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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731588

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although patients with cirrhosis often experience debilitating symptoms, few are referred for palliative care. Frailty is increasingly incorporated in liver transplantation evaluation and has been associated with symptom burden in other populations. We hypothesized that frail patients with cirrhosis are highly symptomatic and thus are likely to benefit from palliative care. METHODS: Patients with cirrhosis undergoing outpatient liver transplantation evaluation completed the Liver Frailty Index (grip strength, chair stands and balance) and a composite of validated measures including the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale, distress and quality of life (QOL) measures. RESULTS: Of 233 patients (median age 61 years, 43% women), 22% were robust, 59% prefrail and 19% frail. Overall, 38% of patients reported ≥1 severe symptoms based on preestablished Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale criteria. Higher frailty categories were associated with increased prevalence of pain, dyspnea, fatigue, nausea, poor appetite, drowsiness, depression and poor well-being (test for trend, all P < 0.05). Frail patients were also more likely to report psychological distress and poor QOL (all P < 0.01). In univariate analysis, each 0.5 increase in liver frailty index was associated with 44% increased odds of experiencing ≥1 severe symptoms [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2-1.7, P < 0.001], which persisted (odds ratio, 1.3, 95% CI, 1.0-1.6, P = 0.004) even after adjusting for Model for End Stage Liver Disease-Sodium, ascites, hepatic encephalopathy and age. CONCLUSION: In patients with cirrhosis, frailty is strongly associated with physical/psychological symptoms, including pain and depression and poor QOL. Frail patients with cirrhosis may benefit from palliative care co-management to address symptoms and improve QOL.

3.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731600

RESUMO

GOAL: Characterize prevalence of osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) in hospitalized patients with cirrhosis. BACKGROUND: ODS is a serious complication of rapid serum sodium correction. Patients with cirrhosis experience labile sodium levels related to portal hypertension and diuretic use, often with rapid correction-intentional or unintentional-during hospitalizations. STUDY: We used validated International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes to identify inpatients 18 years and older with cirrhosis from the 2009-2013 National Inpatient Sample, excluding those with liver transplantation during hospitalization. The primary outcome was ODS (ICD-9 341.8). Baveno IV defined decompensated cirrhosis (stages 3 and 4); Charlson Comorbidity Index identified severe comorbid illness (score >3). Logistic regression modeled factors associated with ODS. RESULTS: Of 547,544 adult inpatients with cirrhosis, 94 (0.02%) had ODS. Inpatients with versus without ODS were younger (54 vs. 57 y, P=0.0001), and more likely to have alcohol-related cirrhosis (58% vs. 33%, P<0.0001). ODS did not associate with decompensated cirrhosis (33% vs. 37%, P=0.43), specific complications (ascites 33% vs. 33%, P=0.97; hepatic encephalopathy 24% vs. 17%, P=0.06), or severe comorbid illness (12% vs. 16%, P=0.24). In both univariable and multivariable analysis, age [adjusted odds ratio (ORadj): 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95-0.99], female gender (ORadj: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.01-2.30), Hispanic race (ORadj: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.19-0.89), alcohol-related cirrhosis (ORadj: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.71-4.09), and congestive heart failure (ORadj: 0.37, 95% CI: 0.15-0.95) significantly associated with ODS. CONCLUSION: In hospitalized patients with cirrhosis, ODS is extremely rare, and associated with alcohol-related cirrhosis, younger age, and female gender. ODS is not associated with liver disease severity, specific complications including ascites, or comorbid disease.

4.
Am J Transplant ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565227

RESUMO

Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation is associated with adverse outcomes after pediatric liver transplant. We sought to determine if this relationship varies by transplant center. Using SRTR, we included patients <18 years transplanted 2008-2013 (N = 2804). We matched patient ZIP codes to a deprivation index (range [0,1]; higher values indicate increased socioeconomic deprivation). A center-level patient-mix deprivation index was defined by the distribution of patient-level deprivation. Centers (n = 66) were classified as high or low deprivation if their patient-mix deprivation index was above or below the median across centers. Center quality was classified as low or high graft failure if graft survival rates were better or worse than the overall 10-year graft survival rate. Primary outcome was patient-level graft survival. We used random-effect Cox models to evaluate center-level covariates on graft failure. We modeled center quality using stratified Cox models. In multivariate analysis, each 0.1 increase in the patient-mix deprivation index was associated with increased hazard of graft failure (HR 1.32; 95%CI: 1.05, 1.66). When stratified by center quality, patient-mix deprivation was no longer significant (HR 1.07, 95%CI: 0.89, 1.28). Some transplant centers care for predominantly high deprivation children and maintain excellent outcomes. Revealing and replicating these centers' practice patterns should enable more equitable outcomes.

5.
Liver Transpl ; 2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641218

RESUMO

SLKT is increasingly common in the United States (US). However, little is known about the renal-related outcomes following SLKT, which will be essential to maximize the health of these allografts. We examined the factors impacting renal function following simultaneous liver-kidney transplant (SLKT). METHODS: This is an observational multicenter cohort study from the US Multicenter SLKT consortium consisting of recipients of SLKT aged ≥18 years performed between 2/2002-6/2017 at six large US centers in six different United Network for Organ Sharing regions(UNOS). The primary outcome was incident post-SLKT stage4-5 chronic kidney disease(CKD) defined as <30ml/min/1.73m2 or listing for kidney transplant. RESULTS: The median age (N=570) was 58 years(interquartile-range:51-64), 37% were female, 76% were white, 33% had hepatitis C, 20% had nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and 23% had alcohol-associated liver disease; 68% developed ≥stage3 CKD at the end of follow up. The 1-, 3- and 5- year incidence of post-SLKT stage4-5 CKD was 10%, 12%, and 16%. Pre-SLKT diabetes (HR=1.45[1.00-2.15]), NASH(HR=1.58[1.01-2.45]), and delayed kidney graft function(HR=1.72[1.10-2.71]) were the recipient factors independently associated with high risk, whereas use of tacrolimus (HR=0.44[0.22-0.89]) reduced the risk. Females (ß=-6.22±2.16ml/min/1.73 m2 ; P=0.004), NASH (ß=-7.27±3.27ml/min/1.73 m2 ;p=0.027) and delayed kidney graft function (ß=-7.25± 2.26ml/min/1.73 m2 ;P=0.007) were independently associated with low eGFR at last follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Stage4-5 CKD is common after SLKT. There remains an unmet need for personalized renal protective strategies, specifically stratified by sex, diabetes, and liver disease, to preserve renal function among SLKT recipients.

7.
JAMA Surg ; 156(3): 256-262, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377947

RESUMO

Importance: Female liver transplant candidates experience higher rates of wait list mortality than male candidates. Frailty is a critical determinant of mortality in patients with cirrhosis, but how frailty differs between women and men is unknown. Objective: To determine whether frailty is associated with the gap between women and men in mortality among patients with cirrhosis awaiting liver transplantation. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study enrolled 1405 adults with cirrhosis awaiting liver transplant without hepatocellular carcinoma seen during 3436 ambulatory clinic visits at 9 US liver transplant centers. Data were collected from January 1, 2012, to October 1, 2019, and analyzed from August 30, 2019, to October 30, 2020. Exposures: At outpatient evaluation, the Liver Frailty Index (LFI) score was calculated (grip strength, chair stands, and balance). Main Outcomes and Measures: The risk of wait list mortality was quantified using Cox proportional hazards regression by frailty. Mediation analysis was used to quantify the contribution of frailty to the gap in wait list mortality between women and men. Results: Of 1405 participants, 578 (41%) were women and 827 (59%) were men (median age, 58 [interquartile range (IQR), 50-63] years). Women and men had similar median scores on the laboratory-based Model for End-stage Liver Disease incorporating sodium levels (MELDNa) (women, 18 [IQR, 14-23]; men, 18 [IQR, 15-22]), but baseline LFI was higher in women (mean [SD], 4.12 [0.85] vs 4.00 [0.82]; P = .005). Women displayed worse balance of less than 30 seconds (145 [25%] vs 149 [18%]; P = .003), worse sex-adjusted grip (mean [SD], -0.31 [1.08] vs -0.16 [1.08] kg; P = .01), and fewer chair stands per second (median, 0.35 [IQR, 0.23-0.46] vs 0.37 [IQR, 0.25-0.49]; P = .04). In unadjusted mixed-effects models, LFI was 0.15 (95% CI, 0.06-0.23) units higher in women than men (P = .001). After adjustment for other variables associated with frailty, LFI was 0.16 (95% CI, 0.08-0.23) units higher in women than men (P < .001). In unadjusted regression, women experienced a 34% (95% CI, 3%-74%) increased risk of wait list mortality than men (P = .03). Sequential covariable adjustment did not alter the association between sex and wait list mortality; however, adjustment for LFI attenuated the mortality gap between women and men. In mediation analysis, an estimated 13.0% (IQR, 0.5%-132.0%) of the gender gap in wait list mortality was mediated by frailty. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings demonstrate that women with cirrhosis display worse frailty scores than men despite similar MELDNa scores. The higher risk of wait list mortality that women experienced appeared to be explained in part by frailty.

8.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying biologic-treated patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) at higher risk of serious infections is a priority. We conducted a retrospective cohort study evaluating frailty and risk of serious infections in biologic-treated patients with IBD. METHODS: Using an administrative claims database, we identified biologic-treated patients with IBD between 2014 and 2018 with follow-up 1 year before and after treatment initiation. Using a validated claims-based hospital frailty risk scoring system, patients were classified as frail and nonfrail. We compared the risk of serious infections (infections requiring hospitalization) between frail and nonfrail patients using Cox proportional hazard analysis adjusting for age, comorbidities, disease characteristics, health care utilization, use of corticosteroids, immunomodulators, and opiates. RESULTS: We included 5987 biologic-treated patients with IBD (4881 on TNFα antagonists, 1106 on vedolizumab), of whom 2350 (39.3%) were classified as frail; over 7115 person-years of follow-up was included, and 520 patients developed serious infection. Frailty was not associated with increased risk of serious infection (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.12; 95% CI, 0.93-1.36), whereas advanced age (older than 60 years), high comorbidity burden, corticosteroid use, opiate use, and prior serious infection were associated with increased risk of serious infection. On stratified analysis, frailty was associated with increased risk of serious infections in vedolizumab-treated patients (aHR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.03-2.79) but not in TNFα antagonist-treated patients (aHR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.83-1.27). CONCLUSIONS: In biologic-treated patients with IBD, frailty assessed using a claims-based frailty index was not independently associated with increased risk of serious infections. Future studies evaluating objective and biological measures of frailty are warranted to risk-stratify older patients with IBD.

9.
Transplantation ; 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with chronic liver disease have lower rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as compared to men; it is unknown if there are sex-based differences in HCC recurrence post-liver transplant. METHODS: We conducted an analysis of patients who underwent liver transplant for HCC in the United Network for Organ Sharing/Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network from January 1, 2012 through December 31, 2017. RESULTS: A total of 12,711 patients underwent liver transplant for HCC: 2,909 (23%) women and 9,802 (73%) men. Women had significantly lower rates of post-liver transplant HCC recurrence than men (4.0 v. 5.4%, p=0.002). A cox-regression analysis for post-liver transplant HCC recurrence highlighted that even after accounting for etiology of cirrhosis, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) at liver transplant, tumor diameter, tumor pathology, and vascular invasion, female sex was associated with a 25% lower risk of post-liver transplant HCC recurrence (95CI 0.57-0.99). There were no interactions between female sex and the following variables: age, type of locoregional therapy, AFP, donor sex, body mass index, or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis etiology (p>0.05 for each). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates an independent effect of sex on risk for HCC recurrence post-liver transplant. Our data highlight an opportunity to better understand HCC tumor biology by investigating the drivers of this sex-based difference in HCC recurrence.

10.
Liver Transpl ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is an effective intervention for portal hypertensive complications, but its effect on renal function is not well-characterized. Here, we describe renal function and characteristics associated with renal dysfunction at 30-days post-TIPS. METHODS: Adults with cirrhosis who underwent TIPS at nine hospitals in the US 2010-2015 were included. We defined "post-TIPS renal dysfunction" as a change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (ΔeGFR) ≤ -15ml/min/1.73m2 and eGFR ≤ 60ml/min/1.73m2 , or new renal replacement therapy (RRT) at day 30. We identified the characteristics associated with post-TIPS renal dysfunction by logistic regression and evaluated survival using adjusted competing risk regressions. RESULTS: Of 673 patients: median age 57 years, 38% female, 26% had diabetes, median MELDNa 17. Thirty days post-TIPS, 66 (10%) had renal dysfunction, of which 23 (35%) required new RRT. Patients with post-TIPS renal dysfunction, compared to those with stable renal function, were more likely to have NAFLD (33% versus 17%, p = 0.01) and comorbid diabetes (42% versus 24%, p < 0.01). Multivariate logistic regressions showed NAFLD (OR 2.04, 95%CI 1.00 to 4.17, p = 0.05), serum sodium (OR 1.06 per mEq/L, 95%CI 1.01 to 1.12, p = 0.03), and diabetes (OR 2.04, 95%CI 1.16 to 3.61, p = 0.01) were associated with post-TIPS renal dysfunction. Competing risk regressions showed those with post-TIPS renal dysfunction were at higher sub-hazard of death (sHR 1.74, 95%CI 1.18 to 2.56, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In this large multi-center cohort, we found NAFLD, diabetes, and baseline serum sodium associated with post-TIPS renal dysfunction. This study suggests that patients with NAFLD and diabetes undergoing TIPS evaluation may require additional attention to cardiac and renal comorbidities prior to proceeding with the procedure.

11.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatic hydrothorax (HH) remains a difficult-to-treat complication of cirrhosis. AIM: To define the mortality, length of stay (LOS), and risk of ACLF in patients admitted with HH. METHODS: We utilized the North American Consortium for the Study of End-stage Liver Disease, a prospective cohort of 2868 non-electively hospitalized patients with cirrhosis from 14 tertiary care hepatology centers in North America. A total of 121 patients who required an inpatient thoracentesis (HH group) were compared to 736 patients with refractory ascites without HH, and to 1639 patients without these complications (Other). Patients with a TIPS before or during admission were excluded. RESULTS: There were no differences between the groups in age, gender, or liver disease etiology. Admission MELD (20.5, 21.6 vs. 18.7; p < 0.0001) was lower in HH than RA patients but lowest in other patients, respectively. In hospital, HH patients' rate of second infections and ICU transfer were the highest, and their LOS was the longest of all groups. Despite a similar mean discharge MELD compared to RA patients, the 90-day transplant rate was lower. Multivariable modeling showed patients with HH had an increased risk of ACLF (HR = 2.37 vs. RA, HR = 2.56 vs. Other; p = 0.01) even when controlling for MELD score, AKI, second infection, and history of prior 6-month hospitalization. Multivariable modeling also showed that HH increased the risk of inpatient mortality (HR = 2.22 vs. RA alone, HR = 2.31 vs. Other; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: HH that required a therapeutic thoracentesis more than doubled the risk of ACLF and inpatient mortality among hospitalized patients with cirrhosis.

12.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038139

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Readmission and death in cirrhosis are common, expensive, and difficult to predict. Our aim was to evaluate the abilities of multiple artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to predict clinical outcomes based on variables collected at admission, during hospitalization, and at discharge. METHODS: We used the multicenter North American Consortium for the Study of End-Stage Liver Disease (NACSELD) cohort of cirrhotic inpatients who are followed up through 90-days postdischarge for readmission and death. We used statistical methods to select variables that are significant for readmission and death and trained 3 AI models, including logistic regression (LR), kernel support vector machine (SVM), and random forest classifiers (RFC), to predict readmission and death. We used the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) from 10-fold crossvalidation for evaluation to compare sexes. Data were compared with model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) at discharge. RESULTS: We included 2,170 patients (57 ± 11 years, MELD 18 ± 7, 61% men, 79% White, and 8% Hispanic). The 30-day and 90-day readmission rates were 28% and 47%, respectively, and 13% died at 90 days. Prediction for 30-day readmission resulted in 0.60 AUC for all patients with RFC, 0.57 AUC with LR for women-only subpopulation, and 0.61 AUC with LR for men-only subpopulation. For 90-day readmission, the highest AUC was achieved with kernel SVM and RFC (AUC = 0.62). We observed higher predictive value when training models with only women (AUC = 0.68 LR) vs men (AUC = 0.62 kernel SVM). Prediction for death resulted in 0.67 AUC for all patients, 0.72 for women-only subpopulation, and 0.69 for men-only subpopulation, all with LR. MELD-Na model AUC was similar to those from the AI models. DISCUSSION: Despite using multiple AI techniques, it is difficult to predict 30- and 90-day readmissions and death in cirrhosis. AI model accuracies were equivalent to models generated using only MELD-Na scores. Additional biomarkers are needed to improve our predictive capability (See also the visual abstract at http://links.lww.com/AJG/B710).

13.
Liver Transpl ; 26(11): 1492-1503, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047893

RESUMO

The liver transplantation (LT) population is aging, with the need for transplant being driven by the growing prevalence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Older LT recipients with NASH may be at an increased risk for adverse outcomes after LT. Our objective is to characterize outcomes in these recipients in a large multicenter cohort. All primary LT recipients ≥65 years from 2010 to 2016 at 13 centers in the Re-Evaluating Age Limits in Transplantation (REALT) consortium were included. Of 1023 LT recipients, 226 (22.1%) were over 70 years old, and 207 (20.2%) had NASH. Compared with other LT recipients, NASH recipients were older (68.0 versus 67.3 years), more likely to be female (47.3% versus 32.8%), White (78.3% versus 68.0%), Hispanic (12.1% versus 9.2%), and had higher Model for End-Stage Liver Disease-sodium (21 versus 18) at LT (P < 0.05 for all). Specific cardiac risk factors including diabetes with or without chronic complications (69.6%), hypertension (66.3%), hyperlipidemia (46.3%), coronary artery disease (36.7%), and moderate-to-severe renal disease (44.4%) were highly prevalent among NASH LT recipients. Graft survival among NASH patients was 90.3% at 1 year and 82.4% at 3 years compared with 88.9% at 1 year and 80.4% at 3 years for non-NASH patients (log-rank P = 0.58 and P = 0.59, respectively). Within 1 year after LT, the incidence of graft rejection (17.4%), biliary strictures (20.9%), and solid organ cancers (4.9%) were comparable. Rates of cardiovascular (CV) complications, renal failure, and infection were also similar in both groups. We observed similar posttransplant morbidity and mortality outcomes for NASH and non-NASH LT recipients. Certain CV risk factors were more prevalent in this population, although posttransplant outcomes within 1 year including CV events and renal failure were similar to non-NASH LT recipients.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Progression of stages 2 and 3 acute kidney injury (AKI) in cirrhosis has not been characterized adequately. Patients with higher stages of AKI are believed to have worse outcomes. We assessed outcomes and factors associated with stages 2 and 3 AKI in patients with cirrhosis in the North American Consortium for the Study of End-stage Liver Disease cohort. METHODS: We collected data from 2297 hospitalized patients with cirrhosis and ascites from December 2011 through February 2017. Our final analysis included 760 patients who developed AKI per the International Ascites Club 2015 definition (419 with maximum stage 1 and 341 with maximum stage 2 or 3; 63% male; mean age, 58 y). We compared demographic features, laboratory values, AKI treatment response, and survival between patients with maximum stage 1 vs patients with stage 2 or 3 AKI. RESULTS: Patients with stage 2 or 3 AKI had higher Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores (25.9 ± 7.3) than patients with stage 1 AKI (21.9 ± 7.5) (P < .0001). More patients fulfilled systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria on admission, and more developed a second nosocomial infection (P < .05 for both comparisons). More patients with stage 2 or 3 AKI also had progression of AKI and required dialysis and admission into intensive care units when compared to stage 1 AKI patients (P < .0001 for both). A lower proportion of patients with stage 2 or 3 AKI survived their hospital stay (80% vs 99% with stage 1 AKI; P < .0001), or survived for 30 days without a liver transplant (56% vs 81%; P < .0001). The development of stage 2 or 3 AKI was associated with a higher Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score at the time of admission (P < .0001), presence of systemic inflammatory response on admission (P = .039), and second infection (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Based on an analysis of data from the North American Consortium for the Study of End-stage Liver Disease cohort, we found that patients with cirrhosis and more advanced liver disease, as well as a second infection, are more likely to develop stages 2 or 3 AKI, with a progressive course associated with decreased 30-day transplant-free survival. Prevention of AKI progression in patients with cirrhosis and stage 2 or 3 AKI might improve their outcomes.

15.
Am J Transplant ; 20(11): 2973-2974, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761990
16.
Am J Transplant ; 2020 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654392

RESUMO

One in 10 people die awaiting transplantation from donor shortage. Only half of Americans register as organ donors. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated population-level associations of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and racial segregation on organ donor registration rates. We analyzed state identification card demographic and organ donor registration data from 5 states to estimate the association between a neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation index (range [0, 1]; higher values indicate more deprivation) and a racial index of concentration at the extreme (ICE) (range [-1, 1]; lower values indicate predominantly black neighborhoods, higher values indicate predominantly white neighborhoods) on organ donor registration rates within a specified geography (census tract or ZIP code tabulation area [ZCTA]). Among 26 720 738 registrants, 32% of the sample were registered organ donors. At the census tract level, with each 0.1 decrease in the deprivation index, the organ donor registration rate increased by 6.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.6%, 7.0%). With each 0.1 increase in the racial ICE, the rate increased by 1.5% (95% CI: 1.5%, 1.6%). These associations held true at the ZCTA level. Areas with less socioeconomic deprivation and a higher concentration of white residents have higher organ donor registration rates. Public health initiatives should consider neighborhood context and novel data sources in designing optimal intervention strategies.

18.
Gastroenterology ; 159(5): 1715-1730.e12, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Inpatients with cirrhosis have high rates of acute-on-chronic failure (ACLF) development and high mortality within 30 days of admission to the hospital. Better biomarkers are needed to predict these outcomes. We performed metabolomic analyses of serum samples from patients with cirrhosis at multiple centers to determine whether metabolite profiles might identify patients at high risk for ACLF and death. METHODS: We performed metabolomic analyses, using liquid chromatography, of serum samples collected at time of admission to 12 North American tertiary hepatology centers from 602 patients in the North American Consortium for the Study of End-Stage Liver Disease sites from 2015 through 2017 (mean age, 56 years; 61% men; mean model for end-stage liver disease score, 19.5). We performed analysis of covariance, adjusted for model for end-stage liver disease at time of hospital admission, serum levels of albumin and sodium, and white blood cell count, to identify metabolites that differed between patients who did vs did not develop ACLF and patients who did vs did not die during hospitalization and within 30 days. We performed random forest analysis to identify specific metabolite(s) that were associated with outcomes and area under the curve (AUC) analyses to analyze them in context of clinical parameters. We analyzed microbiomes of stool samples collected from 133 patients collected at the same time and examined associations with serum metabolites. RESULTS: Of the 602 patients analyzed, 88 developed ACLF (15%), 43 died in the hospital (7%), and 72 died within 30 days (12%). Increased levels of compounds of microbial origin (aromatic compounds, secondary or sulfated bile acids, and benzoate) and estrogen metabolites, as well as decreased levels of phospholipids, were associated with development of ACLF, inpatient, and 30-day mortality and were also associated with fecal microbiomes. Random forest analysis and logistic regression showed that levels of specific microbially produced metabolites identified patients who developed ACLF with an AUC of 0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78-0.88; P = .001), patients who died while in the hospital with an AUC of 0.81 (95% CI 0.74-0.85; P = .002), and patients who died within 30 days with an AUC of 0.77 (95% CI 0.73-0.81; P = .02). The metabolites were significantly additive to clinical parameters for predicting these outcomes. Metabolites associated with outcomes were also correlated with microbiomes of stool samples. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of serum metabolites and fecal microbiomes of patients hospitalized with cirrhosis at multiple centers, we associated metabolites of microbial origin and lipid moieties with development of ACLF and death as an inpatient or within 30 days, after controlling for clinical features.

19.
Am J Transplant ; 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524691

RESUMO

We examined whether a key psychological trait-resilience, defined as one's ability to recover quickly from difficulties-contributes to the frail phenotype in patients with cirrhosis. Included were 300 adult patients with cirrhosis who underwent outpatient physical frailty testing using the Liver Frailty Index and resilience testing using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). The Liver Frailty Index was categorized as robust, prefrail-robust, prefrail-frail, and frail; CD-RISC was categorized using population norms as: least, less, more, and most resilient. Linear regression was used to assess factors associated with frailty (by the Liver Frailty Index per 0.1 unit change). Among the most resilient, only 10% were frail; among the least resilient, 29% were frail. In univariable analysis, resilience was strongly associated with the Liver Frailty Index (coef = -0.13 per point increase; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.20 to -0.60; P < .001) and remained significantly associated with frailty in multivariable adjustment (coef = -0.13, 95% CI -0.19 to -0.07; P < .001). Low resilience is strongly associated with the frail phenotype in patients with cirrhosis. Given that resilience is modifiable, our data suggest that effective interventions to mitigate frailty should include strategies to build resilience in patients with low baseline resilience.

20.
Hepatology ; 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Frailty, as measured by the Liver Frailty Index (LFI), is associated with liver transplant (LT) waitlist mortality. We sought to identify an optimal LFI cutoff that predicts waitlist mortality. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Adults with cirrhosis awaiting LT without hepatocellular carcinoma at nine LT centers in the United States with LFI assessments were included. Multivariable competing risk analysis assessed the relationship between LFI and waitlist mortality. We identified a single LFI cutoff by evaluating the fit of the competing risk models, searching for the cutoff that gave the best model fit (as judged by the pseudo-log-likelihood). We ascertained the area under the curve (AUC) in an analysis of waitlist mortality to find optimal cutoffs at 3, 6, or 12 months. We used the AUC to compare the discriminative ability of LFI+Model for End Stage Liver Disease-sodium (MELDNa) versus MELDNa alone in 3-month waitlist mortality prediction. Of 1,405 patients, 37 (3%), 82 (6%), and 135 (10%) experienced waitlist mortality at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. LFI was predictive of waitlist mortality across a broad LFI range: 3.7-5.2. We identified an optimal LFI cutoff of 4.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.0-4.8) for 3-month mortality, 4.2 (95% CI, 4.1-4.4) for 6-month mortality, and 4.2 (95% CI, 4.1-4.4) for 12-month mortality. The AUC for prediction of 3-month mortality for MELDNa was 0.73; the addition of LFI to MELDNa improved the AUC to 0.79. CONCLUSIONS: LFI is predictive of waitlist mortality across a wide spectrum of LFI values. The optimal LFI cutoff for waitlist mortality was 4.4 at 3 months and 4.2 at 6 and 12 months. The discriminative performance of LFI+MELDNa was greater than MELDNa alone. Our data suggest that incorporating LFI with MELDNa can more accurately represent waitlist mortality in LT candidates.

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