of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC); however, the choice of second-line therapy is complicated by the availability of several drugs, the occurrence of resistance and the lack of validated prognostic and predictive biomarkers. This review examines the use of angiogenesis-targeted therapies for the second-line management of mCRC patients. Mechanisms of resistance and anti-placental growth factor agents are discussed, and the role of aflibercept, a recombinant fusion protein consisting of portions of human vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1 and VEGFR-2, is highlighted. The novel mechanism of action of aflibercept makes it a useful second-line agent in mCRC patients progressing after oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy, as well as in those with resistance after bevacizumab.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34033000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The need to estimate prognosis of advanced BTC (aBTC) patients treated with first-line chemotherapy is compelling. The aim of the study is to evaluate the ECSIPOT (psECogSIiPnigOT) index, influenced by PECS (PsECogSii) index, prognostic nutritional index (PNI), and GOT. METHODS: This international study was conducted on a training cohort of 126 patients and in three validation cohorts, both European and Korean. ECSIPOT index formula: (PECS:0 = 1 point; PECS:1 = 1.4 points; PECS:2 = 3.2 points) + (PNI > 36.7 = 1 point; PNI < 36.7 = 2 points) + (GOT < 100 = 1 point; GOT > 100 = 2 points). Event-time distributions were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and survival curves were compared using the log-rank test. RESULTS: In the training cohort, mOS was 12.9, 6.3, and 2.8 months for patients with ECSIPOT-0, ECSIPOT-1, and ECSIPOT-2, respectively (ECSIPOT-0: HR 1; ECSIPOT-1: HR 2.11; ECSIPOT-2: HR 4.93; p < 0.0001). In the first validation cohort, mOS was 11.5, 7.3, and 3.3 months for ECSIPOT-0, ECSIPOT-1, and ECSIPOT-2, respectively (ECSIPOT-0: HR 1; ECSIPOT-1: HR 1.74; ECSIPOT-2: HR 3.41; p < 0.0001). In the second validation cohort, mOS was 25.2, 12.5, and 3.0 months for ECSIPOT-0, ECSIPOT-1, and ECSIPOT-2, respectively (ECSIPOT-0: HR = 1; ECSIPOT-1: HR 2.33; ECSIPOT-2: HR 8.46; p < 0.0001). In the third validation cohort, mOS was 11.8, 8.1, and 4.6 months for ECSIPOT-0, ECSIPOT-1, and ECSIPOT-2, respectively (ECSIPOT-0: HR = 1; ECSIPOT-1: HR 1.47; ECSIPOT-2: HR 3.17; p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis in all cohorts confirmed the ECSIPOT index as an independent prognostic factor for OS. CONCLUSION: The easy assessment and good risk-stratification performance make the ECSIPOT index a promising tool to comprehensively estimate the prognosis of aBTC patients.

15.
J Public Health Res ; 10(3)2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: the aim was to verify the association between Major Depressive Disorders (MDD) and the risk of premature death in people with oncological diseases, and to collect evidence about the causality of a possible association from a longitudinal perspective. DESIGN AND METHODS: it is a cohort study lasting 9 months, involving people with solid or hematologic cancers. The assessment was conducted by an ad hoc form to collect socio-demographic and clinical-oncological data, the PHQ-9 to screen MDD (cut-off ≥10) and the SF-12 to evaluate HRQoL. Relative Risk (RR) of early death between MDD exposed and not-exposed and Kaplan-Meier survival were carried out. RESULTS: people exposed to MDD during the follow-up were 107/263 (40.7%). Among them, 36 deceased during the observation period. Overtime, having MDD and death' occurrence showed a strong association (RR=2.15; 95% CI (1.10-4.20); χ²=5.224, p=0.0022), confirmed by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (χ²=4.357, p=0.037). Among people who died, there was not any association between MDD, age, gender, HRQoL, cancer stage and site. CONCLUSIONS: the study confirms the association between MDD and early death in people with cancer. The absence of any association between the onset of MDD and advanced stage of cancer may suggest that it could be due to the consequences of MDD in worsening the clinical conditions related to cancer. The findings point out the relevance of MDD' early detention among people with cancer.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of the present study is to evaluate a new index (PECS (PsECogSii)index) influenced by PS ECOG and systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) in unresectable locally advanced or metastatic BTC patients treated with first-line chemotherapy. METHODS: This multicenter, international, study was conducted on a training cohort of 130 patients and in three European and Korean validation cohorts The PECS index was calculated as ECOG × SII index (neutrophil count × platelet count/lymphocyte count). Event-time distributions were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and survival curves were compared using the log-rank test. RESULTS: In the training cohort, the median overall survival (mOS) was 13.2 months, 8.7 months, and 3.8 months for patients with PECS-0, PECS-1, and PECS-2, respectively (PECS-0: HR = 1; PECS-1: HR 1.41; PECS-2: HR 3.23) (p < 0.0001). In the first validation cohort, the mOS was 12.8 months, 10.1 months, and 5.3 months for patients with PECS-0, PECS-1, and PECS-2, respectively (PECS-0: HR = 1; PECS-1: HR 1.29; PECS-2: HR 2.40) (p < 0.0001). In the second validation cohort, the mOS was 21.2 months, 10.2 months, and 3.0 months for patients with PECS-0, PECS-1, and PECS-2, respectively (PECS-0: HR = 1; PECS-1: HR 2.25; PECS-2: HR 9.00) (p < 0.0001). In the third validation cohort, the median OS was 15.5 months, 7.5 months, and 3.7 months for patients with PECS-0, PECS-1, and PECS-2, respectively (PECS-0: ref HR = 1; PECS-1: HR 2.14; PECS-2: HR 5.00) (p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis in all cohorts confirmed the PECS index as an independent prognostic factor for OS. CONCLUSIONS: The easy assessment, low cost, and reproducibility make PECS index a promising tool to assess the prognosis of BTC patients in future clinical practice.

17.
Tumori ; 107(6): 550-555, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243068

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The association between pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) has long been evaluated and the role of antidiabetic medications such as metformin has also been investigated. The objective of this study was to examine the association between insulin use and overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced PDAC and DM2. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from 164 patients, including an exploratory cohort of 96 patients from Medical Oncology Unit, University Hospital and University of Cagliari, Italy, and a validation cohort of 68 patients from Medical Oncology of Modena University Hospital. Patients had metastatic disease and received a first-line gemcitabine-based chemotherapy and, subsequently, a second-line fluoropyrimidines-based chemotherapy. We performed univariate analysis to evaluate correlation between long-term diabetes and overall survival. Then we performed multivariate analysis, adjusting for sex, metastatic sites, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status, Ca19.9 levels, N/L ratio, and lactate dehydrogenase levels at diagnosis, to confirm the independence of the variable. RESULTS: In the exploratory cohort, DM2 was significantly associated with higher median OS at univariate analysis (16 vs 10 months; p = 0.004). This result was confirmed by validation cohort (11 months vs 6 months; p = 0.01). In multivariate analysis, insulin-treated patients compared with non diabetic patients showed a significantly increased survival of 4.6 months (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with insulin-treated metastatic PDAC showed better OS than non diabetic patients, as demonstrated by both cohorts. The correlation between OS and insulin-treated DM2 should be investigated further through a prospective clinical trial.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/complicações , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/complicações , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Prognóstico , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
18.
HPB (Oxford) ; 23(6): 915-920, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of our retrospective study is to evaluate the prognostic significance of aspirin in patients with advanced HCC treated with sorafenib. METHODS: 304 patients with HCC,consecutively treated with sorafenib from May 2007 to September 2018, were included in the clinical study. Of Them 93 patients token aspirin. Progression-free survival (PFS)and overall survival (OS)were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. RESULTS: The concomitant use of sorafenib and aspirin was associated with a median OS of 18.3 months compared to 8.8 months of patients who did not receive aspirin (HR 0.57; P < 0.0001). The concomitant use of sorafenib and aspirin was associated with a median PFS of 7.3 months compared to 3.0 months of patients who did not receive aspirin (HR 0.61; P = 0.0003). In the multivariate analysis, the use of aspirin maintained an independent prognostic value for OS(HR 0.61; P = 0.0013). In second line the concomitant use of regorafenib and aspirin was associated with a median OS of 16.9 months compared to 8.0 months of patients who did not receive aspirin (HR 0.30; P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Globally, our data seem to suggest that aspirin use may improve the clinical outcome of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma receiving sorafenib and regorafenib.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Piridinas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sorafenibe/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 157: 103167, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271389

RESUMO

Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most frequent liver cancer. Immunotherapy has been explored in this disease in order to improve survival outcomes. Nowadays, scientific research is focusing especially on immune checkpoint inhibitors, in particular anti-PD1, anti-PD-L1 and anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), as single-agent or in combination with other immunotherapy agents, target therapies, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and other agents targeting specific molecular pathways. Other immunotherapy strategies have been assessed or are under investigation in advanced HCC, namely cytokines, adoptive cell therapy, oncolytic virus, cancer vaccines. Each treatment presents specific efficacy and toxicity profiles, strictly related to their mechanism of action and to advanced HCC tumour microenvironment (TME). The aim of this review is to outline the state-of-the-art of immunotherapy in advanced HCC treatment, highlighting data on already investigated treatment strategies, safety and toxicity (including HBV/HCV-related HCC), and ongoing clinical trials focusing on new promising therapeutic weapons.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Microambiente Tumoral
20.
Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health ; 17(1): 295-306, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35444712

RESUMO

Background: Depression is a common psychiatric problem in the elderly and oncology patients. In elderly people with cancer, depression has a peculiar phenomenology. It has a significant impact on the quality of life. Moreover, it is associated with poor adherence to treatments, increased risk of suicide, and mortality. Nevertheless, the topic of depression in elderly people with cancer remains unexplored. Objective: The main goal of this article is to review the literature from the past 20 years on the relationships between depression, cancer, and aging. Methods: The methods followed the Prisma model for eligibility of studies. The articles in which the keywords "depression", "cancer", " elderly, aging, or geriatric" were present, either in the text or in the abstract, were selected. 8.056 articles, by matching the keywords "depression and elderly and cancer," were identified. Only 532 papers met the eligibility criteria of search limits and selection process. Out of 532 papers, 467 were considered irrelevant, leaving 65 relevant studies. Out of 65 suitable studies, 39 (60.0%) met our quality criteria and were included. Results: The risk factors associated with depression in elderly people with cancer can be divided into 4 groups: 1) tumor-related; 2) anticancer treatment-related; 3) patients-related; 4) number and type of comorbidity. The main obstacles in diagnosing depression in elderly patients with cancer are the overlap of the symptoms of cancer and side effects of treatment with the symptoms of depression but also the different ways of reporting depressive symptoms of elderly people and the different clinical types of depression. There is a lack of data regarding validated scales to assess depression in geriatric patients with cancer. Any mental illness, specifically co-occurring anxiety and depression, increases the risk of diagnosis delay and anticancer treatment adherence. Cancer and the diagnosis of mental disorders prior to cancer diagnosis correlate with an increased risk for suicide. A non-pharmacological therapeutic approach, pharmacological treatment and/or a combination of both can be used to treat elderly patients with cancer, but a detailed analysis of comorbidities and the assessment of polypharmacy is mandatory in order to avoid potential side-effects and interactions between antidepressants and the other drugs taken by the patients. Conclusion: Future research should be conducted with the aim of developing a modified and adapted assessment method for the diagnosis and treatment of depression in elderly people with cancer in order to improve their clinical outcomes and quality of life.

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