Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 98
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 47(12): 1433-1442, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582395

RESUMO

Induction potentials of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) activator rifampin (RIF) on transporter genes [e.g., organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs)] are still in its infancy or remain controversial in the field. The present investigations characterized changes in transporter gene expression by RIF in sandwich-cultured hepatocytes from multiple donors of human and cynomolgus monkey using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method. Three-day treatment of RIF significantly induced CYP3A4 (∼60-fold induction), but not CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 genes. SLC51B was the most highly induced uptake transporter gene (>10-fold) in both human and monkey hepatocytes. A greater induction of CYP2C9 was observed in monkey hepatocytes than that in humans. ATP-binding cassette (ABC)B1 and ABCC2 were induced slightly above 2-fold in human and monkey hepatocytes and appeared to be dose-dependent. The induction of OATP and other transporter genes was generally less than 2-fold and considered not clinically relevant. SLCO2B1 was not detectable in monkey hepatocytes. To investigate in vivo OATP induction, RIF (18 mg/kg per day) was orally dosed to cynomolgus monkeys for 7 days. Pitavastatin and antipyrine were intravenously dosed before and after RIF treatment as exogenous probes of OATP and CYP activities, respectively. Plasma coproporphyrin-I (CP-I) and coproporphyrin-III (CP-III) were measured as OATP endogenous biomarkers. Although a significant increase of antipyrine clearance (CL) was observed after RIF treatment, the plasma exposures of pitavastatin, CP-I, and CP-III remained unchanged, suggesting that OATP function was not significantly altered. The results suggested that OATP transporters were not significantly induced by PXR ligand RIF. The data are consistent with current regulatory guidances that the in vitro characterization of transporter induction during drug development is not required. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) genes were not induced by rifampin in sandwich-cultured human and monkey hepatocytes OATP functions measured by OATP probe pitavastatin and endogenous marker coproporphyrins were not altered in monkeys in vivo by 7-day rifampin treatment. The data suggested that OATP transporters are unlikely induced by the pregnane X receptor ligand rifampin, which are consistent with current regulatory guidances that the in vitro characterization of OATP1B induction during drug development is not required.

2.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 47(10): 1122-1135, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266753

RESUMO

The well accepted "free drug hypothesis" for small-molecule drugs assumes that only the free (unbound) drug concentration at the therapeutic target can elicit a pharmacologic effect. Unbound (free) drug concentrations in plasma are readily measurable and are often used as surrogates for the drug concentrations at the site of pharmacologic action in pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis and clinical dose projection in drug discovery. Furthermore, for permeable compounds at pharmacokinetic steady state, the free drug concentration in tissue is likely a close approximation of that in plasma; however, several factors can create and maintain disequilibrium between the free drug concentration in plasma and tissue, leading to free drug concentration asymmetry. These factors include drug uptake and extrusion mechanisms involving the uptake and efflux drug transporters, intracellular biotransformation of prodrugs, membrane receptor-mediated uptake of antibody-drug conjugates, pH gradients, unique distribution properties (covalent binders, nanoparticles), and local drug delivery (e.g., inhalation). The impact of these factors on the free drug concentrations in tissues can be represented by K p,uu, the ratio of free drug concentration between tissue and plasma at steady state. This review focuses on situations in which free drug concentrations in tissues may differ from those in plasma (e.g., K p,uu > or <1) and discusses the limitations of the surrogate approach of using plasma-free drug concentration to predict free drug concentrations in tissue. This is an important consideration for novel therapeutic modalities since systemic exposure as a driver of pharmacologic effects may provide limited value in guiding compound optimization, selection, and advancement. Ultimately, a deeper understanding of the relationship between free drug concentrations in plasma and tissues is needed.

3.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 106(3): 525-543, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175671

RESUMO

Quantitative translation of information on drug absorption, disposition, receptor engagement, and drug-drug interactions from bench to bedside requires models informed by physiological parameters that link in vitro studies to in vivo outcomes. To predict in vivo outcomes, biochemical data from experimental systems are routinely scaled using protein quantity in these systems and relevant tissues. Although several laboratories have generated useful quantitative proteomic data using state-of-the-art mass spectrometry, no harmonized guidelines exit for sample analysis and data integration to in vivo translation practices. To address this gap, a workshop was held on September 27 and 28, 2018, in Cambridge, MA, with 100 experts attending from academia, the pharmaceutical industry, and regulators. Various aspects of quantitative proteomics and its applications in translational pharmacology were debated. A summary of discussions and best practices identified by this expert panel are presented in this "White Paper" alongside unresolved issues that were outlined for future debates.

4.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 106(5): 1056-1066, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102467

RESUMO

Using positron emission tomography imaging, we determined the hepatic concentrations and hepatobiliary transport of [11 C]rosuvastatin (RSV; i.v. injection) in the absence (n = 6) and presence (n = 4 of 6) of cyclosporin A (CsA; i.v. infusion) following a therapeutic dose of unlabeled RSV (5 mg, p.o.) in healthy human volunteers. The sinusoidal uptake, sinusoidal efflux, and biliary efflux clearance (CL; mL/minute) of [11 C]RSV, estimated through compartment modeling were 1,205.6 ± 384.8, 16.2 ± 11.2, and 5.1 ± 1.8, respectively (n = 6). CsA (blood concentration: 2.77 ± 0.24 µM), an organic-anion-transporting polypeptide, Na+ -taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide, and breast cancer resistance protein inhibitor increased [11 C]RSV systemic blood exposure (45%; P < 0.05), reduced its biliary efflux CL (52%; P < 0.05) and hepatic uptake (25%; P > 0.05) but did not affect its distribution into the kidneys. CsA increased plasma concentrations of coproporphyrin I and III and total bilirubin by 297 ± 69%, 384 ± 102%, and 81 ± 39%, respectively (P < 0.05). These data can be used in the future to verify predictions of hepatic concentrations and hepatobiliary transport of RSV.

5.
Clin Transl Sci ; 12(4): 388-399, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982223

RESUMO

Understanding transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions is an integral part of risk assessment in drug development. Recent studies support the use of hexadecanedioate (HDA), tetradecanedioate (TDA), coproporphyrin (CP)-I, and CP-III as clinical biomarkers for evaluating organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B1 (SLCO1B1) inhibition. The current study investigated the effect of OATP1B1 genotype c.521T>C (OATP1B1-Val174Ala) on the extent of interaction between cyclosporin A (CsA) and pravastatin, and associated endogenous biomarkers of the transporter (HDA, TDA, CP-I, and CP-III), in 20 healthy volunteers. The results show that the levels of each clinical biomarker and pravastatin were significantly increased in plasma samples of the volunteers following administration of pravastatin plus CsA compared with pravastatin plus placebo. The overall fold change in the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ) was similar among the four biomarkers (1.8-2.5-fold, paired t-test P value < 0.05) in individuals who were homozygotes or heterozygotes of the major allele, c.521T. However, the fold change in AUC and Cmax for HDA and TDA was significantly abolished in the subjects who were c.521-CC, whereas the respective fold change in AUC and Cmax for pravastatin and CP-I and CP-III were slightly weaker in individuals who were c.521-CC compared with c.521-TT/TC genotypes. In addition, this study provides the first evidence that SLCO1B1 c.521T>C genotype is significantly associated with CP-I but not CP-III levels. Overall, these results suggest that OATP1B1 genotype can modulate the effects of CsA on biomarker levels; the extent of modulation differs among the biomarkers.

6.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 47(4): 350-357, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622164

RESUMO

Suspended (SH), plated (PH), and sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH) are commonly used models to predict in vivo transporter-mediated hepatic uptake (SH or PH) or biliary (SCH) clearance of drugs. When doing so, the total and the plasma membrane abundance (PMA) of transporter are assumed not to differ between hepatocytes and liver tissue (LT). This assumption has never been tested. In this study, we tested this assumption by measuring the total and PMA of the transporters in human hepatocyte models versus LT (total only) from which they were isolated. Total abundance of OATP1B1/2B1/1B3, OCT1, and OAT2 was not significantly different between the hepatocytes and LT. The same was true for the PMA of these transporters across the hepatocyte models. In contrast, total abundance of the sinusoidal efflux transporter, MRP3, and the canalicular efflux transporters, MRP2 and P-gp, was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in SCH versus LT. Of the transporters tested, only the percentage of PMA of OATP1B1, P-gp, and MRP3, in SCH (82.8% ± 7.3%, 57.5% ± 10.9%, 69.3% ± 5.7%) was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than in SH (73.3% ± 6.4%, 27.4% ± 6.4%, 53.6% ± 4.1%). If the transporters measured in the plasma membrane are functional and the PMA in SH is representative of that in LT, these data suggest that SH, PH, and SCH will result in equal prediction of hepatic uptake clearance of drugs mediated by the transporters tested above. However, SCH will predict higher sinusoidal efflux and biliary clearance of drugs if the change in PMA of these transporters is not taken into consideration.

7.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 106(1): 228-237, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673124

RESUMO

For in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) of brain distribution of drugs that are transported at the human blood-brain barrier (BBB), it is important to quantify the interindividual and regional variability of drug transporter abundance at this barrier. Therefore, using quantitative targeted proteomics, we compared the abundance of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette and solute carrier transporters in brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) isolated from postmortem specimens of two matched brain regions, the occipital (Brodmann Area (BA)17) and parietal (BA39) lobe, from 30 adults. Of the quantifiable transporters, the abundance ranked: glucose transporter (GLUT)1 > breast cancer resistance protein > P-glycoprotein (P-gp) > equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT)1 > organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP)2B1. The abundance of multidrug resistance protein 1/2/3/4, OATP1A2, organic anion transporter (OAT)3, organic cation transporter (OCT)1/2, OCTN1/2, or ENT2 was below the limit of quantification. Transporter abundance per gram of tissue (scaled using GLUT1 abundance in BMEC vs. brain homogenate) in BA17 was 30-42% higher than BA39. The interindividual variability in transporter abundance (percentage of coefficient of variation (%CV)) was 35-57% (BA17) and 27-46% (BA39). These data can be used in proteomics-informed bottom-up IVIVE to predict human brain drug distribution.

8.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 104(5): 836-864, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30347454

RESUMO

Drug transporters can govern the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of substrate drugs and endogenous substances. Investigations to examine their potential impact to pharmacokinetic (PK) drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are an integral part of the risk assessment in drug development. To evaluate a new molecular entity as a potential perpetrator of transporters, use of well characterized and/or clinically relevant probe substrates with good selectivity and sensitivity are critical for robust clinical DDI assessment that could inform DDI management strategy in the product labeling. The availability of endogenous biomarkers to monitor transporter-mediated DDIs in early phases of clinical investigations would greatly benefit downstream clinical plans. This article reviews the state-of-the-art in transporter clinical probe drugs and emerging biomarkers, including current challenges and limitations, delineates methods and workflows to identify and validate novel endogenous biomarkers to support clinical DDI evaluations, and proposes how these probe drugs or biomarkers could be used in drug development.

9.
Pharmaceutics ; 10(3)2018 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096834

RESUMO

Previously we reported that coproporphyrin-I (CP-I) is an optimal probe substrate for multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), and stimulation of MRP2-mediated transport is probe substrate-dependent. In the present investigation, we assessed if the in vitro stimulation is physiologically relevant. Similar to human MRP2 transport, CP-I was transported by rat Mrp2 in a typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics with apparent Km and Vmax values of 15 ± 6 µM and 161 ± 20 pmol/min/mg protein, respectively. In vivo Mrp2 functions were monitored by biliary and renal secretion of CP-I and its isomer CP-III, in bile-duct cannulated rats before and after treatment with mitoxantrone, progesterone, and verapamil. These compounds stimulated Mrp2-mediated CP-I transport in vitro. No significant increase in biliary or renal clearances, as well as in the cumulative amount of CP-I or CP-III eliminated in bile, were detected following treatment with the in vitro stimulators, indicating an in vitro to in vivo disconnect. In presence of 10 µM bilirubin, the in vitro stimulation was suppressed. We concluded that the in vitro stimulation of CP-I transport mediated by Mrp2 is not translatable in vivo, and proposed that the presence of endogenous compounds such as bilirubin in the liver may contribute to the in vitro to in vivo disconnect.

10.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 104(5): 916-932, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137645

RESUMO

Bile salt export pump (BSEP) inhibition has emerged as an important mechanism that may contribute to the initiation of human drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Proactive evaluation and understanding of BSEP inhibition is recommended in drug discovery and development to aid internal decision making on DILI risk. BSEP inhibition can be quantified using in vitro assays. When interpreting assay data, it is important to consider in vivo drug exposure. Currently, this can be undertaken most effectively by consideration of total plasma steady state drug concentrations (Css,plasma ). However, because total drug concentrations are not predictive of pharmacological effect, the relationship between total exposure and BSEP inhibition is not causal. Various follow-up studies can aid interpretation of in vitro BSEP inhibition data and may be undertaken on a case-by-case basis. BSEP inhibition is one of several mechanisms by which drugs may cause DILI, therefore, it should be considered alongside other mechanisms when evaluating possible DILI risk.

11.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 46(8): 1075-1082, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29777022

RESUMO

In a recent study, limited to South Asian Indian subjects (n = 12), coproporphyrin (CP) I and CPIII demonstrated properties appropriate for an organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B endogenous probe. The current studies were conducted in healthy volunteers of mixed ethnicities, including black, white, and Hispanic subjects, to better understand the utility of these biomarkers in broader populations. After oral administration with 600 mg rifampin, AUC(0-24h) values were 2.8-, 3.7-, and 3.6-fold higher than predose levels for CPI and 2.6-, 3.1-, and 2.4-fold higher for CPIII, for the three populations, respectively. These changes in response to rifampin were consistent with previous results. The sensitivity toward OATP1B inhibition was also investigated by evaluating changes of plasma CP levels in the presence of diltiazem and itraconazole [administered as part of an unrelated drug-drug interaction (DDI) investigation], two compounds that were predicted to have minimal inhibitory effect on OATP1B. Administration of diltiazem and itraconazole did not increase plasma CPI and CPIII concentrations relative to prestudy levels, in agreement with predictions from in vitro parameters. Additionally, the basal CP concentrations in subjects with SLCO1B1 c.521TT genotype were comparable to those with SLCO1B1 c.521TC genotype, similar to studies with probe substrates. However, subjects with SLCO1B1 c.388AG and c.388GG genotypes (i.e., increased OATP1B1 transport activity for certain substrates) had lower concentrations of CPI than those with SLCO1B1 c.388AA. Collectively, these findings provide further evidence supporting the translational value of CPI and CPIII as suitable endogenous clinical probes to gauge OATP1B activity and potential for OATP1B-mediated DDIs.


Assuntos
Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Coproporfirinas/metabolismo , Transportador 1 de Ânion Orgânico Específico do Fígado/antagonistas & inibidores , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Membro 1B3 da Família de Transportadores de Ânion Orgânico Carreador de Soluto/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Coproporfirinas/genética , Interações de Medicamentos/fisiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Transportador 1 de Ânion Orgânico Específico do Fígado/genética , Transportador 1 de Ânion Orgânico Específico do Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/genética , Rifampina/farmacologia , Membro 1B3 da Família de Transportadores de Ânion Orgânico Carreador de Soluto/genética , Membro 1B3 da Família de Transportadores de Ânion Orgânico Carreador de Soluto/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Bioanalysis ; 10(9): 633-644, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29749254

RESUMO

AIM: Coproporphyrins (CP-I and CP-III) have been identified as possible biomarkers to predict human hepatic organic anion-transporting polypeptides-mediated-drug-interactions for a new drug entering clinical development. RESULTS: The method is applicable to quantify plasma CP-I and CP-III within 0.078-15.0 nM. The results identify and address a number of challenges encountered with porphyrin assays such as photodegradation and interferences. To overcome interferences from ubiquitous porphyrins, a surrogate matrix was used to prepare calibration standards. Quality controls were prepared in plasma and surrogate matrix to ensure parallelism between surrogate matrix and plasma. CONCLUSION: A robust UHPLC-MS/MS assay was developed and validated for CP-I and CP-III in plasma, and is currently applied to clinical studies to confirm suitability of Coproporphyrins as a potential substitute for drug-drug interaction study.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Farmacológicos/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Coproporfirinas/sangue , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Biomarcadores Farmacológicos/química , Coproporfirinas/química , Desenho de Drogas , Interações de Medicamentos , Humanos , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/química , Rifampina/sangue , Rifampina/química , Rosuvastatina Cálcica/sangue , Rosuvastatina Cálcica/química
13.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 8(2): 252-260, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29719786

RESUMO

In the present study, total membrane proteins from tumor cell lines including HepG2, Hep3B2, H226, Ovcar3 and N87 were extracted and digested with γLysC and trypsin. The resulting peptide lysate were pre-fractionated and subjected to untargeted quantitative proteomics analysis using a high resolution mass spectrometer. The mass spectra were processed by the MaxQuant and the protein abundances were estimated using total peak area (TPA) method. A total of 6037 proteins were identified, and the analysis resulted in the identification of 2647 membrane proteins. Of those, tumor antigens and absorption, metabolism, disposition and elimination (ADME) proteins including UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, cytochrome P450, solute carriers and ATP-binding cassette transporters were detected and disclosed significant variations among the cell lines. The principal component analysis was performed for the cluster of cell lines. The results demonstrated that H226 is closely related with N87, while Hep3B2 aligned with HepG2. The protein cluster of Ovcar3 was apart from that of other cell lines investigated. By providing for the first time quantitative untargeted proteomics analysis, the results delineated the expression profiles of membrane proteins. These findings provided a useful resource for selecting targets of choice for anticancer therapy through advancing data obtained from preclinical tumor cell line models to clinical outcomes.

14.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 46(7): 943-952, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29695616

RESUMO

To predict the impact of liver cirrhosis on hepatic drug clearance using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling, we compared the protein abundance of various phase 1 and phase 2 drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) in S9 fractions of alcoholic (n = 27) or hepatitis C (HCV, n = 30) cirrhotic versus noncirrhotic (control) livers (n = 25). The S9 total protein content was significantly lower in alcoholic or HCV cirrhotic versus control livers (i.e., 38.3 ± 8.3, 32.3 ± 12.8, vs. 51.1 ± 20.7 mg/g liver, respectively). In general, alcoholic cirrhosis was associated with a larger decrease in the DME abundance than HCV cirrhosis; however, only the abundance of UGT1A4, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)1A, and ADH1B was significantly lower in alcoholic versus HCV cirrhotic livers. When normalized to per gram of tissue, the abundance of nine DMEs (UGT1A6, UGT1A4, CYP3A4, UGT2B7, CYP1A2, ADH1A, ADH1B, aldehyde oxidase (AOX)1, and carboxylesterase (CES)1) in alcoholic cirrhosis and five DMEs (UGT1A6, UGT1A4, CYP3A4, UGT2B7, and CYP1A2) in HCV cirrhosis was <25% of that in control livers. The abundance of most DMEs in cirrhotic livers was 25% to 50% of control livers. CES2 abundance was not affected by cirrhosis. Integration of UGT2B7 abundance in cirrhotic livers into the liver cirrhosis (Child Pugh C) model of Simcyp improved the prediction of zidovudine and morphine PK in subjects with Child Pugh C liver cirrhosis. These data demonstrate that protein abundance data, combined with PBPK modeling and simulation, can be a powerful tool to predict drug disposition in special populations.


Assuntos
Hepatite C/metabolismo , Inativação Metabólica/fisiologia , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Álcool Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Alcoólicos , Carboxilesterase/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A2/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfina/farmacocinética , Proteômica/métodos , Adulto Jovem , Zidovudina/farmacocinética
15.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 46(5): 561-566, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29636376

RESUMO

Drug transporters are widely expressed in organs and tissue barriers throughout human and animal bodies. Studies over the last two decades have identified various ATP-binding cassette and solute carrier transporters that play critical roles in the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of drugs and xenobiotics. This special section contains more than 20 original manuscripts and reviews that cover the most recent advances in the areas of drug transporter research, including the basic biology and function of transporters, expression of drug transporters in organ and tissue barriers, the mechanisms underlying regulation of transporter expression, transporter-mediated drug disposition in animal models, and the development and utilization of new technologies in drug transporter study, as well as pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation to assess transporter involvement in drug disposition and drug-drug interactions. We believe that the topics covered in this special section will advance our understanding of the roles of transporters in drug disposition, efficacy, and safety.


Assuntos
Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Xenobióticos/metabolismo , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Interações de Medicamentos/fisiologia , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Camundongos
16.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 46(2): 178-188, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29162614

RESUMO

Perturbation of organic anion transporter (OAT) 1- and OAT3-mediated transport can alter the exposure, efficacy, and safety of drugs. Although there have been reports of the endogenous biomarkers for OAT1/3, none of these have all of the characteristics required for a clinical useful biomarker. Cynomolgus monkeys were treated with intravenous probenecid (PROB) at a dose of 40 mg/kg in this study. As expected, PROB increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of coadministered furosemide, a known substrate of OAT1 and OAT3, by 4.1-fold, consistent with the values reported in humans (3.1- to 3.7-fold). Of the 233 plasma metabolites analyzed using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based metabolomics method, 29 metabolites, including pyridoxic acid (PDA) and homovanillic acid (HVA), were significantly increased after either 1 or 3 hours in plasma from the monkeys pretreated with PROB compared with the treated animals. The plasma of animals was then subjected to targeted LC-MS/MS analysis, which confirmed that the PDA and HVA AUCs increased by approximately 2- to 3-fold by PROB pretreatments. PROB also increased the plasma concentrations of hexadecanedioic acid (HDA) and tetradecanedioic acid (TDA), although the increases were not statistically significant. Moreover, transporter profiling assessed using stable cell lines constitutively expressing transporters demonstrated that PDA and HVA are substrates for human OAT1, OAT3, OAT2 (HVA), and OAT4 (PDA), but not OCT2, MATE1, MATE2K, OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide. Collectively, these findings suggest that PDA and HVA might serve as blood-based endogenous probes of cynomolgus monkey OAT1 and OAT3, and investigation of PDA and HVA as circulating endogenous biomarkers of human OAT1 and OAT3 function is warranted.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Ácido Homovanílico/sangue , Proteína 1 Transportadora de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Sódio-Independentes/metabolismo , Ácido Piridóxico/sangue , Animais , Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Macaca fascicularis , Metabolômica/métodos , Probenecid/metabolismo
17.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 46(2): 189-196, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29138286

RESUMO

Protein expression of major hepatobiliary drug transporters (NTCP, OATPs, OCT1, BSEP, BCRP, MATE1, MRPs, and P-gp) in cancerous (C, n = 8) and adjacent noncancerous (NC, n = 33) liver tissues obtained from patients with chronic hepatitis C with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCV-HCC) were quantified by LC-MS/MS proteomics. Herein, we compare our results with our previous data from noninfected, noncirrhotic (control, n = 36) and HCV-cirrhotic (n = 30) livers. The amount of membrane protein yielded from NC and C HCV-HCC tissues decreased (31%, 67%) relative to control livers. In comparison with control livers, with the exception of NTCP, MRP2, and MATE1, transporter expression decreased in NC (38%-76%) and C (56%-96%) HCV-HCC tissues. In NC HCV-HCC tissues, NTCP expression increased (113%), MATE1 expression decreased (58%), and MRP2 expression was unchanged relative to control livers. In C HCV-HCC tissues, NTCP and MRP2 expression decreased (63%, 56%) and MATE1 expression was unchanged relative to control livers. Compared with HCV-cirrhotic livers, aside from NTCP, OCT1, BSEP, and MRP2, transporter expression decreased in NC (41%-71%) and C (54%-89%) HCV-HCC tissues. In NC HCV-HCC tissues, NTCP and MRP2 expression increased (362%, 142%), whereas OCT1 and BSEP expression was unchanged. In C HCV-HCC tissues, OCT1 and BSEP expression decreased (90%, 80%) relative to HCV-cirrhotic livers, whereas NTCP and MRP2 expression was unchanged. Expression of OATP2B1, BSEP, MRP2, and MRP3 decreased (56%-72%) in C HCV-HCC tissues in comparison with matched NC tissues (n = 8), but the expression of other transporters was unchanged. These data will be helpful in the future to predict transporter-mediated hepatocellular drug concentrations in patients with HCV-HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Hepatite C Crônica/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
18.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 104(3): 564-574, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29243231

RESUMO

This study evaluated coproporphyrin I (CPI) as a selective endogenous biomarker of OATP1B-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs) relative to clinical probe rosuvastatin using nonlinear mixed-effect modeling. Plasma and urine CPI data in the presence/absence of rifampicin were modeled to describe CPI synthesis, elimination clearances, and obtain rifampicin in vivo OATP Ki. The biomarker showed stable interoccasion baseline concentrations and low interindividual variability (<25%) in subjects with wildtype SLCO1B1. Biliary excretion was the dominant CPI elimination route (maximal >85%). Estimated rifampicin in vivo unbound OATP Ki (0.13 µM) using CPI data was 2-fold lower relative to rosuvastatin. Model-based simulations and power calculations confirmed sensitivity of CPI to identify moderate and weak OATP1B inhibitors in an adequately powered clinical study. Current analysis provides the most detailed evaluation of CPI as an endogenous OATP1B biomarker to support optimal DDI study design; further pharmacogenomic and DDI data with a panel of inhibitors are required.

19.
AAPS J ; 19(6): 1878-1889, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29019117

RESUMO

In the present investigations, we evaluate in vitro hepatocyte uptake and partitioning for the prediction of in vivo clearance and liver partitioning. Monkeys were intravenously co-dosed with rosuvastatin and bosentan, substrates of the organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), and metformin, a substrate of organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1). Serial plasma and liver samples were collected over time. Liver and plasma unbound fraction was determined using equilibrium dialysis. In vivo unbound partitioning (Kpu,u) for rosuvastatin, bosentan, and metformin, calculated from total concentrations in the liver and plasma, were 243, 553, and 15, respectively. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic monkey model that incorporates active and passive hepatic uptake was developed to fit plasma and liver concentrations. In addition, a two-compartment model was used to fit in vitro hepatic uptake curves in suspended monkey hepatocyte to determine active uptake, passive diffusion, and intracellular unbound fraction parameters. At steady-state in the model, in vitro Kpu,u was determined. The results demonstrated that in vitro values under-predicted in vivo active uptake for rosuvastatin, bosentan, and metformin by 6.7-, 28-, and 1.5-fold, respectively, while passive diffusion was over-predicted. In vivo Kpu,u values were under-predicted from in vitro data by 30-, 79-, and 3-fold. In conclusion, active uptake and liver partitioning in monkeys for OATP substrates were greatly under-predicted from in vitro hepatocyte uptake, while OCT-mediated uptake and partitioning scaled reasonably well from in vitro, demonstrating substrate- and transporter-dependent scaling factors. The combination of in vitro experimental and modeling approaches proved useful for assessing prediction of in vivo intracellular partitioning.


Assuntos
Fígado/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/fisiologia , Transportador 1 de Cátions Orgânicos/fisiologia , Animais , Bosentana , Macaca fascicularis , Metformina/farmacocinética , Modelos Biológicos , Rosuvastatina Cálcica/farmacocinética , Sulfonamidas/farmacocinética
20.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 362(3): 385-394, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28645914

RESUMO

The interference of bile acid secretion through bile salt export pump (BSEP) inhibition is one of the mechanisms for troglitazone (TGZ)-induced hepatotoxicity. Here, we investigated the impact of single or repeated oral doses of TGZ (200 mg/kg/day, 7 days) on bile acid homoeostasis in wild-type (WT) and Bsep knockout (KO) rats. Following oral doses, plasma exposures of TGZ were not different between WT and KO rats, and were similar on day 1 and day 7. However, plasma exposures of the major metabolite, troglitazone sulfate (TS), in KO rats were 7.6- and 9.3-fold lower than in WT on day 1 and day 7, respectively, due to increased TS biliary excretion. With Bsep KO, the mRNA levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2), Mrp3, Mrp4, Mdr1, breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide, small heterodimer partner, and Sult2A1 were significantly altered in KO rats. Following seven daily TGZ treatments, Cyp7A1 was significantly increased in both WT and KO rats. In the vehicle groups, plasma exposures of individual bile acids demonstrated variable changes in KO rats as compared with WT. WT rats dosed with TGZ showed an increase of many bile acid species in plasma on day 1, suggesting the inhibition of Bsep. Conversely, these changes returned to base levels on day 7. In KO rats, alterations of most bile acids were observed after seven doses of TGZ. Collectively, bile acid homeostasis in rats was regulated through bile acid synthesis and transport in response to Bsep deficiency and TGZ inhibition. Additionally, our study is the first to demonstrate that repeated TGZ doses can upregulate Cyp7A1 in rats.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Cromanos/farmacologia , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase/genética , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Tiazolidinedionas/farmacologia , Membro 11 da Subfamília B de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP , Animais , Bile/metabolismo , Colesterol 7-alfa-Hidroxilase/biossíntese , Colesterol 7-alfa-Hidroxilase/genética , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Troglitazona , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA