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1.
Theranostics ; 11(3): 1115-1128, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33391524

RESUMO

BReast tumor Kinase (BRK, also known as PTK6) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that is highly expressed in breast carcinomas while having low expression in the normal mammary gland, which hints at the oncogenic nature of this kinase in breast cancer. In the past twenty-six years since the discovery of BRK, an increasing number of studies have strived to understand the cellular roles of BRK in breast cancer. Since then, BRK has been found both in vitro and in vivo to activate a multitude of oncoproteins to promote cell proliferation, metastasis, and cancer development. The compelling evidence concerning the oncogenic roles of BRK has also led, since then, to the rapid and exponential development of inhibitors against BRK. This review highlights recent advances in BRK biology in contributing to the "hallmarks of cancer", as well as BRK's therapeutic significance. Importantly, this review consolidates all known inhibitors of BRK activity and highlights the connection between drug action and BRK-mediated effects. Despite the volume of inhibitors designed against BRK, none have progressed into clinical phase. Understanding the successes and challenges of these inhibitor developments are crucial for the future improvements of new inhibitors that can be clinically relevant.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proliferação de Células/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Oncogenes/genética
2.
EMBO Mol Med ; 11(7): e9982, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273933

RESUMO

Due to compromised homologous recombination (HR) repair, BRCA1- and BRCA2-mutated tumours accumulate DNA damage and genomic rearrangements conducive of tumour progression. To identify drugs that target specifically BRCA2-deficient cells, we screened a chemical library containing compounds in clinical use. The top hit was chlorambucil, a bifunctional alkylating agent used for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). We establish that chlorambucil is specifically toxic to BRCA1/2-deficient cells, including olaparib-resistant and cisplatin-resistant ones, suggesting the potential clinical use of chlorambucil against disease which has become resistant to these drugs. Additionally, chlorambucil eradicates BRCA2-deficient xenografts and inhibits growth of olaparib-resistant patient-derived tumour xenografts (PDTXs). We demonstrate that chlorambucil inflicts replication-associated DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), similarly to cisplatin, and we identify ATR, FANCD2 and the SNM1A nuclease as determinants of sensitivity to both drugs. Importantly, chlorambucil is substantially less toxic to normal cells and tissues in vitro and in vivo relative to cisplatin. Because chlorambucil and cisplatin are equally effective inhibitors of BRCA2-compromised tumours, our results indicate that chlorambucil has a higher therapeutic index than cisplatin in targeting BRCA-deficient tumours.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/deficiência , Proteína BRCA2/deficiência , Clorambucila/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/antagonistas & inibidores , Ftalazinas/farmacologia , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cricetinae , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
3.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 62: 29-38, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29154023

RESUMO

While tremendous improvement has been made for the treatment of breast cancers, the treatment of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) still remains a challenge due to its aggressive characteristics and limited treatment options. Most of the studies on TNBC were conducted in Western population and TNBC is reported to be more frequent in the African women. This review encapsulates the studies conducted on TNBC patients in Asian population and elucidates the similarities and differences between these two regions. The current treatment of TNBC includes surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In addition to the current chemotherapies, which mainly include cytotoxic agents, such as taxanes and anthracyclines, many clinical trials are investigating the potential use of other chemotherapy drugs, targeted therapeutics and combinational therapies to treat TNBC. Moreover, this review also integrates the studies involving novel markers, which will help us to dissect the pathologic process of TNBC and in turn facilitate the development of better treatment strategies to combat TNBC.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma/terapia , Imunoterapia , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/terapia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Carcinoma/epidemiologia , Carcinoma/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas pp60(c-src)/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo
5.
EMBO Mol Med ; 9(10): 1398-1414, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28729482

RESUMO

Maintenance of genome integrity requires the functional interplay between Fanconi anemia (FA) and homologous recombination (HR) repair pathways. Endogenous acetaldehyde, a product of cellular metabolism, is a potent source of DNA damage, particularly toxic to cells and mice lacking the FA protein FANCD2. Here, we investigate whether HR-compromised cells are sensitive to acetaldehyde, similarly to FANCD2-deficient cells. We demonstrate that inactivation of HR factors BRCA1, BRCA2, or RAD51 hypersensitizes cells to acetaldehyde treatment, in spite of the FA pathway being functional. Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) play key roles in endogenous acetaldehyde detoxification, and their chemical inhibition leads to cellular acetaldehyde accumulation. We find that disulfiram (Antabuse), an ALDH2 inhibitor in widespread clinical use for the treatment of alcoholism, selectively eliminates BRCA1/2-deficient cells. Consistently, Aldh2 gene inactivation suppresses proliferation of HR-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and human fibroblasts. Hypersensitivity of cells lacking BRCA2 to acetaldehyde stems from accumulation of toxic replication-associated DNA damage, leading to checkpoint activation, G2/M arrest, and cell death. Acetaldehyde-arrested replication forks require BRCA2 and FANCD2 for protection against MRE11-dependent degradation. Importantly, acetaldehyde specifically inhibits in vivo the growth of BRCA1/2-deficient tumors and ex vivo in patient-derived tumor xenograft cells (PDTCs), including those that are resistant to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. The work presented here therefore identifies acetaldehyde metabolism as a potential therapeutic target for the selective elimination of BRCA1/2-deficient cells and tumors.


Assuntos
Acetaldeído/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA2/metabolismo , Rad51 Recombinase/metabolismo , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/genética , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Animais , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dano ao DNA , Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação D2 da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação D2 da Anemia de Fanconi/metabolismo , Fibroblastos , Recombinação Homóloga , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Rad51 Recombinase/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
6.
Nat Commun ; 8: 15983, 2017 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28714477

RESUMO

Failure to restart replication forks stalled at genomic regions that are difficult to replicate or contain endogenous DNA lesions is a hallmark of BRCA2 deficiency. The nucleolytic activity of MUS81 endonuclease is required for replication fork restart under replication stress elicited by exogenous treatments. Here we investigate whether MUS81 could similarly facilitate DNA replication in the context of BRCA2 abrogation. Our results demonstrate that replication fork progression in BRCA2-deficient cells requires MUS81. Failure to complete genome replication and defective checkpoint surveillance enables BRCA2-deficient cells to progress through mitosis with under-replicated DNA, which elicits severe chromosome interlinking in anaphase. MUS81 nucleolytic activity is required to activate compensatory DNA synthesis during mitosis and to resolve mitotic interlinks, thus facilitating chromosome segregation. We propose that MUS81 provides a mechanism of replication stress tolerance, which sustains survival of BRCA2-deficient cells and can be exploited therapeutically through development of specific inhibitors of MUS81 nuclease activity.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA2/genética , Segregação de Cromossomos/genética , Dano ao DNA , Replicação do DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Endonucleases/genética , Anáfase , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células HeLa , Humanos , Mitose
7.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 3(10): 1649-59, 2013 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23893744

RESUMO

During its natural life cycle, budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) has to adapt to drastically changing environments, but how environmental-sensing pathways are linked to adaptive gene expression changes remains incompletely understood. Here, we describe two closely related yeast hEST1A-B (SMG5-6)-like proteins termed Esl1 and Esl2 that contain a 14-3-3-like domain and a putative PilT N-terminus ribonuclease domain. We found that, unlike their metazoan orthologs, Esl1 and Esl2 were not involved in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay or telomere maintenance pathways. However, in genome-wide expression array analyses, absence of Esl1 and Esl2 led to more than two-fold deregulation of ∼50 transcripts, most of which were expressed inversely to the appropriate metabolic response to environmental nutrient supply; for instance, normally glucose-repressed genes were derepressed in esl1Δ esl2Δ double mutants during growth in a high-glucose environment. Likewise, in a genome-wide synthetic gene array screen, esl1Δ esl2Δ double mutants were synthetic sick with null mutations for Rim8 and Dfg16, which form the environmental-sensing complex of the Rim101 pH response gene expression pathway. Overall, these results suggest that Esl1 and Esl2 contribute to the regulation of adaptive gene expression responses of environmental sensing pathways.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Telomerase/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Proteínas F-Box/genética , Proteínas F-Box/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Dados de Sequência Molecular , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Telomerase/genética , Transcrição Genética , Complexos Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligase/genética , Complexos Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligase/metabolismo
8.
Genetics ; 194(2): 403-8, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23535383

RESUMO

Telomere repeat-like sequences at DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) inhibit DNA damage signaling and serve as seeds to convert DSBs to new telomeres in mutagenic chromosome healing pathways. We find here that the response to seed-containing DSBs differs fundamentally between budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells that maintain their telomeres via telomerase and so-called postsenescence survivors that use recombination-based alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) mechanisms. Whereas telomere seeds are efficiently elongated by telomerase, they remain remarkably stable without de novo telomerization or extensive end resection in telomerase-deficient (est2Δ, tlc1Δ) postsenescence survivors. This telomere seed hyper-stability in ALT cells is associated with, but not caused by, prolonged DNA damage checkpoint activity (RAD9, RAD53) compared to telomerase-positive cells or presenescent telomerase-negative cells. The results indicate that both chromosome healing and anticheckpoint activity of telomere seeds are suppressed in yeast models of ALT pathways.


Assuntos
Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Cromossomos Fúngicos/metabolismo , Reparo do DNA , DNA Fúngico/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/metabolismo , Cromossomos Fúngicos/genética , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Recombinação Genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/citologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Telomerase/genética , Telomerase/metabolismo , Homeostase do Telômero , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Front Biosci (Schol Ed) ; 5: 396-411, 2013 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23277058

RESUMO

Fundamental aspects of eukaryotic molecular and cellular biology are extensively studied in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genome maintenance pathways are highly conserved and research into a number of human genetic disorders with increased genome instability and cancer predisposition have benefited greatly from studies in budding yeast. Here, we present some of the examples where yeast research into DNA damage responses and telomere maintenance pathways paved the way to understanding these processes, and their involvement in selected human diseases.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Instabilidade Genômica , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Fúngico , Humanos , Telômero/genética
10.
Mol Cell Biol ; 30(10): 2316-29, 2010 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20194622

RESUMO

Ubiquitin (Ub)-conjugating enzymes (E2s) and ubiquitin ligases (E3s) catalyze the attachment of Ub to lysine residues in substrates and Ub during monoubiquitination and polyubiquitination. Lysine selection is important for the generation of diverse substrate-Ub structures, which provides versatility to this pathway in the targeting of proteins to different fates. The mechanisms of lysine selection remain poorly understood, with previous studies suggesting that the ubiquitination site(s) is selected by the E2/E3-mediated positioning of a lysine(s) toward the E2/E3 active site. By studying the polyubiquitination of Sic1 by the E2 protein Cdc34 and the RING E3 Skp1/Cul1/F-box (SCF) protein, we now demonstrate that in addition to E2/E3-mediated positioning, proximal amino acids surrounding the lysine residues in Sic1 and Ub are critical for ubiquitination. This mechanism is linked to key residues composing the catalytic core of Cdc34 and independent of SCF. Changes to these core residues altered the lysine preference of Cdc34 and specified whether this enzyme monoubiquitinated or polyubiquitinated Sic1. These new findings indicate that compatibility between amino acids surrounding acceptor lysine residues and key amino acids in the catalytic core of ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes is an important mechanism for lysine selection during ubiquitination.


Assuntos
Lisina , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/química , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Complexos Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligase/química , Complexos Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligase/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Ciclossomo-Complexo Promotor de Anáfase , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Proteínas Inibidoras de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/química , Proteínas Inibidoras de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Proteínas Inibidoras de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Humanos , Lisina/química , Lisina/genética , Lisina/metabolismo , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas Ligases SKP Culina F-Box/genética , Proteínas Ligases SKP Culina F-Box/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/fisiologia , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Especificidade por Substrato/genética , Ubiquitina/química , Ubiquitina/genética , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/genética , Complexos Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligase/genética , Ubiquitinação
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