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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4486, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582744

RESUMO

Genome organization involves cis and trans chromosomal interactions, both implicated in gene regulation, development, and disease. Here, we focus on trans interactions in Drosophila, where homologous chromosomes are paired in somatic cells from embryogenesis through adulthood. We first address long-standing questions regarding the structure of embryonic homolog pairing and, to this end, develop a haplotype-resolved Hi-C approach to minimize homolog misassignment and thus robustly distinguish trans-homolog from cis contacts. This computational approach, which we call Ohm, reveals pairing to be surprisingly structured genome-wide, with trans-homolog domains, compartments, and interaction peaks, many coinciding with analogous cis features. We also find a significant genome-wide correlation between pairing, transcription during zygotic genome activation, and binding of the pioneer factor Zelda. Our findings reveal a complex, highly structured organization underlying homolog pairing, first discovered a century ago in Drosophila. Finally, we demonstrate the versatility of our haplotype-resolved approach by applying it to mammalian embryos.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4485, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582763

RESUMO

Trans-homolog interactions have been studied extensively in Drosophila, where homologs are paired in somatic cells and transvection is prevalent. Nevertheless, the detailed structure of pairing and its functional impact have not been thoroughly investigated. Accordingly, we generated a diploid cell line from divergent parents and applied haplotype-resolved Hi-C, showing that homologs pair with varying precision genome-wide, in addition to establishing trans-homolog domains and compartments. We also elucidate the structure of pairing with unprecedented detail, observing significant variation across the genome and revealing at least two forms of pairing: tight pairing, spanning contiguous small domains, and loose pairing, consisting of single larger domains. Strikingly, active genomic regions (A-type compartments, active chromatin, expressed genes) correlated with tight pairing, suggesting that pairing has a functional implication genome-wide. Finally, using RNAi and haplotype-resolved Hi-C, we show that disruption of pairing-promoting factors results in global changes in pairing, including the disruption of some interaction peaks.

3.
Nature ; 572(7771): E22, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375785

RESUMO

An Amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

4.
Nature ; 570(7761): 395-399, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168090

RESUMO

The nucleus of mammalian cells displays a distinct spatial segregation of active euchromatic and inactive heterochromatic regions of the genome1,2. In conventional nuclei, microscopy shows that euchromatin is localized in the nuclear interior and heterochromatin at the nuclear periphery1,2. Genome-wide chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) analyses show this segregation as a plaid pattern of contact enrichment within euchromatin and heterochromatin compartments3, and depletion between them. Many mechanisms for the formation of compartments have been proposed, such as attraction of heterochromatin to the nuclear lamina2,4, preferential attraction of similar chromatin to each other1,4-12, higher levels of chromatin mobility in active chromatin13-15 and transcription-related clustering of euchromatin16,17. However, these hypotheses have remained inconclusive, owing to the difficulty of disentangling intra-chromatin and chromatin-lamina interactions in conventional nuclei18. The marked reorganization of interphase chromosomes in the inverted nuclei of rods in nocturnal mammals19,20 provides an opportunity to elucidate the mechanisms that underlie spatial compartmentalization. Here we combine Hi-C analysis of inverted rod nuclei with microscopy and polymer simulations. We find that attractions between heterochromatic regions are crucial for establishing both compartmentalization and the concentric shells of pericentromeric heterochromatin, facultative heterochromatin and euchromatin in the inverted nucleus. When interactions between heterochromatin and the lamina are added, the same model recreates the conventional nuclear organization. In addition, our models allow us to rule out mechanisms of compartmentalization that involve strong euchromatin interactions. Together, our experiments and modelling suggest that attractions between heterochromatic regions are essential for the phase separation of the active and inactive genome in inverted and conventional nuclei, whereas interactions of the chromatin with the lamina are necessary to build the conventional architecture from these segregated phases.

5.
Bioinformatics ; 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134279

RESUMO

SUMMARY: We describe a novel computational method for genotyping repeats using sequence graphs. This method addresses the long-standing need to accurately genotype medically important loci containing repeats adjacent to other variants or imperfect DNA repeats such as polyalanine repeats. Here we introduce a new version of our repeat genotyping software, ExpansionHunter, that uses this method to perform targeted genotyping of a broad class of such loci. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: ExpansionHunter is implemented in C++ and is available under the Apache License Version 2.0. The source code, documentation, and Linux/macOS binaries are available at https://github.com/Illumina/ExpansionHunter/. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(5): 925-935, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982609

RESUMO

Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) plays key roles in regulating development and function of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, including microglia and osteoclasts. Mono-allelic mutations of CSF1R are known to cause hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS), an adult-onset progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Here, we report seven affected individuals from three unrelated families who had bi-allelic CSF1R mutations. In addition to early-onset HDLS-like neurological disorders, they had brain malformations and skeletal dysplasia compatible to dysosteosclerosis (DOS) or Pyle disease. We identified five CSF1R mutations that were homozygous or compound heterozygous in these affected individuals. Two of them were deep intronic mutations resulting in abnormal inclusion of intron sequences in the mRNA. Compared with Csf1r-null mice, the skeletal and neural phenotypes of the affected individuals appeared milder and variable, suggesting that at least one of the mutations in each affected individual is hypomorphic. Our results characterized a unique human skeletal phenotype caused by CSF1R deficiency and implied that bi-allelic CSF1R mutations cause a spectrum of neurological and skeletal disorders, probably depending on the residual CSF1R function.

7.
Genome Biol ; 20(1): 57, 2019 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hi-C is currently the most widely used assay to investigate the 3D organization of the genome and to study its role in gene regulation, DNA replication, and disease. However, Hi-C experiments are costly to perform and involve multiple complex experimental steps; thus, accurate methods for measuring the quality and reproducibility of Hi-C data are essential to determine whether the output should be used further in a study. RESULTS: Using real and simulated data, we profile the performance of several recently proposed methods for assessing reproducibility of population Hi-C data, including HiCRep, GenomeDISCO, HiC-Spector, and QuASAR-Rep. By explicitly controlling noise and sparsity through simulations, we demonstrate the deficiencies of performing simple correlation analysis on pairs of matrices, and we show that methods developed specifically for Hi-C data produce better measures of reproducibility. We also show how to use established measures, such as the ratio of intra- to interchromosomal interactions, and novel ones, such as QuASAR-QC, to identify low-quality experiments. CONCLUSIONS: In this work, we assess reproducibility and quality measures by varying sequencing depth, resolution and noise levels in Hi-C data from 13 cell lines, with two biological replicates each, as well as 176 simulated matrices. Through this extensive validation and benchmarking of Hi-C data, we describe best practices for reproducibility and quality assessment of Hi-C experiments. We make all software publicly available at http://github.com/kundajelab/3DChromatin_ReplicateQC to facilitate adoption in the community.


Assuntos
Genômica/normas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/normas , Neoplasias/genética , Controle de Qualidade , Software , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
8.
Mol Cell ; 72(4): 715-726.e3, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415953

RESUMO

Compared to noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), such as rRNAs and ribozymes, for which high-resolution structures abound, little is known about the tertiary structures of mRNAs. In eukaryotic cells, newly made mRNAs are packaged with proteins in highly compacted mRNA particles (mRNPs), but the manner of this mRNA compaction is unknown. Here, we developed and implemented RIPPLiT (RNA immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation in tandem), a transcriptome-wide method for probing the 3D conformations of RNAs stably associated with defined proteins, in this case, exon junction complex (EJC) core factors. EJCs multimerize with other mRNP components to form megadalton-sized complexes that protect large swaths of newly synthesized mRNAs from endonuclease digestion. Unlike ncRNPs, wherein strong locus-specific structures predominate, mRNPs behave more like flexible polymers. Polymer analysis of proximity ligation data for hundreds of mRNA species demonstrates that nascent and pre-translational mammalian mRNAs are compacted by their associated proteins into linear rod-like structures.

9.
Genet Med ; 2018 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30293986

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Current diagnostic testing for genetic disorders involves serial use of specialized assays spanning multiple technologies. In principle, genome sequencing (GS) can detect all genomic pathogenic variant types on a single platform. Here we evaluate copy-number variant (CNV) calling as part of a clinically accredited GS test. METHODS: We performed analytical validation of CNV calling on 17 reference samples, compared the sensitivity of GS-based variants with those from a clinical microarray, and set a bound on precision using orthogonal technologies. We developed a protocol for family-based analysis of GS-based CNV calls, and deployed this across a clinical cohort of 79 rare and undiagnosed cases. RESULTS: We found that CNV calls from GS are at least as sensitive as those from microarrays, while only creating a modest increase in the number of variants interpreted (~10 CNVs per case). We identified clinically significant CNVs in 15% of the first 79 cases analyzed, all of which were confirmed by an orthogonal approach. The pipeline also enabled discovery of a uniparental disomy (UPD) and a 50% mosaic trisomy 14. Directed analysis of select CNVs enabled breakpoint level resolution of genomic rearrangements and phasing of de novo CNVs. CONCLUSION: Robust identification of CNVs by GS is possible within a clinical testing environment.

10.
Nat Genet ; 50(10): 1388-1398, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30202056

RESUMO

Structural variants (SVs) can contribute to oncogenesis through a variety of mechanisms. Despite their importance, the identification of SVs in cancer genomes remains challenging. Here, we present a framework that integrates optical mapping, high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C), and whole-genome sequencing to systematically detect SVs in a variety of normal or cancer samples and cell lines. We identify the unique strengths of each method and demonstrate that only integrative approaches can comprehensively identify SVs in the genome. By combining Hi-C and optical mapping, we resolve complex SVs and phase multiple SV events to a single haplotype. Furthermore, we observe widespread structural variation events affecting the functions of noncoding sequences, including the deletion of distal regulatory sequences, alteration of DNA replication timing, and the creation of novel three-dimensional chromatin structural domains. Our results indicate that noncoding SVs may be underappreciated mutational drivers in cancer genomes.

11.
Genome Res ; 27(11): 1895-1903, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28887402

RESUMO

Identifying large expansions of short tandem repeats (STRs), such as those that cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and fragile X syndrome, is challenging for short-read whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data. A solution to this problem is an important step toward integrating WGS into precision medicine. We developed a software tool called ExpansionHunter that, using PCR-free WGS short-read data, can genotype repeats at the locus of interest, even if the expanded repeat is larger than the read length. We applied our algorithm to WGS data from 3001 ALS patients who have been tested for the presence of the C9orf72 repeat expansion with repeat-primed PCR (RP-PCR). Compared against this truth data, ExpansionHunter correctly classified all (212/212, 95% CI [0.98, 1.00]) of the expanded samples as either expansions (208) or potential expansions (4). Additionally, 99.9% (2786/2789, 95% CI [0.997, 1.00]) of the wild-type samples were correctly classified as wild type by this method with the remaining three samples identified as possible expansions. We further applied our algorithm to a set of 152 samples in which every sample had one of eight different pathogenic repeat expansions, including those associated with fragile X syndrome, Friedreich's ataxia, and Huntington's disease, and correctly flagged all but one of the known repeat expansions. Thus, ExpansionHunter can be used to accurately detect known pathogenic repeat expansions and provides researchers with a tool that can be used to identify new pathogenic repeat expansions.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Expansão das Repetições de DNA , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Algoritmos , Proteína C9orf72/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Humanos , Medicina de Precisão , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Software
12.
Neurogenetics ; 18(4): 185-194, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28842795

RESUMO

An X-linked condition characterized by the combination of hypomyelinating leukodystrophy and spondylometaphyseal dysplasia (H-SMD) has been observed in only four families, with linkage to Xq25-27, and recent genetic characterization in two families with a common AIFM1 mutation. In our study, 12 patients (6 families) with H-SMD were identified and underwent comprehensive assessment accompanied by whole-exome sequencing (WES). Pedigree analysis in all families was consistent with X-linked recessive inheritance. Presentation typically occurred between 12 and 36 months. In addition to the two disease-defining features of spondylometaphyseal dysplasia and hypomyelination on MRI, common clinical signs and symptoms included motor deterioration, spasticity, tremor, ataxia, dysarthria, cognitive defects, pulmonary hypertension, nystagmus, and vision loss due to retinopathy. The course of the disease was slowly progressive. All patients had maternally inherited or de novo mutations in or near exon 7 of AIFM1, within a region of 70 bp, including synonymous and intronic changes. AIFM1 mutations have previously been associated with neurologic presentations as varied as intellectual disability, hearing loss, neuropathy, and striatal necrosis, while AIFM1 mutations in this small region present with a distinct phenotype implicating bone. Analysis of cell lines derived from four patients identified significant reductions in AIFM1 mRNA and protein levels in osteoblasts. We hypothesize that AIFM1 functions in bone metabolism and myelination and is responsible for the unique phenotype in this condition.


Assuntos
Fator de Indução de Apoptose/genética , Genes Ligados ao Cromossomo X/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação/genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Bainha de Mielina/genética , Bainha de Mielina/metabolismo , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
Biochim Biophys Acta ; 1859(11): 1389-1397, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27514584

RESUMO

RUNX1 is a transcription factor functioning both as an oncogene and a tumor suppressor in breast cancer. RUNX1 alters chromatin structure in cooperation with chromatin modifier and remodeling enzymes. In this study, we examined the relationship between RUNX1-mediated transcription and genome organization. We characterized genome-wide RUNX1 localization and performed RNA-seq and Hi-C in RUNX1-depleted and control MCF-7 breast cancer cells. RNA-seq analysis showed that RUNX1 depletion led to up-regulation of genes associated with chromatin structure and down-regulation of genes related to extracellular matrix biology, as well as NEAT1 and MALAT1 lncRNAs. Our ChIP-Seq analysis supports a prominent role for RUNX1 in transcriptional activation. About 30% of all RUNX1 binding sites were intergenic, indicating diverse roles in promoter and enhancer regulation and suggesting additional functions for RUNX1. Hi-C analysis of RUNX1-depleted cells demonstrated that overall three-dimensional genome organization is largely intact, but indicated enhanced association of RUNX1 near Topologically Associating Domain (TAD) boundaries and alterations in long-range interactions. These results suggest an architectural role for RUNX1 in fine-tuning local interactions rather than in global organization. Our results provide novel insight into RUNX1-mediated perturbations of higher-order genome organization that are functionally linked with RUNX1-dependent compromised gene expression in breast cancer cells.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7
14.
Nature ; 535(7613): 575-9, 2016 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27437574

RESUMO

X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) involves major reorganization of the X chromosome as it becomes silent and heterochromatic. During female mammalian development, XCI is triggered by upregulation of the non-coding Xist RNA from one of the two X chromosomes. Xist coats the chromosome in cis and induces silencing of almost all genes via its A-repeat region, although some genes (constitutive escapees) avoid silencing in most cell types, and others (facultative escapees) escape XCI only in specific contexts. A role for Xist in organizing the inactive X (Xi) chromosome has been proposed. Recent chromosome conformation capture approaches have revealed global loss of local structure on the Xi chromosome and formation of large mega-domains, separated by a region containing the DXZ4 macrosatellite. However, the molecular architecture of the Xi chromosome, in both the silent and expressed regions,remains unclear. Here we investigate the structure, chromatin accessibility and expression status of the mouse Xi chromosome in highly polymorphic clonal neural progenitors (NPCs) and embryonic stem cells. We demonstrate a crucial role for Xist and the DXZ4-containing boundary in shaping Xi chromosome structure using allele-specific genome-wide chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) analysis, an assay for transposase-accessible chromatin with high throughput sequencing (ATAC-seq) and RNA sequencing. Deletion of the boundary disrupts mega-domain formation, and induction of Xist RNA initiates formation of the boundary and the loss of DNA accessibility. We also show that in NPCs, the Xi chromosome lacks active/inactive compartments and topologically associating domains (TADs), except around genes that escape XCI. Escapee gene clusters display TAD-like structures and retain DNA accessibility at promoter-proximal and CTCF-binding sites. Furthermore, altered patterns of facultative escape genes indifferent neural progenitor clones are associated with the presence of different TAD-like structures after XCI. These findings suggest a key role for transcription and CTCF in the formation of TADs in the context of the Xi chromosome in neural progenitors.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Inativação do Cromossomo X , Cromossomo X/metabolismo , Alelos , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Fator de Ligação a CCCTC , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Cromossomos de Mamíferos/química , Cromossomos de Mamíferos/genética , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Feminino , Inativação Gênica , Masculino , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência , Transcrição Genética , Cromossomo X/química , Cromossomo X/genética , Inativação do Cromossomo X/genética
15.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 194(12): 1465-1474, 2016 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27367781

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Patterns of longitudinal lung function growth and decline in childhood asthma have been shown to be important in determining risk for future respiratory ailments including chronic airway obstruction and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. OBJECTIVES: To determine the genetic underpinnings of lung function patterns in subjects with childhood asthma. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study of 581 non-Hispanic white individuals with asthma that were previously classified by patterns of lung function growth and decline (normal growth, normal growth with early decline, reduced growth, and reduced growth with early decline). The strongest association was also measured in two additional cohorts: a small asthma cohort and a large chronic obstructive pulmonary disease metaanalysis cohort. Interaction between the genomic region encompassing the most strongly associated single-nucleotide polymorphism and nearby genes was assessed by two chromosome conformation capture assays. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: An intergenic single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs4445257) on chromosome 8 was strongly associated with the normal growth with early decline pattern compared with all other pattern groups (P = 6.7 × 10-9; odds ratio, 2.8; 95% confidence interval, 2.0-4.0); replication analysis suggested this variant had opposite effects in normal growth with early decline and reduced growth with early decline pattern groups. Chromosome conformation capture experiments indicated a chromatin interaction between rs4445257 and the promoter of the distal CSMD3 gene. CONCLUSIONS: Early decline in lung function after normal growth is associated with a genetic polymorphism that may also protect against early decline in reduced growth groups. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00000575).


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Asma/fisiopatologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genômica/métodos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Países Baixos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/fisiologia
16.
Genome Res ; 26(9): 1188-201, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27435934

RESUMO

The packaging of DNA into chromatin plays an important role in transcriptional regulation and nuclear processes. Brahma-related gene-1 SMARCA4 (also known as BRG1), the essential ATPase subunit of the mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, uses the energy from ATP hydrolysis to disrupt nucleosomes at target regions. Although the transcriptional role of SMARCA4 at gene promoters is well-studied, less is known about its role in higher-order genome organization. SMARCA4 knockdown in human mammary epithelial MCF-10A cells resulted in 176 up-regulated genes, including many related to lipid and calcium metabolism, and 1292 down-regulated genes, some of which encode extracellular matrix (ECM) components that can exert mechanical forces and affect nuclear structure. ChIP-seq analysis of SMARCA4 localization and SMARCA4-bound super-enhancers demonstrated extensive binding at intergenic regions. Furthermore, Hi-C analysis showed extensive SMARCA4-mediated alterations in higher-order genome organization at multiple resolutions. First, SMARCA4 knockdown resulted in clustering of intra- and inter-subtelomeric regions, demonstrating a novel role for SMARCA4 in telomere organization. SMARCA4 binding was enriched at topologically associating domain (TAD) boundaries, and SMARCA4 knockdown resulted in weakening of TAD boundary strength. Taken together, these findings provide a dynamic view of SMARCA4-dependent changes in higher-order chromatin organization and gene expression, identifying SMARCA4 as a novel component of chromatin organization.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/genética , Cromatina/genética , DNA Helicases/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Nucleossomos/genética
17.
Science ; 351(6280): 1454-1458, 2016 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26940867

RESUMO

Oncogenes are activated through well-known chromosomal alterations such as gene fusion, translocation, and focal amplification. In light of recent evidence that the control of key genes depends on chromosome structures called insulated neighborhoods, we investigated whether proto-oncogenes occur within these structures and whether oncogene activation can occur via disruption of insulated neighborhood boundaries in cancer cells. We mapped insulated neighborhoods in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and found that tumor cell genomes contain recurrent microdeletions that eliminate the boundary sites of insulated neighborhoods containing prominent T-ALL proto-oncogenes. Perturbation of such boundaries in nonmalignant cells was sufficient to activate proto-oncogenes. Mutations affecting chromosome neighborhood boundaries were found in many types of cancer. Thus, oncogene activation can occur via genetic alterations that disrupt insulated neighborhoods in malignant cells.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras/genética , Proto-Oncogenes/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Translocação Genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Mutação , Ativação Transcricional
18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 98(1): 185-201, 2016 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26748519

RESUMO

Three-dimensional genome structure plays an important role in gene regulation. Globally, chromosomes are organized into active and inactive compartments while, at the gene level, looping interactions connect promoters to regulatory elements. Topologically associating domains (TADs), typically several hundred kilobases in size, form an intermediate level of organization. Major questions include how TADs are formed and how they are related to looping interactions between genes and regulatory elements. Here we performed a focused 5C analysis of a 2.8 Mb chromosome 7 region surrounding CFTR in a panel of cell types. We find that the same TAD boundaries are present in all cell types, indicating that TADs represent a universal chromosome architecture. Furthermore, we find that these TAD boundaries are present irrespective of the expression and looping of genes located between them. In contrast, looping interactions between promoters and regulatory elements are cell-type specific and occur mostly within TADs. This is exemplified by the CFTR promoter that in different cell types interacts with distinct sets of distal cell-type-specific regulatory elements that are all located within the same TAD. Finally, we find that long-range associations between loci located in different TADs are also detected, but these display much lower interaction frequencies than looping interactions within TADs. Interestingly, interactions between TADs are also highly cell-type-specific and often involve loci clustered around TAD boundaries. These data point to key roles of invariant TAD boundaries in constraining as well as mediating cell-type-specific long-range interactions and gene regulation.


Assuntos
Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Linhagem Celular , Cromatina/metabolismo , Humanos
19.
Cell Rep ; 14(4): 896-906, 2016 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26804913

RESUMO

Early B cell development is characterized by large-scale Igh locus contraction prior to V(D)J recombination to facilitate a highly diverse Ig repertoire. However, an understanding of the molecular architecture that mediates locus contraction remains unclear. We have combined high-resolution chromosome conformation capture (3C) techniques with 3D DNA FISH to identify three conserved topological subdomains. Each of these topological folds encompasses a major VH gene family that become juxtaposed in pro-B cells via megabase-scale chromatin looping. The transcription factor Pax5 organizes the subdomain that spans the VHJ558 gene family. In its absence, the J558 VH genes fail to associate with the proximal VH genes, thereby providing a plausible explanation for reduced VHJ558 gene rearrangements in Pax5-deficient pro-B cells. We propose that Igh locus contraction is the cumulative effect of several independently controlled chromatin subdomains that provide the structural infrastructure to coordinate optimal antigen receptor assembly.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/genética , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Cromatina/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Cromatina/química , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Loci Gênicos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator de Transcrição PAX5/metabolismo
20.
Genome Biol ; 16: 259, 2015 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26619908

RESUMO

HiC-Pro is an optimized and flexible pipeline for processing Hi-C data from raw reads to normalized contact maps. HiC-Pro maps reads, detects valid ligation products, performs quality controls and generates intra- and inter-chromosomal contact maps. It includes a fast implementation of the iterative correction method and is based on a memory-efficient data format for Hi-C contact maps. In addition, HiC-Pro can use phased genotype data to build allele-specific contact maps. We applied HiC-Pro to different Hi-C datasets, demonstrating its ability to easily process large data in a reasonable time. Source code and documentation are available at http://github.com/nservant/HiC-Pro .


Assuntos
Cromossomos/química , Genômica/métodos , Software , Algoritmos , Alelos , Linhagem Celular , Humanos
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