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1.
Prehosp Emerg Care ; 25(4): 588-592, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776812

RESUMO

The American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma (ACS-COT), the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), the National Association of State EMS Officials (NASEMSO), the National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP) and the National Association of EMTs (NAEMT) have previously offered varied guidance on the use of ketamine in trauma patients. The following consensus statement represents the collective positions of the ACS-COT, ACEP, NASEMSO, NAEMSP and NAEMT. This updated uniform guidance is intended for use by emergency medical services (EMS) personnel, EMS medical directors, emergency physicians, trauma surgeons, nurses and pharmacists in their treatment of the trauma patient in both the prehospital and hospital setting.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Ketamina , Consenso , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitais , Humanos
2.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 21(7): e407-e413, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150122

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe and evaluate prehospital life-saving interventions performed in a pediatric population in the Afghanistan theater of operations. DESIGN: Our study was a post hoc, subanalysis of a larger multicenter, prospective, observational study. SETTING: We evaluated casualties enrolled upon admission to one of the nine military medical facilities in Afghanistan between January 2009 and March 2014. PATIENTS: Adult and pediatric (<17 yr old) patients. MEASUREMENTS: We conducted initial descriptive analyses followed by comparative tests. For comparative analysis, we stratified the study population (adult vs pediatric), and subsequently, we compared injury descriptions and the interventions performed. Following tests for normality, we used the t test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test (nonparametric) for continuous variables and chi-square or Fisher exact for categorical variables. We reported percentages and 95% CIs. MAIN RESULTS: We enrolled 2,106 patients, of which 5.6% (n = 118) were pediatric. Eighty-two percent of the pediatric patients were male, and 435 had blast related injuries. A total of 295 prehospital life-saving interventions were performed on 118 pediatric patients, for an average of 2.5 life-saving interventions per patient. Vascular access (IV 96%, intraosseous 91%) and hypothermia prevention-related interventions (69%) were the most common. Incorrectly performed life-saving interventions in pediatric patients were rare (98% of life-saving interventions performed correctly) and n equals to 24 life-saving interventions over the 6-year period were missed. The most common incorrectly performed and missed life-saving interventions were related to vascular access. When compared with adult life-saving interventions received in the prehospital environment, pediatric patients were more likely to receive intraosseous access (p < 0.0001), whereas adult patients were more likely to have a tourniquet placed (p = 0.0019), receive wound packing with a hemostatic agent (p = 0.0091), and receive chest interventions (p = 0.0003). CONCLUSIONS: In our study, the most common intervention was vascular access followed by hypothermia prevention and hemorrhage control. The occurrence of missed or incorrectly performed life-saving interventions were rare.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Ferimentos e Lesões , Adulto , Afeganistão , Criança , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Infusões Intraósseas , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
3.
Mil Med ; 185(Suppl 1): 136-142, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074369

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Ketamine is used as an analgesic for combat injuries. Ketamine may worsen brain injury, but new studies suggest neuroprotection. Our objective was to report the outcomes of combat casualties with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who received prehospital ketamine. METHODS: This was a post hoc, sub-analysis of a larger prospective, multicenter study (the Life Saving Intervention study [LSI]) evaluating prehospital interventions performed in Afghanistan. A DoD Trauma Registry query provided disposition at discharge and outcomes to be linked with the LSI data. RESULTS: For this study, we enrolled casualties that were suspected to have TBI (n = 160). Most were 26-year-old males (98%) with explosion-related injuries (66%), a median injury severity score of 12, and 5% mortality. Fifty-seven percent (n = 91) received an analgesic, 29% (n = 46) ketamine, 28% (n = 45) other analgesic (OA), and 43% (n = 69) no analgesic (NA). The ketamine group had more pelvic injuries (P = 0.0302) and tourniquets (P = 0.0041) compared to OA. In comparison to NA, the ketamine group was more severely injured and more likely to require LSI procedures, yet, had similar vital signs at admission and disposition at discharge. CONCLUSIONS: We found that combat casualties with suspected TBI that received prehospital ketamine had similar outcomes to those that received OAs or NAs despite injury differences.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/tratamento farmacológico , Ketamina/uso terapêutico , Guerra , Adulto , Afeganistão , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Mil Med ; 184(Suppl 1): 133-137, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901391

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Care provided to a casualty in the prehospital combat setting can influence subsequent medical interactions and impact patient outcomes; therefore, we aimed to describe the incidence of specific prehospital interventions (lifesaving interventions (LSIs)) performed during the resuscitation and transport of combat casualties. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational, IRB approved study between November 2009 and March 2014. Casualties were enrolled as they were cared for at nine U.S. military medical facilities in Afghanistan. Data were collected using a standardized collection form. Determination if a prehospital intervention was performed correctly, performed incorrectly, or was necessary but was not performed (missed LSIs) was made by the receiving facility's medical provider. RESULTS: Two thousand one hundred and six patients met inclusion criteria. The mean age was 25 years and 98% were male. The most common mechanism of injury was explosion 57%. There were 236 airway interventions attempted, 183 chest procedures, 1,673 hemorrhage control, 1,698 vascular access, and 1,066 hypothermia preventions implemented. There were 142 incorrectly performed interventions and 360 were missed. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, the most commonly performed prehospital LSI in a combat setting were for vascular access and hemorrhage control. The most common incorrectly performed and missed interventions were airway interventions and chest procedures respectively.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Campanha Afegã de 2001- , Afeganistão , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/métodos , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/estatística & dados numéricos , Cateterismo Periférico/métodos , Cateterismo Periférico/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotermia/terapia , Masculino , Medicina Militar/métodos , Medicina Militar/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
West J Emerg Med ; 16(1): 98-106, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25671017

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The most effective use of trauma center resources helps reduce morbidity and mortality, while saving costs. Identifying critical infrastructure characteristics, patient characteristics and staffing components of a trauma center associated with the proportion of patients needing major trauma care will help planners create better systems for patient care. METHODS: We used the 2009 National Trauma Data Bank-Research Dataset to determine the proportion of critically injured patients requiring the resources of a trauma center within each Level I-IV trauma center (n=443). The outcome variable was defined as the portion of treated patients who were critically injured. We defined the need for critical trauma resources and interventions ("trauma center need") as death prior to hospital discharge, admission to the intensive care unit, or admission to the operating room from the emergency department as a result of acute traumatic injury. Generalized Linear Modeling (GLM) was used to determine how hospital infrastructure, staffing Levels, and patient characteristics contributed to trauma center need. RESULTS: Nonprofit Level I and II trauma centers were significantly associated with higher levels of trauma center need. Trauma centers that had a higher percentage of transferred patients or a lower percentage of insured patients were associated with a higher proportion of trauma center need. Hospital infrastructure characteristics, such as bed capacity and intensive care unit capacity, were not associated with trauma center need. A GLM for Level III and IV trauma centers showed that the number of trauma surgeons on staff was associated with trauma center need. CONCLUSION: Because the proportion of trauma center need is predominantly influenced by hospital type, transfer frequency, and insurance status, it is important for administrators to consider patient population characteristics of the catchment area when planning the construction of new trauma centers or when coordinating care within state or regional trauma systems.


Assuntos
Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal/organização & administração , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Lineares , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia/organização & administração , Estados Unidos
7.
Prehosp Emerg Care ; 19(2): 267-71, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25290529

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Accuracy and effectiveness analyses of mass casualty triage systems are limited because there are no gold standard definitions for each of the triage categories. Until there is agreement on which patients should be identified by each triage category, it will be impossible to calculate sensitivity and specificity or to compare accuracy between triage systems. OBJECTIVE: To develop a consensus-based, functional gold standard definition for each mass casualty triage category. METHODS: National experts were recruited through the lead investigators' contacts and their suggested contacts. Key informant interviews were conducted to develop a list of potential criteria for defining each triage category. Panelists were interviewed in order of their availability until redundancy of themes was achieved. Panelists were blinded to each other's responses during the interviews. A modified Delphi survey was developed with the potential criteria identified during the interview and delivered to all recruited experts. In the early rounds, panelists could add, remove, or modify criteria. In the final rounds edits were made to the criteria until at least 80% agreement was achieved. RESULTS: Thirteen national and local experts were recruited to participate in the project. Six interviews were conducted. Three rounds of voting were performed, with 12 panelists participating in the first round, 12 in the second round, and 13 in the third round. After the first two rounds, the criteria were modified according to respondent suggestions. In the final round, over 90% agreement was achieved for all but one criterion. A single e-mail vote was conducted on edits to the final criterion and consensus was achieved. CONCLUSION: A consensus-based, functional gold standard definition for each mass casualty triage category was developed. These gold standard definitions can be used to evaluate the accuracy of mass casualty triage systems after an actual incident, during training, or for research.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/normas , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa , Centros de Traumatologia/normas , Triagem/normas , Consenso , Humanos , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde
8.
Prehosp Emerg Care ; 17(4): 486-90, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23865806

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to describe the short-term outcomes (during air transport) of patients managed by the United States Air Force Critical Care Air Transport Teams (CCATT). METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of patients who were transported by CCATT between March 1, 2007 and June 30, 2008. A standardized abstraction form was used. Patients were classified as medical or trauma. Care given inflight was documented, including mechanical ventilation, vasoactive medication administration, and administration of blood products. Short-term events (during air transport) included death, oxyhemoglobin desaturation, hypotension, decline in neurological status, development of anuria or oliguria, and dislodgement of endotracheal and chest tubes. RESULTS: A total of 656 patient moves met inclusion criteria, of which 425 (64.8%) were trauma and 231 (35.2%) were medical. Mechanical ventilation was required by 318 (49%), 68 (10%) received vasoactive medications, and 43 (7%) required blood products during the flight. There were a total of 75 events documented on 65 patient transports (10%). Of these, 19 were oxyhemoglobin desaturation, 29 were hypotension, 3 were decline in neurological status, and 23 were due to anuria or oliguria. We did not encounter any deaths or loss of airway or chest tubes during transport. CONCLUSION: CCATTs are a successful platform in transporting critically injured/ill patients with minimal short-term complications.


Assuntos
Resgate Aéreo , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Medicina Militar , Militares , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Guerra do Iraque 2003-2011 , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Recursos Humanos
10.
J Emerg Nurs ; 39(6): e101-6, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23684131

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Most critically ill injured patients are transported out of the theater by Critical Care Air Transport Teams (CCATTs). Fever after trauma is correlated with surgical complications and infection. The purposes of this study are to identify the incidence of elevated temperature in patients managed in the CCATT environment and to describe the complications reported and the treatments used in these patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of available records of trauma patients from the combat theater between March 1, 2009, and March 31, 2010, who were transported by the US Air Force CCATT and had an incidence of hyperthermia. We then divided the cohort into 2 groups, patients transported with an elevation in temperature greater than 100.4°F and patients with no documented elevation in temperature. We used a standardized, secure electronic data collection form to abstract the outcomes. Descriptive data collected included injury type, temperature, use of a mechanical ventilator, cooling treatment modalities, antipyretics, intravenous fluid administration, and use of blood products. We also evaluated the incidence of complications during the transport in patients who had a recorded elevation in temperature greater than 100.4°F. RESULTS: A total of 248 trauma patients met the inclusion criteria, and 101 trauma patients (40%) had fever. The mean age was 28 years, and 98% of patients were men. The mechanism of injury was an explosion in 156 patients (63%), blunt injury in 11 (4%), and penetrating injury in 45 (18%), whereas other trauma-related injuries accounted for 36 patients (15%). Of the patients, 209 (84%) had battle-related injuries and 39 (16%) had non-battle-related injuries. Traumatic brain injury was found in 24 patients (24%) with an incidence of elevated temperature. The mean temperature was 101.6°F (range, 100.5°F-103.9°F). After evaluation of therapies and treatments, 80 trauma patients (51%) were intubated on a mechanical ventilator (P < .001). Of the trauma patients with documented fever, 22 (22%) received administration of blood products. Nineteen patients received antipyretics during their flight (19%), 9 received intravenous fluids (9%), and 2 received nonpharmacologic cooling interventions, such as cooling blankets or icepacks. We identified 1 trauma patient with neurologic changes (1%), 6 with hypotension (6%), 48 with tachycardia (48%), 33 with decreased urinary output (33%), and 1 with an episode of shivering or sweating (1%). We did not detect any transfusion reactions or deaths during flight. CONCLUSION: Fever occurred in 41% of critically ill combat-injured patients evacuated out of the combat theater in Iraq and Afghanistan. Fewer than 20% of patients with a documented elevated temperature received treatments to reduce the temperature. Intubation of patients with ventilators in use during the transport was the only factor significantly associated with fever. Serious complications were rare, and there were no deaths during these transports.


Assuntos
Resgate Aéreo , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Febre/epidemiologia , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Lesões Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Lesões Encefálicas/enfermagem , Comorbidade , Enfermagem de Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Feminino , Febre/enfermagem , Humanos , Incidência , Iraque , Guerra do Iraque 2003-2011 , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ferimentos e Lesões/enfermagem , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/epidemiologia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/enfermagem , Ferimentos Penetrantes/epidemiologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/enfermagem , Adulto Jovem
11.
Prehosp Emerg Care ; 17(2): 280-4, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23331182

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to compare the flow rates of the proximal tibia, the distal femur, and the proximal humerus using high pressure (greater than 300 mmHg) through an intraosseous (IO) infusion needle in an adult swine model. METHODS: We performed a prospective interventional study in 11 swine. After placement of central vein and arterial lines, blood was removed via the central line until the animal's mean arterial pressure decreased 25% from the recorded baseline. We inserted a 25-mm IO needle into the proximal tibia and 45-mm needles into the distal femur and proximal humerus. All extremities were utilized in each study animal. We infused normal saline at each site for 10 minutes with a pressure bag inflated to the highest achievable pressure (greater than 300 mmHg) as measured at the infusion site with a calibrated portable inline pressure gauge. We measured the volume of normal saline remaining and we calculated infusion rates for each site. We then compared infusion flow rates between the three locations. Statistical analysis and comparison of the infusion rates of all three study arms were as performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). RESULTS: The average weight of the swine was 71 kg (range 64-84 kg). Successful placement of the IO needle was confirmed at all three sites. The mean infusion flow rate was 213 mL/min (standard deviation [SD] 53.2 mL/min) for the proximal humerus, 138 mL/min (SD 65.3 mL/min) for the distal femur, and 103 mL/min (SD 48.1 mL/min) for the proximal tibia (p < 0.001). The flow rate through the proximal humerus was statistically greater than that for the proximal tibia and the distal femur (p < 0.001). The flow rates through the proximal tibia and distal femur were similar. CONCLUSION: The humerus is a suitable alternative site for IO placement, with a potential for higher flow rates than the proximal tibia and distal femur when resuscitating a patient.


Assuntos
Fêmur , Hidratação/métodos , Úmero , Infusões Intraósseas/métodos , Tíbia , Animais , Soluções Cristaloides , Feminino , Infusões Intraósseas/efeitos adversos , Soluções Isotônicas/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Segurança , Suínos
13.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 73(2 Suppl 1): S38-42, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22847092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Battlefield care given to a casualty before hospital arrival impacts clinical outcomes. To date, the published data regarding care given in the prehospital setting of a combat zone are limited. The purpose of this study was to describe the incidence and efficacy of specific prehospital lifesaving interventions (LSIs; interventions that could affect the outcome of the casualty), consistent with the Tactical Combat Casualty Care paradigm, performed during the resuscitation of casualties in a combat zone. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational study between November 2009 and November 2011. Casualties were enrolled as they were treated at six US surgical facilities in Afghanistan. Descriptive data were collected on a standardized data collection form and included mechanism of injury, airway management, chest and hemorrhage interventions, vascular access, type of fluid administered, and hypothermia prevention. On arrival to the military hospital, the treating physician determined whether an intervention was performed correctly and whether an intervention was not performed that should have been performed (missed LSI). RESULTS: A total of 1,003 patients met the inclusion criteria. Their mean (SD) age was 25 (8.5) years and 97% were male. The mechanism of injury was explosion in 60% of patients, penetrating in 24% of patients, blunt in 15% of patients, and burn in 0.8% of patients. The most commonly performed LSIs included hemorrhage control (n = 599), hypothermia prevention (n = 429), and vascular access (n = 388). Of the missed LSIs, 252 were identified with the highest percentage of missed opportunities being composed of endotracheal intubation, chest needle decompression, and hypotensive resuscitation. In contrast, tourniquet application had the lowest percentage of missed opportunities. CONCLUSIONS: In our prospective study of prehospital LSIs performed in a combat zone, we observed a higher rate of incorrectly performed and missed LSIs in airway and chest (breathing) interventions than hemorrhage control interventions. The most commonly performed LSIs had lower incorrect and missed LSI rates.


Assuntos
Campanha Afegã de 2001- , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/normas , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Militar/normas , Medicina Militar/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia
14.
Ann Emerg Med ; 59(6): 532-9, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22387086

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: We compare the efficacy of hydroxocobalamin to sodium thiosulfate to reverse the depressive effects on mean arterial pressure in a swine model of acute cyanide toxicity and gain a better understanding of the mechanism of action of the hydroxocobalamin in reversal of the toxicity. METHODS: Swine were intubated, anesthetized, and instrumented with central arterial and venous lines and a pulmonary artery catheter. Animals (n=36) were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups: hydroxocobalamin alone (150 mg/kg), sodium thiosulfate alone (413 mg/kg), or hydroxocobalamin (150 mg/kg)+sodium thiosulfate (413 mg/kg) and monitored for 60 minutes after the start of antidotal infusion. Cyanide was infused until severe hypotension developed, defined as blood pressure 50% of baseline mean arterial pressure. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to determine statistically significant changes between groups over time. RESULTS: Time to hypotension (25, 28, and 33 minutes), cyanide dose at hypotension (4.7, 5.0, and 5.6 mg/kg), and mean cyanide blood levels (3.2, 3.7, and 3.8 µg/mL) and lactate levels (7, 8.2, 8.3 and mmol/L) were similar. All 12 animals in the sodium thiosulfate group died compared with 2 of 12 in the hydroxocobalamin/sodium thiosulfate group and 1 of 12 in hydroxocobalamin group. No statistically significant differences were detected between the hydroxocobalamin and hydroxocobalamin/sodium thiosulfate groups for carbon monoxide, mean arterial pressure, cyanide levels, or mortality at 60 minutes. Lactate level (2.6 versus 2.1 mmol/L), pH (7.44 versus 7.42), and bicarbonate level (25 versus 26 mEq/L) at 60 minutes were also similar between groups. CONCLUSION: Sodium thiosulfate failed to reverse cyanide-induced shock in our swine model of severe cyanide toxicity. Further, sodium thiosulfate was not found to be effective when added to hydroxocobalamin in the treatment of cyanide-induced shock. Hydroxocobalamin alone was again found to be effective for severe cyanide toxicity.


Assuntos
Antídotos/uso terapêutico , Cianetos/toxicidade , Hidroxocobalamina/uso terapêutico , Tiossulfatos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antídotos/administração & dosagem , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Cianetos/antagonistas & inibidores , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidroxocobalamina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Choque/induzido quimicamente , Choque/tratamento farmacológico , Sus scrofa , Tiossulfatos/administração & dosagem , Resistência Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Prehosp Emerg Care ; 16(2): 273-6, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22191659

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to provide a descriptive study of the management of burns in the prehospital setting of a combat zone. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of U.S. casualties with >20% total-body-surface-area thermal burns, transported from the site of injury to Ibn Sina Combat Support Hospital (CSH) between January 1, 2006, and August 30, 2009. RESULTS: Ibn Sina CSH received 225 burn casualties between January 2006 and August 2009. Of these, 48 met the inclusion criteria. The mean Injury Severity Score was 31.7 (range 4 to 75). Prehospital vascular access was obtained in 24 casualties (50%), and 20 of the casualties received fluid resuscitation. Out of the 48 casualties enrolled, 28 (58.3%) did not receive prehospital fluid resuscitation. Of the casualties who received fluid resuscitation, nearly all received volumes in excess of the guidelines established by the American Burn Association and those recommended by the Committee for Tactical Combat Casualty Care. With regard to pain management in the prehospital setting, 13 casualties (27.1%) received pain medication. CONCLUSIONS: With regard to the prehospital fluid resuscitation of primary thermal injury in the combat zone, two extremes were noted. The first group did not receive any fluid resuscitation; the second group was resuscitated with fluid volumes higher than those expected if established guidelines were utilized. Pain management was not uniformly provided to major burn casualties, even in several with vascular access. These observations support improved education of prehospital personnel serving in a combat zone.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/terapia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Hidratação , Medicina Militar/métodos , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Adulto , Queimaduras/diagnóstico , Queimaduras/mortalidade , Feminino , Hospitais Militares , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Guerra do Iraque 2003-2011 , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 5(2): 129-37, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21685309

RESUMO

Mass casualty triage is the process of prioritizing multiple victims when resources are not sufficient to treat everyone immediately. No national guideline for mass casualty triage exists in the United States. The lack of a national guideline has resulted in variability in triage processes, tags, and nomenclature. This variability has the potential to inject confusion and miscommunication into the disaster incident, particularly when multiple jurisdictions are involved. The Model Uniform Core Criteria for Mass Casualty Triage were developed to be a national guideline for mass casualty triage to ensure interoperability and standardization when responding to a mass casualty incident. The Core Criteria consist of 4 categories: general considerations, global sorting, lifesaving interventions, and individual assessment of triage category. The criteria within each of these categories were developed by a workgroup of experts representing national stakeholder organizations who used the best available science and, when necessary, consensus opinion. This article describes how the Model Uniform Core Criteria for Mass Casualty Triage were developed.


Assuntos
Benchmarking/métodos , Planejamento em Desastres/normas , Socorristas , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa , Triagem/normas , Benchmarking/normas , Planejamento em Desastres/métodos , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Humanos , Modelos Organizacionais , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Competência Profissional , Saúde Pública , Socorro em Desastres , Triagem/métodos , Triagem/organização & administração , Estados Unidos
17.
Ann Emerg Med ; 55(4): 345-51, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19944487

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Cyanide can cause severe hypotension with acute toxicity. To our knowledge, no study has directly compared hydroxocobalamin and sodium nitrite with sodium thiosulfate in an acute cyanide toxicity model. Our objective is to compare the return to baseline of mean arterial blood pressure between 2 groups of swine with acute cyanide toxicity and treated with hydroxocobalamin with sodium thiosulfate or sodium nitrite with sodium thiosulfate. METHODS: Twenty-four swine were intubated, anesthetized, and instrumented (continuous arterial and cardiac output monitoring) and then intoxicated with a continuous cyanide infusion until severe hypotension. The animals were divided into 2 arms of 12 each and then randomly assigned to intravenous hydroxocobalamin (150 mg/kg)+sodium thiosulfate (413 mg/kg) or sodium nitrite (10 mg/kg)+sodium thiosulfate (413 mg/kg) and monitored for 40 minutes after start of antidotal infusion. Twenty animals were needed for 80% power to detect a significant difference in outcomes (alpha 0.05). Repeated measures of analysis of covariance and post hoc t test were used for determining significance. RESULTS: Baseline mean weights, time to hypotension (31 minutes 3 seconds versus 28 minutes 6 seconds), and cyanide dose at hypotension (5.6 versus 5.9 mg/kg) were similar. One animal in the hydroxocobalamin group and 2 animals in the sodium nitrite group died during antidote infusion and were excluded from analysis. Hydroxocobalamin resulted in a faster return to baseline mean arterial pressure, with improvement beginning at 5 minutes and lasting through the conclusion of the study (P<.05). No statistically significant difference was detected between groups for cardiac output, pulse rate, systemic vascular resistance, or mortality at 40 minutes post intoxication. Mean cyanide blood levels (4.03 versus 4.05 microg/mL) and lactate levels (peak 7.9 versus 8.1 mmol/L) at hypotension were similar. Lactate levels (5.1 versus 4.48 mmol/L), pH (7.40 versus 7.37), and base excess (-0.75 versus 1.27) at 40 minutes were also similar. CONCLUSION: Hydroxocobalamin with sodium thiosulfate led to a faster return to baseline mean arterial pressure compared with sodium nitrite with sodium thiosulfate; however, there was no difference between the antidote combinations in mortality, serum acidosis, or serum lactate.


Assuntos
Antídotos/uso terapêutico , Cianetos/envenenamento , Hidroxocobalamina/uso terapêutico , Nitrito de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Tiossulfatos/uso terapêutico , Acidose/induzido quimicamente , Acidose/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antídotos/administração & dosagem , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipotensão/tratamento farmacológico , Lactatos/sangue , Masculino , Monitorização Fisiológica , Sus scrofa , Fatores de Tempo
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