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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444126

RESUMO

Although absolute jump heights should be considered an important factor in judging the performance requirements of volleyball players, limited data is available on age-appropriate categories. The purpose of this study is to determine the differences in specific anthropometric characteristics and jumping performance variables in under-19 female volleyball players in relation to playing position and performance level. The sample of subjects consisted of 354 players who prepared for the U19 Women's Volleyball European Championship 2020 (17.4 ± 0.8 years, 1.81 ± 0.07 m, 67.5 ± 7.1 kg). Playing positions analyzed were setters (n = 55), opposites (n = 37), middle blockers (n = 82), outside hitters (n = 137), and liberos (n = 43). The results showed player position differences in every performance level group in variables of body height, spike, and block jump. Observed differences are a consequence of highly specific tasks of different positions in the composition of the team. Players of different performance levels are significantly different, with athletes of higher-ranked teams achieving better results. The acquired data could be useful for the selection and profiling of young volleyball players.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Voleibol , Antropometria , Atletas , Estatura , Feminino , Humanos
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) has emerged as an alternative nonpharmacological approach to effectively address the effects of dementia. The primary aim was to identify and summarize PA interventions and their effects on cognitive function among persons with dementia (PwD). METHODS: A systematic review was conducted with a meta-analysis using different electronic databases, such as PubMed, Embase, APA PsycNET, and the Web of Science. The identified and selected studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that were written in English, published between 2000 and 2020, and implemented among PwD who received a PA intervention and whose cognitive function was measured at baseline and during a follow-up. RESULTS: Twenty-two PA intervention studies met the eligibility criteria and showed a medium-size effect on the cognitive function of PwD, 0.4803 (95% CI = 0.1901-0.7704), with a high percentage of heterogeneity (I2 = 86%, p ≤ 0.0001). Moreover, this review complements other reviews by including eight studies that have not previously been considered. Overall, studies have methodological limitations. However, six studies implemented in the past five years have shown more robust methodological designs, including larger sample sizes and more comprehensive measurement tools. CONCLUSION: It is not yet possible to draw a conclusion on the ideal PA intervention for this population due to the high proportion of heterogeneity within the included studies. More emphasis is needed on the intensity of PA monitoring and adherence to such programs.


Assuntos
Cognição , Demência , Demência/terapia , Exercício Físico , Humanos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210088

RESUMO

Elite judo athletes undergo vigorous training to achieve outstanding results. In pursuit of achieving competitive success, the occurrence of injuries amongst judo athletes is not rare. The study aimed to perform a knee flexors and extensors isokinetic torque analysis in elite female judo athletes. Fifty-eight elite female judo athletes of the Serbian national team (21.02 ± 3.11 years; 62.36 ± 11.91 kg, 165.04 ± 10.24 cm, training experience 12.72 ± 2.98 years) volunteered to participate in this study. The range of motion (ROM) was set at 90°. Testing was performed in a concentric-concentric mode for the testing speed of 60 °/s. Five maximal voluntary contractions of knee extensors and knee flexors muscle groups were measured for both legs. The obtained data showed a statistically significant difference in absolute torque values among different categories as heavier athletes demonstrated higher values. Post hoc analysis showed a significant difference between weight categories, as heavier athletes demonstrated higher values, while no significant differences in normalized torque values for different weight categories were observed. The implementation of new elements and training modalities may improve performance and prevent lateral asymmetry, thus reducing the risk of injury.


Assuntos
Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético , Atletas , Feminino , Humanos , Joelho , Torque
4.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(6)2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072641

RESUMO

Even though scientific literature shows numerous heath complications and performance decrements associated with rapid weight loss (RWL), its prevalence remains exceedingly high across various combat sports. The aim of this study was to thoroughly search the existing literature to explore the influence of RWL on kidney function in Olympic and non-Olympic combat sport athletes. PubMed and Web of Science were searched for the relevant studies. Only original articles published from 2005 onwards, written in English, that included healthy males and females who prompted ~5% weight loss within a week or less, were included in the study. Retrieved studies showed that creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and urine specific gravity values were significantly increased after RWL in the majority of the included studies. This observation indicates that RWL caused dehydration and subsequent acute kidney damage despite various degrees of weight lost during the RWL phase, which can lead to adverse events in other body systems. Alternative methods of weight reduction that prioritize athletes' health should be considered.


Assuntos
Artes Marciais , Perda de Peso , Atletas , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Rim , Masculino
5.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33880736

RESUMO

Aging and menopause are associated with morphological and functional changes which may lead to loss of muscle mass and therefore quality of life. Resistance training (RT) is an effective training mode to increase muscle mass. We reviewed the existing literature to identify studies implementing RT protocols and evaluating muscle hypertrophy exclusively in healthy, postmenopausal and elderly women. Participants' age range was comprised between 50 and 80 years. The primary outcome observed was muscle hypertrophy. Fat mass was also evaluated, if available. PubMed and Web of Science were the screened database, and original articles written in English and published from 2000 up to 2020 were included. 26 articles were considered eligible and included. Quality assessment revealed a "moderate quality" of the included studies, however the majority of studies was able to reach level 4 of evidence and on overall grade of recommendation C. In total, data from 745 female participants subjected to different forms of resistance training were considered. Heterogeneity across studies was present regarding study design, intervention length (mean 16 weeks), training frequency (3 d/w), no. of exercises (n = 7.4) and participants' age (65.8 ± 4.9 years). Small-to-moderate significant increases (k = 43; SMD = 0.44; 95% CI 0.28; 0.60; p < 0.0001) of lean body mass were observed in post-menopausal and elderly women, regardless of age, intervention period, weekly training frequency and no. of exercises. No effects were noted for fat mass (k = 17; SMD = 0.27; 95% CI - 0.02; 0.55; p = 0.07). Studies need to concentrate on providing information regarding training parameters to more effectively counteract the effects of aging and menopause on skeletal muscle mass.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921458

RESUMO

Athletes' lifestyles have been dramatically affected by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Since COVID-19 primarily affects the respiratory system and to a lesser degree the cardiovascular system, the goal of this study was to examine the effects of COVID-19-caused detraining on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) of recently recovered volleyball athletes. Sixteen experienced volleyball athletes (age 24 ± 4.5 years) who were recently diagnosed and recovered from a COVID-19 infection volunteered to participate in this study and were tested for CRF and spirometry. Given that participants had only mild symptoms of infection, the primary focus of this study was on the effects of detraining on CRF. On average, the time to exhaustion was 9.4 ± 1.4 min. VE, VCO2, RER and oxygen pulse increased, heart rate exceeded 90% of predicted values, and peak VO2 values were typical for this level of athlete (44.1 ± 3.4 mL/kg). Pulmonary function reflected in FVC, FEV1/FVC and MVV values were well above 80% of predicted values for each of the participants while electrocardiography revealed no ischemia, arrythmias or conduction and repolarization abnormalities were found in the tested subjects. Therefore, it can be concluded that participants experienced typical consequences of detraining. Due to a lack of CRF data prior to COVID-19 infection, we were unable to estimate the magnitude detraining had on CRF. Complete CRF assessment after COVID-19 infection in athletes can be useful for screening of residual myocardial and/or respiratory system damage for safe return-to-play decisions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Voleibol , Adulto , Atletas , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932771

RESUMO

(1) Background: Regular physical activity (PA) plays an important role during early childhood physical and psychological development. This study investigates the effects of a 9-month PA intervention on physiological characteristics and motor and cognitive skills in preschool children. (2) Methods: Preschool children (n = 132; age 4 to 7 years) attending regular preschool programs were nonrandomly assigned to PA intervention (n = 66; 60 min sessions twice per week) or a control group (n = 66; no additional organized PA program) for 9 months. Exercise training for the intervention group included various sports games, outdoor activities, martial arts, yoga, and dance. Anthropometry, motor skills (7 tests), and cognitive skills (Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices and Cognitive Assessment System) were assessed before and after an intervention period in both groups. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA. (3) Results: Body weight significantly increased in both groups over time. Compared to the changes observed in the control group, the intervention group significantly increased in chest circumference (p = 0.022). In contrast, the control group demonstrated an increase in waist circumference (p = 0.001), while these measures in the intervention group remained stable. Participants in the intervention group improved running speed (p = 0.016) and standing broad jump (p = 0.000). The flexibility level was maintained in the intervention group, while a significant decrease was observed in the control group (p = 0.010). Children from the intervention group demonstrated progress in the bent-arm hang test (p = 0.001), unlike the control group subjects. Varied improvements in cognitive skills were observed for different variables in both intervention and control groups, with no robust evidence for PA-intervention-related improvements. (4) Conclusions: Preschool children's participation in a preschool PA intervention improves their motor skills.


Assuntos
Cognição , Dança , Exercício Físico , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Destreza Motora
9.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357500

RESUMO

Rapid weight loss (RWL) is commonly practiced among judo athletes. Although it helps them to gain the advantage over their lighter opponents, previous studies have shown that RWL can have a negative impact on the athlete's performance and overall well-being. This systematic review aimed to synthesize the evidence that examines the influence of rapid weight loss on physiological parameters, biomarkers, and psychological well-being in judo athletes. We followed the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. We searched for studies on Web of Science and PubMed that elaborate on the influence of ≥5% RWL achieved over ≤7-day period in judokas. Out of 52 studies initially found, 14 studies met our eligibility criteria and were included in the review. In total, we examined data from 1103 judo athletes. Retrieved studies showed conflicting data concerning physiological parameters and biomarkers, while psychological well-being parameters were more consistent than physiological and biomarkers. The feeling of tension, anger, and fatigue significantly increased while a decrease in vigor was demonstrated among athletes who lost weight rapidly. The evidence on the impact of RWL on performance remains ambiguous. More studies under standardized conditions are needed in order to provide firm evidence. Considering the harmful effects of RWL outlined in the existing literature, it is important to determine and monitor athlete's minimal competitive weight to prioritize the health and safety of the athlete, emphasize fairness, and ultimately benefit the sport.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Artes Marciais/fisiologia , Artes Marciais/psicologia , Perda de Peso , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Adulto , Ira , Fadiga , Humanos , Masculino , Estresse Psicológico , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 142, 2020 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228627

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of rapid weight loss (RWL) methods over 3 days on muscle damage in judokas. METHODS: Eighteen judokas participated in this crossover study, meaning that judo athletes were subjected to exercise-only phase (4 days) and RWL phase (3 days). Subjects were tested for myoglobin, creatine kinase, aldolase, hemoglobin, and hematocrit values on seven consecutive days. These biomarkers served as indicators of acute muscle damage. RESULTS: During the exercise-only phase, no significant changes were observed. Myoglobin (Mb) (p < 0.001), creatine kinase (CK) (p < 0.001) and aldolase (ALD) (p < 0.001) significantly increased only during the RWL phase, as well as hemoglobin (Hb) (p < 0.001) and hematocrit (Hct) (p < 0.005) values. It was detected that peak values for muscle damage biomarkers were reached on the sixth day, while Hct and Hb values were the highest on the seventh day of the study. CONCLUSION: Our study showed significant muscle damage induced by RWL. The prevalence of RWL use by judokas is high but firm scientific evidence is lacking in the evaluation of the current practice of it. Therefore, further knowledge must be gained to evaluate the effectiveness of RWL on performance and its impact on judokas' wellbeing.


Assuntos
Artes Marciais , Perda de Peso , Atletas , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético
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