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1.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 85: 103941, 2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476630

RESUMO

Motor dysfunction increases in the moderate and severe stages of dementia. However, there is still no consensus on changes in mobility during its early stages. This meta-analysis aimed to measure the level of single-task functional mobility in older subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and/or Alzheimer's disease (AD). In a search of the PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases, 2728 articles were identified. At the end of the selection, a total of 18 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Functional mobility was investigated using the timed up and go (TUG) test in all studies. When compared to healthy elderly (HE) adults, the following mean differences (MD) in seconds were found for the investigated subgroups: no amnestic MCI (MD = 0.26; CI95% = -0.77, 1.29), amnestic MCI (MD = 0.86; CI95% = -0.02, 1.73), very mild AD (MD = 1.32; CI95% = 0.63, 2.02), mild AD (MD = 2.43; CI95% = 1.84, 3.01), mild-moderate AD (MD = 3.01; CI95% = 2.47, 3.55), and mild-severe AD (MD = 4.51; CI95% = 1.14, 7.88); for the groups, the following MD were found: MCI (MD = 0.97; CI95% = 0.51, 1.44) and AD (MD = 2.66; CI95% = 2.16, 3.15). These results suggest a transition period in motor capacity between healthy aging and dementia, wherein functional mobility analysis in a single-task (TUG) can contribute to the diagnosis and staging of predementia states and AD.

2.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e030933, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434784

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In low/middle-income countries (LMICs), the prevalence of people diagnosed with dementia is expected to increase substantially and treatment options are limited, with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors not used as frequently as in high-income countries (HICs). Cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) is a group-based, brief, non-pharmacological intervention for people with dementia that significantly improves cognition and quality of life in clinical trials and is cost-effective in HIC. However, its implementation in other countries is less researched. This protocol describes CST-International; an implementation research study of CST. The aim of this research is to develop, test, refine and disseminate implementation strategies for CST for people with mild to moderate dementia in three LMICs: Brazil (upper middle-income), India (lower middle-income) and Tanzania (low-income). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Four overlapping phases: (1) exploration of barriers to implementation in each country using meetings with stakeholders, including clinicians, policymakers, people with dementia and their families; (2) development of implementation plans for each country; (3) evaluation of implementation plans using a study of CST in each country (n=50, total n=150). Outcomes will include adherence, attendance, acceptability and attrition, agreed parameters of success, outcomes (cognition, quality of life, activities of daily living) and cost/affordability; (4) refinement and dissemination of implementation strategies, enabling ongoing pathways to practice which address barriers and facilitators to implementation. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been granted for each country. There are no documented adverse effects associated with CST and data held will be in accordance with relevant legislation. Train the trainer models will be developed to increase CST provision in each country and policymakers/governmental bodies will be continually engaged with to aid successful implementation. Findings will be disseminated at conferences, in peer-reviewed articles and newsletters, in collaboration with Alzheimer's Disease International, and via ongoing engagement with key policymakers.

4.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 13(2): 196-202, Apr.-June 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1011957

RESUMO

ABSTRACT. Additional clinical tools should be investigated to facilitate and aid the early diagnosis of cognitive decline. Postural control worsens with aging and this may be related to pathological cognitive impairment. Objective: to compare the balance of older adults without dementia in a control group (CG) and with Alzheimer's disease (AD), to observe the possible association with the independent variables (diagnosis, age, gender, and global cognition) and to verify the best posturographic analyses to determine the difference between the groups. Methods: 86 older adults (AD = 48; CG = 38) were evaluated using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and postural control was assessed by stabilometry on the Wii Balance Board ® (WBB). Independent T, Mann-Whitney U-tests, Effect Size (ES) and a linear regression were performed. Results: there was a significant difference for Elliptical Area, Total Velocity, Medio-Lateral displacements with closed eyes and open eyes, antero-posterior, with closed eyes and BBS between groups. These variables showed a large effect size for BBS (-1.02), Elliptical Area (0.83) with closed eyes, Medio-Lateral (0.80, 0.96) and Total Velocity (0.92; 1.10) with eyes open and eyes closed, respectively. Regression indicated global cognition accompanied by age, gender, and diagnosis influenced postural control. Conclusion: patients with AD showed impaired postural control compared to Control Group subjects. Total Velocity with closed eyes was the most sensitive parameter for differentiating groups and should be better investigated as a possible motor biomarker of dementia in posturographic analysis with WBB.


RESUMO. Ferramentas clínicas adicionais devem ser investigadas para facilitar e auxiliar o diagnóstico prévio do declínio cognitivo. O controle postural piora com o envelhecimento e este fato pode estar relacionado com o comprometimento cognitivo patológico. Objetivo: comparar o equilíbrio de adultos idosos sem demência no grupo controle (GC) e com doença de Alzheimer (DA), observar as possíveis associações com as variáveis independentes (diagnóstico, idade, sexo e estado cognitivo global) e verificar as melhores análises posturográficas para determinar a diferença entre os grupos. Métodos: 86 idosos (DA = 48; GC=38) foram avaliados utilizando a escala de equilíbrio Berg (EEB) e o controle postural pela estabilometria no Wii Balance Board ® (WBB). Testes T independente, Mann Whitney U, o tamanho de efeito (TE) e uma regressão linear foram realizados. Resultados: houve diferença significativa para AE, VT, ML com OA e OF, AP com OF e EEB entre os grupos. Estas variáveis mostraram um TE grande para EEB (-1.02), AE (0,83) com OF, ML (0,80; 0,96) e VT (0,92; 1,10) com OA e OF, respectivamente. A regressão indicou que a cognição global acompanhada da idade, gênero e diagnóstico contribuem para as alterações do controle postural. Conclusão: pacientes com DA apresentam comprometimento do controle postural quando comparados a idosos saudáveis. A VT com OF foi o parâmetro mais sensível para diferenciar os grupos e deve ser melhor investigada como possível biomarcador motor de demência na análise posturográfica com o WBB.

5.
Maturitas ; 126: 28-33, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239114

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of a 12-week multimodal physical exercise program on global cognition, executive function and mobility in elderly people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer's disease (AD). DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial (RCT) of two groups in parallel; single-blind. METHOD: Patients were allocated to a control group (CG; n = 28 comprising MCI = 14 and AD = 14) and an exercise group (EG; n = 28 comprising MCI = 14 and AD = 14). The participants' physical and cognitive abilities were evaluated before and three months after the intervention. The training consisted of a 1-hour supervised program of multimodal physical exercises (aerobic, strength, balance and flexibility) of moderate intensity, delivered twice a week. RESULTS: The independent t-test of the delta (Δ = post-intervention - pre-intervention) was used to compare the groups (CG x EG) for each diagnosis (MCI and AD). There was a significant difference only in the simple task mobility test (ΔCG: -0.18 ± 0.53; ΔEG: -1.05 ± 0.57; P = 0.03) and in the verbal fluency (ΔCG: -1.30 ± 2.49; ΔEG: 3.16 ± 1.72, P = 0.05) of the elderly with MCI, showing a beneficial effect of the multimodal exercise in this group. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that a 12-week multimodal physical exercise program contributed to improvements in the mobility and executive function of elderly individuals with MCI, but not of those with AD. Although more RCTs are needed, physical exercise should be recommended to those in the early stages of neurocognitive disorder.

6.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(3): 218-224, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1011499

RESUMO

Objective: To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of donepezil and rivastigmine therapy for mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) from the perspective of the Brazilian Unified Health System. Method: A hypothetical cohort of 1,000 individuals of both sexes, aged >65 years, and diagnosed with AD was simulated using a Markov model. The time horizon was 10 years, with 1-year cycles. A deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed. Results: For mild AD, the study showed an increase in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) of 0.61 QALY/21,907.38 Brazilian reais (BRL) for patients treated with donepezil and 0.58 QALY/BRL 24,683.33 for patients treated with rivastigmine. In the moderate AD group, QALY increases of 0.05/BRL 27,414.96 were observed for patients treated with donepezil and 0.06/BRL 34,222.96 for patients treated with rivastigmine. Conclusions: The findings of this study contradict the standard of care for mild and moderate AD in Brazil, which is based on rivastigmine. A pharmacological treatment option based on current Brazilian clinical practice guidelines for AD suggests that rivastigmine is less cost-effective (0.39 QALY/BRL 32,685.77) than donepezil. Probabilistic analysis indicates that donepezil is the most cost-effective treatment for mild and moderate AD.

7.
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord ; 33(3): 220-225, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958416

RESUMO

Awareness of disease is defined as the recognition of changes caused by the deficits related to the disease process. We aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the short versions of the Assessment Scale of Psychosocial Impact of the Diagnosis of Dementia (ASPIDD-s), a multidimensional awareness scale. Using a cross-sectional design, we included 201 people with dementia and their family caregivers. The creation of the short versions was based on items with higher loadings on each factor, the correlations between the short versions and demographic or clinical variables and the relevance of the item to the respondent population. Three short versions were created: version 1 and 3, with 12 items and version 2, with 16 items. The short versions correlated very strongly with the full scale and with the 4 factors of the original scale, maintaining the multidimensional nature of the ASPIDD. Loss of awareness was associated with worse quality of life, decreased functionality and cognitive level, and higher caregiver burden across the short versions. Considering the appropriateness of the items and their clinical relevance, we recommend version 3 for use. With only 12 items, the time required for the completion of the scale is short, while maintaining robust psychometric properties.

8.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 13(1): 97-103, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-989673

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Aerobic capacity declines significantly throughout life, beginning at the age of 30 years and accelerating from 60 years, where a decline of 17% per decade is expected thereafter. Objective: To investigate the association between aerobic capacity and a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), mild AD or moderate AD in older adults, considering the risk classification of functional loss of the Step test. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 93 patients (age >60 years) were evaluated (Healthy=36; MCI=18, AD=39). The step test was used to assess aerobic capacity, while overall cognitive status was measured using the MMSE. The groups were divided according to the risk classifications of functional loss into below or above the standard cut-off point for aerobic capacity. Results: Subjects in the functional loss risk group were approximately ten to fourteen times more likely to be diagnosed with mild (OR:10.7; p=0.001) or moderate (OR.=14.7; p=0.002) AD than their fitter counterparts. Low aerobic fitness was also associated with the MCI condition (OR=4.5; p=0.05), but only after controlling for educational level, age and sex. In the overall sample (N=93), there was an association between aerobic capacity and MMSE performance (R2=0.35; p<0.001) after controlling for confounding variables. Conclusion: low aerobic capacity was associated with cognitive decline, and older adults at risk of functional loss on the STEP test had greater chance of being diagnosed with MCI or AD after controlling for age, sex and education.


RESUMO: A capacidade aeróbica diminui significativamente ao longo da vida, começando com a idade de 30 anos e acelerando a partir dos 60 anos, onde se prevê um declínio de 17% por década. Objetivo: Investigar a associação entre a capacidade aeróbica medida e o risco de desenvolvimento de comprometimento cognitivo leve (CCL), DA leve e moderado em idosos, considerando as classificações de risco de perda funcional para o teste do STEP. Métodos: Nesse estudo de corte-transversal, foram avaliados 93 idosos (>60 anos) (saudáveis=36; CCL=18, DA=39). Para acessar a capacidade aeróbica foi utilizado o teste de STEP e o estado cognitivo global foi medido através do MEEM. Os grupos foram divididos em relação às classificações de risco de perda funcional em abaixo ou acima do ponto de corte padronizado para idosos. Resultados: Idosos incluídos no grupo de risco de perda funcional tinham aproximadamente dez a catorze vezes mais chances de serem diagnosticados com DA leve (O.R:10.7; p=0.001) e moderado (O.R.=14.7; p=0.002), do que os seus pares mais bem condicionados. Menores níveis de capacidade aeróbica também foram associados com o diagnostico de CCL (O.R=4.5; p=0.05), entretanto apenas após controle por idade, escolaridade e sexo. Na amostra total (N=93) houve uma associação entre a capacidade aeróbica e o MEEM (R2=0.35; p<0.001) depois de controlado pelas variáveis confundidoras. Conclusão: Idosos que se encontram dentro da classificação de risco de perda funcional medida através do teste de STEP possuem maiores chances de desenvolverem CCL, Alzheimer leve e moderado mesmo após controle por idade, sexo e escolaridade.


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva , Doença de Alzheimer , Atividade Motora
9.
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord ; 33(2): 129-135, 2019 Apr-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870144

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Awareness of disease is the ability to acknowledge changes caused by deficits related to the disease process. We aimed to investigate whether there are differences in awareness of disease between young-onset dementia (YOD) and late-onset dementia (LOD) and examined how awareness interacts with cognitive and clinical variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, 49 people with YOD and 83 with LOD and their caregivers were included. We assessed awareness of disease, cognition, functionality, stage of dementia, mood, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and caregivers' quality of life (QoL) and burden. RESULTS: We found that people with YOD were more aware of the disease than people with LOD (P<0.005). Multivariate linear regression revealed that higher impairment in functional level was associated with unawareness in both groups (YOD=P<0.001; LOD=P<0.001). In the YOD group, preserved awareness was related to worse self-reported QoL (P<0.05), whereas, in LOD, deficits in awareness were related to caregivers' worst perceptions about people with dementia QoL (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight the distinct nature of awareness between YOD and LOD. The YOD group had higher levels of disease awareness compared with the LOD group, even though the first group had a greater impairment in functionality.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624724

RESUMO

Objectives: Assessing late-life anxiety using an instrument with sound psychometric properties including cross-cultural invariance is essential for cross-national aging research and clinical assessment. To date, no cross-national research studies have examined the psychometric properties of the frequently used Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) in depth. Method: Using data from 3,731 older adults from 10 national samples (Australia, Brazil, Canada, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Singapore, Thailand, USA), this study used bifactor modelling to analyze the dimensionality of the GAI. We evaluated the "fitness" of individual items based on the explained common variance for each item across all nations. In addition, a multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MG-CFA) was applied, testing for measurement invariance across the samples. Results: Across samples, the presence of a strong G factor provides support that a general factor is of primary importance, rather than subfactors. That is, the data support a primarily unidimensional representation of the GAI, still acknowledging the presence of multidimensional factors. A GAI score in one of the countries would be directly comparable to a GAI score in any of the other countries tested, perhaps with the exception of Singapore. Discussion: Although several items demonstrated relatively weak common variance with the general factor, the unidimensional structure remained strong even with these items retained. Thus, it is recommended that the GAI be administered using all items.

11.
J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol ; : 891988718824039, 2019 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30651027

RESUMO

Young-onset Alzheimer disease (YOAD) causes psychological and emotional difficulties for carers. However, even in the face of considerable caregiving demands and burden, some carers are resistant to stress, which may be a sign of resilience. This study investigated whether the clinical symptoms of the person with YOAD might be associated with resilience in their carers. A consecutive series of 43 persons with YOAD and their 43 family caregivers were assessed. The carers showed moderate to high level of resilience, low level of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and moderate level of burden. No relationship was found between resilience and sociodemographic characteristics of both carers and care recipient and with clinical characteristics of persons with YOAD. A linear regression analysis showed that resilience was inversely associated with carers' depressive symptoms. The findings suggest that resilience may mainly be related to carers' mental health.

12.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 70(s1): S283-S291, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most people with dementia live in low- and middle-income countries and little is known about the potential for reducing these numbers by reducing key risk factors. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential for dementia incidence reduction in Brazil, Mozambique, and Portugal (a culturally related, high-income country). METHODS: We replicated previously published methods and based on the relative risks from previous studies, we estimated the population-attributable risk (PAR) of dementia in Mozambique, Brazil, and Portugal for seven modifiable risk factors associated with dementia (low educational attainment, physical inactivity, midlife hypertension, midlife obesity, depression, smoking, and diabetes mellitus). The combined PAR was calculated and adjusted for associations between risk factors. The potential for risk factor reduction was assessed by examining the effect of relative reductions of 10% and 20% per decade for each of the risk factors on projections for dementia cases for each decade until 2050. RESULTS: After adjusting for non-independence of risk factors, 24.4%, 32.3%, and 40.1% of dementia cases could be related to seven potentially modifiable risk factors in Mozambique, Brazil, and Portugal, respectively. Reducing the prevalence of each risk factor by 20% per decade could, by 2050, potentially reduce the prevalence of dementia in Mozambique, Brazil, and Portugal by 12.9%, 16.2%, and 19.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION: There is a substantial difference between the countries in the percentage of dementia cases that could be attributable to the seven potentially modifiable risk factors. The proportion of cases that could be prevented by 2050 if measures were taken to address these main risk factors was higher in Portugal than in Brazil and Mozambique. Each country or region should consider their unique risk factor profile when developing dementia risk reduction programs.

14.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30507580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spatial navigation is a fundamental cognitive ability that allows an individual to maintain independence by facilitating the safe movement from one place to another. It emerges as one of the first deficits in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: To compare spatial navigation performance in the healthy elderly and AD patients through use of the Floor Maze Test (FMT)- an easy-to-apply two-dimensional (2D) maze- and determine which cognitive and functional capacities were associated with performance in this task. METHODS: The FMT was administered to 24 AD patients and 36 healthy controls. Spatial navigation was evaluated through the FMT. Functional capacity was evaluated through the Senior Fitness Test battery of tests. Cognitive functions were evaluated through the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), verbal fluency, digit span test, and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). RESULTS: The group with AD was significantly slower and presented more errors at all stages of the FMT. Planning Time (PT) performance was associated with cardiorespiratory resistance (Step test) and delayed memory according to the RAVLT (R2 = 0.395, p <  0.001). Performance in the Immediate Maze Time (IMT) and Delayed Maze Time (DMT) was associated with global cognitive status (MMSE) (R2 = 0.509) and delayed memory (R2 = 0.540). CONCLUSION: Patients with AD present significant spatial navigation deficits. Their performance on the FMT is influenced by cardiorespiratory capacity, memory, and global cognitive function. As exercise helps to improve executive function and functional capacity, future intervention studies should be carried out to analyze the possible effects of physical exercise on spatial navigation.

15.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 40(4): 360-368, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-979440

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent medical illness that is associated with chronic stress. Patients with MDD can show an imbalance in cortisol levels, which can be restored with the remission of symptoms. Physical exercise training has been used as a tool to promote changes in cortisol levels in healthy individuals. However, it is unknown if exercise can produce the same results in individuals with MDD. Objective: To review evidence of cortisol changes after exercise training in individuals with MDD. Methods: We conducted a search on PubMed, SciELO, LILACS, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and PsycInfo databases. Random effects meta-analysis was performed and standardized mean difference (SMD) effect size was calculated. Analyses of forest and funnel plots was conducted using Stata v.11.0 software. Results: At first, 463 studies were obtained in the search. After completion of the selection procedure, five articles with seven analyses were included. Type of exercise, frequency of training, cortisol measurement, and type of control group were analyzed. There was a reduction of cortisol levels in the exercise group (SMD = −0.65, 95%CI 1.30-0.01). Moreover, sensitivity analysis and subgroup analyses revealed an effect of type (aerobic exercise) and frequency (five times per week) of exercise on reduction of cortisol levels. However, these results should be interpreted cautiously due to the small number of studies and a substantial heterogeneity among them. Conclusion: Physical exercise promotes a reduction in cortisol levels in individuals with MDD. However, this finding can be influenced by type of exercise, weekly frequency, and type of cortisol measurement.


Resumo Introdução: A depressão maior (DM) é uma doença associada ao estresse crônico que pode apresentar um desequilíbrio nos níveis de cortisol, podendo ser recuperado com a remissão dos sintomas. O exercício tem sido utilizado como uma ferramenta para promover mudanças nos níveis de cortisol em indivíduos saudáveis. No entanto, não se sabe se o exercício produz os mesmos resultados em indivíduos com DM. Objetivo: Revisar evidências de alterações dos níveis de cortisol após o exercício em indivíduos com DM. Métodos: Foi realizada busca nas bases de dados PubMed, SciELO, LILACS, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus e PsycInfo. Procedeu-se a metanálise com o cálculo do tamanho do efeito da diferença de média padronizada. Foi utilizado o software Stata v.11.0. Resultados: Foram obtidos na busca 463 estudos. Após o procedimento de seleção, cinco artigos com sete análises foram incluídos. O tipo de exercício, frequência de treinamento, tipo de medida do cortisol e tipo de grupo controle foram analisados como subgrupos. Houve uma redução dos níveis de cortisol no grupo de exercício. Além disso, a análise de sensibilidade e análises de subgrupos revelaram um efeito do tipo (exercício aeróbico) e da frequência (cinco vezes por semana) de exercício na redução dos níveis de cortisol. No entanto, esses resultados devem ser interpretados com cautela, devido ao pequeno número de estudos e uma heterogeneidade substancial entre eles. Conclusão: O exercício promove redução dos níveis de cortisol em indivíduos com DM. No entanto, esse achado pode ser influenciado pelo tipo de exercício, medida do cortisol e frequência semanal.

16.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 40(4): 360-368, 2018 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30570106

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent medical illness that is associated with chronic stress. Patients with MDD can show an imbalance in cortisol levels, which can be restored with the remission of symptoms. Physical exercise training has been used as a tool to promote changes in cortisol levels in healthy individuals. However, it is unknown if exercise can produce the same results in individuals with MDD. OBJECTIVE: To review evidence of cortisol changes after exercise training in individuals with MDD. METHODS: We conducted a search on PubMed, SciELO, LILACS, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and PsycInfo databases. Random effects meta-analysis was performed and standardized mean difference (SMD) effect size was calculated. Analyses of forest and funnel plots was conducted using Stata v.11.0 software. RESULTS: At first, 463 studies were obtained in the search. After completion of the selection procedure, five articles with seven analyses were included. Type of exercise, frequency of training, cortisol measurement, and type of control group were analyzed. There was a reduction of cortisol levels in the exercise group (SMD = -0.65, 95%CI 1.30-0.01). Moreover, sensitivity analysis and subgroup analyses revealed an effect of type (aerobic exercise) and frequency (five times per week) of exercise on reduction of cortisol levels. However, these results should be interpreted cautiously due to the small number of studies and a substantial heterogeneity among them. CONCLUSION: Physical exercise promotes a reduction in cortisol levels in individuals with MDD. However, this finding can be influenced by type of exercise, weekly frequency, and type of cortisol measurement.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Terapia por Exercício , Exercício/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Humanos
17.
Front Psychiatry ; 9: 561, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30459657

RESUMO

Recent evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease (AD) and depression share common mechanisms of pathogenesis. In particular, deregulation of glutamate-mediated excitatory signaling may play a role in brain dysfunction in both AD and depression. We have investigated levels of glutamate and its precursor glutamine in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with a diagnosis of probable AD or major depression compared to healthy controls and patients with hydrocephalus. Patients with probable AD or major depression showed significantly increased CSF levels of glutamate and glutamine compared to healthy controls or hydrocephalus patients. Furthermore, CSF glutamate and glutamine levels were inversely correlated to the amyloid tau index, a biomarker for AD. Results suggest that glutamate and glutamine should be further explored as potential CSF biomarkers for AD and depression.

18.
Braz J Psychiatr ; : 0, 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30427385

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of donepezil and rivastigmine therapy for mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) from the perspective of the Brazilian Unified Health System. METHOD: A hypothetical cohort of 1,000 individuals of both sexes, aged >65 years, and diagnosed with AD was simulated using a Markov model. The time horizon was 10 years, with 1-year cycles. A deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed. RESULTS: For mild AD, the study showed an increase in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) of 0.61 QALY/21,907.38 Brazilian reais (BRL) for patients treated with donepezil and 0.58 QALY/BRL 24,683.33 for patients treated with rivastigmine. In the moderate AD group, QALY increases of 0.05/BRL 27,414.96 were observed for patients treated with donepezil and 0.06/BRL 34,222.96 for patients treated with rivastigmine. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study contradict the standard of care for mild and moderate AD in Brazil, which is based on rivastigmine. A pharmacological treatment option based on current Brazilian clinical practice guidelines for AD suggests that rivastigmine is less cost-effective (0.39 QALY/BRL 32,685.77) than donepezil. Probabilistic analysis indicates that donepezil is the most cost-effective treatment for mild and moderate AD.

19.
Aging Ment Health ; : 1-5, 2018 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30444133

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of dementia has been increasing particularly in developing countries. However, people with dementia (PwD) in Brazil are currently offered no psychosocial treatment upon diagnosis. Cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) that originated in the UK has proven benefits on cognition and quality of life in PwD. We investigate the possible issues for the implementation of CST for the Brazilian population and its cultural appropriateness. METHOD: Individual interviews and focus groups were conducted with PwD, their caregivers and health professionals (n = 37). Data were recorded and transcribed, before being analyzed using Framework Analysis. RESULTS: Regarding the issues for implementation of CST in the Brazilian population, two main themes emerged, 'Barriers' and 'Facilitators', along with nine subthemes. Overall, the activities and materials were seen as being appropriate for use with the Brazilian population, some minor changes were suggested. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that CST is appropriate for use in the Brazilian population, only some cultural adaptations are necessary. In the stakeholders' opinions, CTS intervention is needed in Brazil, due to the lack of treatment options for PwD in developing countries.

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