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1.
Sci Adv ; 6(4): eaay4045, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32042900

RESUMO

Achieving perovskite-based high-color purity blue-emitting light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is still challenging. Here, we report successful synthesis of a series of blue-emissive two-dimensional Ruddlesden-Popper phase single crystals and their high-color purity blue-emitting LED demonstrations. Although this approach successfully achieves a series of bandgap emissions based on the different layer thicknesses, it still suffers from a conventional temperature-induced device degradation mechanism during high-voltage operations. To understand the underlying mechanism, we further elucidate temperature-induced device degradation by investigating the crystal structural and spectral evolution dynamics via in situ temperature-dependent single-crystal x-ray diffraction, photoluminescence (PL) characterization, and density functional theory calculation. The PL peak becomes asymmetrically broadened with a marked intensity decay, as temperature increases owing to [PbBr6]4- octahedra tilting and the organic chain disordering, which results in bandgap decrease. This study indicates that careful heat management under LED operation is a key factor to maintain the sharp and intense emission.

2.
J Phys Chem A ; 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32096402

RESUMO

Inorganic lead halide perovskite nanostructures show promise as the active layers in photovoltaics, light emitting diodes, and other optoelectronic devices. They are robust in the presence of oxygen and water, and the electronic structure and dynamics of these nanostructures can be tuned through quantum confinement. Here we create aligned bundles of CsPbBr3 nanowires with widths resulting in quantum confinement of the electronic wave functions and subject them to ultrafast microscopy. We directly image rapid one-dimensional exciton diffusion along the nanowires, and we measure an exciton trap density of roughly one per nanowire. Using transient absorption microscopy, we observe a polarization-dependent splitting of the band edge exciton line, and from the polarized fluorescence of nanowires in solution, we determine that the exciton transition dipole moments are anisotropic in strength. Our observations are consistent with a model in which splitting is driven by shape anisotropy in conjunction with long-range exchange.

3.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057230

RESUMO

Halide perovskites have many important optoelectronic properties, including high emission efficiency, high absorption coefficients, color purity, and tunable emission wavelength, which makes these materials promising for optoelectronic applications. However, the inability to precisely control large-scale patterned growth of halide perovskites limits their potential toward various device applications. Here, we report a patterning method for the growth of a cesium lead halide perovskite single crystal array. Our approach consists of two steps: (1) cesium halide salt arrays patterning and (2) chemical vapor transport process to convert salt arrays into single crystal perovskite arrays. Characterizations including energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and photoluminescence have been employed to confirm the chemical compositions and the optical properties of the as-synthesized perovskite arrays. This patterning method enables the patterning of single crystal cesium lead halide perovskite arrays with tunable spacing (from 2 to 20 µm) and crystal size (from 200 nm to 1.2 µm) in high production yield (almost every pixel in the array is successfully grown with converted perovskite crystals). Our large-scale patterning method renders a platform for the study of fundamental properties and opportunities for perovskite-based optoelectronic applications.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(33): 13028-13032, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386354

RESUMO

The self-assembly of nanoparticles, a process whereby nanocrystal building blocks organize into even more ordered superstructures, is of great interest to nanoscience. Here we report the layer-by-layer assembly of 2D perovskite nanosheet building blocks. Structural analysis reveals that the assembled superlattice nanocrystals match with the layered Ruddlesden-Popper perovskite phase. This assembly proves reversible, as these superlattice nanocrystals can be reversibly exfoliated back into their building blocks via sonication. This study demonstrates the opportunity to further understand and exploit thermodynamics to increase order in a system of nanoparticles and to study emergent optical properties of a superlattice from 2D, weakly attracted, perovskite building blocks.

5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(26): 12648-12653, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189607

RESUMO

Ion exchange, as a postsynthetic transformation strategy, offers more flexibilities in controlling material compositions and structures beyond direct synthetic methodology. Observation of such transformation kinetics on the single-particle level with rich spatial and spectroscopic information has never been achieved. We report the quantitative imaging of anion exchange kinetics in individual single-crystalline halide perovskite nanoplates using confocal photoluminescence microscopy. We have systematically observed a symmetrical anion exchange pathway on the nanoplates with dependence on reaction time and plate thickness, which is governed by the crystal structure and the diffusion-limited transformation mechanism. Based on a reaction-diffusion model, the halide diffusion coefficient was estimated to be on the order of [Formula: see text] This diffusion-controlled mechanism leads to the formation of 2D perovskite heterostructures with spatially resolved coherent interface through the precisely controlled anion exchange reaction, offering a design protocol for tailoring functionalities of semiconductors at the nano-/microscale.

6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(47): 11929-11934, 2018 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397127

RESUMO

Facile ionic transport in lead halide perovskites plays a critical role in device performance. Understanding the microscopic origins of high ionic conductivities has been complicated by indirect measurements and sample microstructural heterogeneities. Here, we report the direct visualization of halide anion interdiffusion in CsPbCl3-CsPbBr3 single crystalline perovskite nanowire heterojunctions using wide-field and confocal photoluminescence measurements. The combination of nanoscale imaging techniques with these single crystalline materials allows us to measure intrinsic anionic lattice diffusivities, free from complications of microscale inhomogeneity. Halide diffusivities were found to be between 10-13 and ∼10-12 cm2/second at about 100 °C, which are several orders of magnitudes lower than those reported in polycrystalline thin films. Spatially resolved photoluminescence lifetimes and surface potential measurements provide evidence of the central role of halide vacancies in facilitating ionic diffusion. Vacancy formation free energies computed from molecular simulation are small due to the easily deformable perovskite lattice, accounting for the high equilibrium vacancy concentration. Furthermore, molecular simulations suggest that ionic motion is facilitated by low-frequency lattice modes, resulting in low activation barriers for vacancy-mediated transport. This work elucidates the intrinsic solid-state ion diffusion mechanisms in this class of semisoft materials and offers guidelines for engineering materials with long-term stability in functional devices.

7.
Adv Mater ; 30(48): e1802856, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30198087

RESUMO

Halide perovskites have emerged as a class of promising semiconductor materials owing to their remarkable optoelectronic properties exhibiting in solar cells, light-emitting diodes, semiconductor lasers, etc. Inorganic halide perovskites are attracting increasing attention because of the higher stability toward moisture, light, and heat as compared with their organic-inorganic hybrid counterparts. In particular, inorganic halide perovskite nanomaterials provide controllable morphology, tunable optoelectronic properties, and improved quantum efficiency. Here, the development controlled synthesis of desired inorganic halide perovskite nanostructures by various chemical approaches is described. Utilizing these nanostructures as platforms, anion exchange chemistry for wide compositional and optical tunabilities is described, and the rich structural phase transition phenomenon and mechanism investigated systematically. Furthermore, these nanostructures and extracted knowledge are applied to design photonic, photovoltaic, and thermoelectric devices. Finally, future directions and challenges toward improvement of the optical, electrical, and optoelectronic properties, exploration of the anion and cation exchange kinetics, and alleviation of the stability and toxicity issues in inorganic lead based halide perovskites are discussed to provide an outlook on this promising field.

8.
Nano Lett ; 18(11): 6967-6973, 2018 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30265549

RESUMO

Surface condition plays an important role in the optical performance of semiconductor materials. As new types of semiconductors, the emerging metal-halide perovskites are promising for next-generation optoelectronic devices. We discover significantly improved light-emission efficiencies in lead halide perovskites due to surface oxygen passivation. The enhancement manifests close to 3 orders of magnitude as the perovskite dimensions decrease to the nanoscale, improving external quantum efficiencies from <0.02% to over 12%. Along with about a 4-fold increase in spontaneous carrier recombination lifetimes, we show that oxygen exposure enhances light emission by reducing the nonradiative recombination channel. Supported by X-ray surface characterization and theoretical modeling, we propose that excess lead atoms on the perovskite surface create deep-level trap states that can be passivated by oxygen adsorption.

9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(36): 8889-8894, 2018 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30127004

RESUMO

Semiconductor p-n junctions are fundamental building blocks for modern optical and electronic devices. The p- and n-type regions are typically created by chemical doping process. Here we show that in the new class of halide perovskite semiconductors, the p-n junctions can be readily induced through a localized thermal-driven phase transition. We demonstrate this p-n junction formation in a single-crystalline halide perovskite CsSnI3 nanowire (NW). This material undergoes a phase transition from a double-chain yellow (Y) phase to an orthorhombic black (B) phase. The formation energies of the cation and anion vacancies in these two phases are significantly different, which leads to n- and p- type electrical characteristics for Y and B phases, respectively. Interface formation between these two phases and directional interface propagation within a single NW are directly observed under cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy. Current rectification is demonstrated for the p-n junction formed with this localized thermal-driven phase transition.

10.
ACS Nano ; 12(8): 8697-8705, 2018 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30028589

RESUMO

Pt-based alloys have shown great promise as cathodic catalysts for cost-effective proton-exchange membrane fuel cells. Post-synthesis treatment has been recognized as a critical step to improve the catalytic performance of Pt-based alloys. Here, we present the effects of catalyst processing on the catalytic behavior of Pt-Ni nanoframe electrocatalysts in oxygen reduction reaction. The Pt-Ni nanoframes were made by corroding the Ni-rich phase from solid rhombic dodecahedral particles. A total of three different corrosion procedures were compared. Among them, electrochemical corrosion led to the highest initial specific activity (1.35 mA cm-2 at 0.95 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode) by retaining more Ni in the nanoframes. However, the high activity gradually went down in a subsequent stability test due to continuous Ni loss and concomitant surface reconstruction. On the other hand, the best stability was achieved by a more-aggressive corrosion using oxidative nitric acid. Although the initial activity was compromised, this procedure imparted a less-defective surface, and thus, the specific activity dropped by only 7% over 30 000 potential cycles. These results indicate a delicate trade-off between the activity and stability of Pt-Ni nanoframe electrocatalysts. The obtained understanding of how to balance the activity-stability trade-off via catalyst processing can be generalized to other Pt-based alloys.

11.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2525, 2018 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29955070

RESUMO

Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites have attractive optoelectronic properties including exceptional solar cell performance. The improved properties of perovskites have been attributed to polaronic effects involving stabilization of localized charge character by structural deformations and polarizations. Here we examine the Pb-I structural dynamics leading to polaron formation in methylammonium lead iodide perovskite by transient absorption, time-domain Raman spectroscopy, and density functional theory. Methylammonium lead iodide perovskite exhibits excited-state coherent nuclear wave packets oscillating at ~20, ~43, and ~75 cm-1 which involve skeletal bending, in-plane bending, and c-axis stretching of the I-Pb-I bonds, respectively. The amplitudes of these wave packet motions report on the magnitude of the excited-state structural changes, in particular, the formation of a bent and elongated octahedral PbI64- geometry. We have predicted the excited-state geometry and structural changes between the neutral and polaron states using a normal-mode projection method, which supports and rationalizes the experimental results. This study reveals the polaron formation via nuclear dynamics that may be important for efficient charge separation.

12.
Nano Lett ; 18(6): 3538-3542, 2018 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29771532

RESUMO

Alloying different semiconductors is a powerful approach to tuning the optical and electronic properties of semiconductor materials. In halide perovskites (ABX3), alloys with different anions have been widely studied, and great band gap tunability in the visible range has been achieved. However, perovskite alloys with different cations at the "B" site are less understood due to the synthetic challenges. Herein, we first have developed the synthesis of single-crystalline CsPb xSn1- xI3 nanowires (NWs). The electronic band gaps of CsPb xSn1- xI3 NWs can be tuned from 1.3 to 1.78 eV by varying the Pb/Sn ratio, which leads to the tunable photoluminescence (PL) in the near-infrared range. More importantly, we found that the electrical conductivity increases as more Sn2+ is alloyed with Pb2+, possibly due to the increase of charge carrier concentration when more Sn2+ is introduced. The wide tunability of the optical and electronic properties makes CsPb xSn1- xI3 alloy NWs promising candidates for future optoelectronic device applications.

13.
Nat Mater ; 17(3): 261-267, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29358645

RESUMO

Smart photovoltaic windows represent a promising green technology featuring tunable transparency and electrical power generation under external stimuli to control the light transmission and manage the solar energy. Here, we demonstrate a thermochromic solar cell for smart photovoltaic window applications utilizing the structural phase transitions in inorganic halide perovskite caesium lead iodide/bromide. The solar cells undergo thermally-driven, moisture-mediated reversible transitions between a transparent non-perovskite phase (81.7% visible transparency) with low power output and a deeply coloured perovskite phase (35.4% visible transparency) with high power output. The inorganic perovskites exhibit tunable colours and transparencies, a peak device efficiency above 7%, and a phase transition temperature as low as 105 °C. We demonstrate excellent device stability over repeated phase transition cycles without colour fade or performance degradation. The photovoltaic windows showing both photoactivity and thermochromic features represent key stepping-stones for integration with buildings, automobiles, information displays, and potentially many other technologies.

14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(33): 8693-8697, 2017 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28760988

RESUMO

Controlling the flow of thermal energy is crucial to numerous applications ranging from microelectronic devices to energy storage and energy conversion devices. Here, we report ultralow lattice thermal conductivities of solution-synthesized, single-crystalline all-inorganic halide perovskite nanowires composed of CsPbI3 (0.45 ± 0.05 W·m-1·K-1), CsPbBr3 (0.42 ± 0.04 W·m-1·K-1), and CsSnI3 (0.38 ± 0.04 W·m-1·K-1). We attribute this ultralow thermal conductivity to the cluster rattling mechanism, wherein strong optical-acoustic phonon scatterings are driven by a mixture of 0D/1D/2D collective motions. Remarkably, CsSnI3 possesses a rare combination of ultralow thermal conductivity, high electrical conductivity (282 S·cm-1), and high hole mobility (394 cm2·V-1·s-1). The unique thermal transport properties in all-inorganic halide perovskites hold promise for diverse applications such as phononic and thermoelectric devices. Furthermore, the insights obtained from this work suggest an opportunity to discover low thermal conductivity materials among unexplored inorganic crystals beyond caged and layered structures.

15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(28): 7216-7221, 2017 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28652367

RESUMO

Halide perovskites are promising semiconductor materials for solution-processed optoelectronic devices. Their strong ionic bonding nature results in highly dynamic crystal lattices, inherently allowing rapid ion exchange at the solid-vapor and solid-liquid interface. Here, we show that the anion-exchange chemistry can be precisely controlled in single-crystalline halide perovskite nanomaterials when combined with nanofabrication techniques. We demonstrate spatially resolved multicolor CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I, or alloy of two halides) nanowire heterojunctions with a pixel size down to 500 nm with the photoluminescence tunable over the entire visible spectrum. In addition, the heterojunctions show distinct electronic states across the interface, as revealed by Kelvin probe force microscopy. These perovskite heterojunctions represent key building blocks for high-resolution multicolor displays beyond current state-of-the-art technology as well as high-density diode/transistor arrays.

16.
Nano Lett ; 17(7): 4151-4157, 2017 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28562052

RESUMO

Raman and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy are used to investigate dynamic structure-function relationships in methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) perovskite. The intensity of the 150 cm-1 methylammonium (MA) librational Raman mode is found to be correlated with PL intensities in microstructures of MAPbI3. Because of the strong hydrogen bond between hydrogens in MA and iodine in the PbI6 perovskite octahedra, the Raman activity of MA is very sensitive to structural distortions of the inorganic framework. The structural distortions directly influence PL intensities, which in turn have been correlated with microstructure quality. Our measurements, supported with first-principles calculations, indicate how excited-state MA librational displacements mechanistically control PL efficiency and lifetime in MAPbI3-material parameters that are likely important for efficient photovoltaic devices.

17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(23): 7236-9, 2016 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27213511

RESUMO

Here, we demonstrate the successful synthesis of brightly emitting colloidal cesium lead halide (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I) nanowires (NWs) with uniform diameters and tunable compositions. By using highly monodisperse CsPbBr3 NWs as templates, the NW composition can be independently controlled through anion-exchange reactions. CsPbX3 alloy NWs with a wide range of alloy compositions can be achieved with well-preserved morphology and crystal structure. The NWs are highly luminescent with photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQY) ranging from 20% to 80%. The bright photoluminescence can be tuned over nearly the entire visible spectrum. The high PLQYs together with charge transport measurements exemplify the efficient alloying of the anionic sublattice in a one-dimensional CsPbX3 system. The wires increased functionality in the form of fast photoresponse rates and the low defect density suggest CsPbX3 NWs as prospective materials for optoelectronic applications.

18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(8): 1993-8, 2016 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26862172

RESUMO

The rapidly growing field of nanoscale lasers can be advanced through the discovery of new, tunable light sources. The emission wavelength tunability demonstrated in perovskite materials is an attractive property for nanoscale lasers. Whereas organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite materials are known for their instability, cesium lead halides offer a robust alternative without sacrificing emission tunability or ease of synthesis. Here, we report the low-temperature, solution-phase growth of cesium lead halide nanowires exhibiting low-threshold lasing and high stability. The as-grown nanowires are single crystalline with well-formed facets, and act as high-quality laser cavities. The nanowires display excellent stability while stored and handled under ambient conditions over the course of weeks. Upon optical excitation, Fabry-Pérot lasing occurs in CsPbBr3 nanowires with an onset of 5 µJ cm(-2) with the nanowire cavity displaying a maximum quality factor of 1,009 ± 5. Lasing under constant, pulsed excitation can be maintained for over 1 h, the equivalent of 10(9) excitation cycles, and lasing persists upon exposure to ambient atmosphere. Wavelength tunability in the green and blue regions of the spectrum in conjunction with excellent stability makes these nanowire lasers attractive for device fabrication.

19.
Science ; 349(6255): 1518-21, 2015 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26404831

RESUMO

Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, which have proved to be promising semiconductor materials for photovoltaic applications, have been made into atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) sheets. We report the solution-phase growth of single- and few-unit-cell-thick single-crystalline 2D hybrid perovskites of (C4H9NH3)2PbBr4 with well-defined square shape and large size. In contrast to other 2D materials, the hybrid perovskite sheets exhibit an unusual structural relaxation, and this structural change leads to a band gap shift as compared to the bulk crystal. The high-quality 2D crystals exhibit efficient photoluminescence, and color tuning could be achieved by changing sheet thickness as well as composition via the synthesis of related materials.

20.
Nano Lett ; 15(8): 5519-24, 2015 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26192740

RESUMO

The nanowire and nanorod morphology offers great advantages for application in a range of optoelectronic devices, but these high-quality nanorod arrays are typically based on high temperature growth techniques. Here, we demonstrate the successful room temperature growth of a hybrid perovskite (CH3NH3PbBr3) nanorod array, and we also introduce a new low temperature anion exchange technique to convert the CH3NH3PbBr3 nanorod array into a CH3NH3PbI3 nanorod array while preserving morphology. We demonstrate the application of both these hybrid perovskite nanorod arrays for LEDs. This work highlights the potential utility of postsynthetic interconversion of hybrid perovskites for nanostructured optoelectronic devices such as LEDs, which enables new strategies for the application of hybrid perovskites.

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