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2.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 37(7): 114, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115218

RESUMO

Interspecific hybridization between Ganoderma lingzhi and G. applanatum was attempted through polyethylene glycol (PEG) induced fusion technique. The protoplast isolation procedure was simplified, and we obtained a significant number of protoplasts from both Ganoderma species. The number of protoplasts obtained was 5.27 ± 0.31 × 107/mL in G. lingzhi and 5.57 ± 0.49 × 106/mL in G. applanatum. Osmotic stabilizer NaCl (0.4 M) at pH 5.8 and enzymolysis time 3.5 h have supported high frequency of protoplast regeneration. G. lingzhi and G. applanatum regeneration frequency was 1.73 ± 0.04% and 0.23 ± 0.02%, respectively. 40% of PEG induced high number of protoplast fusion the regeneration frequency was 0.09% on a minimal medium. Two hundred fifty-two fusant colonies were isolated from the following four individual experiments. Among them, ten fusants showed the mycelial morphological difference compared to their parents and other fusant isolates. The fruiting body could be generated on oak sawdust and wheat bran substrate, and a few of them showed recombined morphology of the parental strains. The highest yield and biological efficacy (BE) were recorded in GF248, while least in GF244. The hybridity of the fusant was established based on mycelia, fruiting morphology, and PCR fingerprinting. ISSR and RAPD profile analysis of ten fusants and parents depicted that fusants contained polymorphic bands, which specified the rearrangement and deletion of DNA in the fusants. A Dendrogram was constructed based on the RAPD profile, and the clustering data exhibited two major clusters: cluster I included the G. lingzhi and Cluster II, including the G. applanatum and fusant lines. Total polysaccharide (α, ß and total glucan) content was compared with fusants and parental strains. The present study highlighted the efficient methods for protoplast isolation from Ganoderma species. PEG-induced fusants showed high polymorphic frequency index, while the phenotypic characters showed high similarity to G. applanatum. A significant difference was observed in the mushroom yield and its total polysaccharide between the fusants and parental strains.


Assuntos
Ganoderma/fisiologia , Glucanos/análise , Protoplastos/fisiologia , Meios de Cultura/química , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Fibras na Dieta/microbiologia , Ganoderma/química , Hibridização Genética , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Protoplastos/química , Quercus/microbiologia , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico
3.
Protein Pept Lett ; 28(3): 304-314, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In individuals with ovarian cancer, an increase in the circulating level of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) is readily apparent. Ovarian cancer cells exhibit signaling pathway of the epidermal growth factor (EGFR) and respond to the EGF. Annona muricata (AM) has been shown to decrease ovarian cell proliferation however, role of AM in regulating EGF actions is not yet to be reported. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we proposed that the fractionated compound acetogenin can inhibit the activation of EGFR-regulated signaling cascades such as MAPK7 / PI3K-Akt / mTOR / STAT upon EGF stimulation. METHODS: Ethanolic extract was prepared for the whole AM plant and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) was performed to characterize the secondary metabolites and each fraction was assessed using kedde reagent for the presence of acetogenin. The effects of acetogenins were then tested on the survival of PA-1 ovarian cancer cells under basal and EGF stimulated conditions. To delineate the role of acetogenin in EGFR signaling cascades, the in silico docking studies were conducted. RESULTS: The fraction of acetogenin decreased the viability of EGF induced PA-1 ovarian cancer cells that indicating the EGF inhibitory effects of acetogenin. The docking studies specifically illustrated that when the acetogenin binding with tyrosine kinase (TK) and regulatory unit (RU) which subsequently resulted in a reduction in EGF induced the survival of PA-1 ovarian cancer cells. DISCUSSION: The vital regulatory role of acetogenin reported in this study indicate significant anticancer activities of acetogenin from AM. The in silico study of the acetogenin function predicted that it binds specifically to Asp837 (phosphor-acceptor site) of EGFR, essential for phosphorylation of substrates in the TK domain and RU which promote downstream signaling. CONCLUSION: Acetogenin isolated from AM effectively inhibited the survival of PA-1 ovarian cancer cells through impaired EGF signaling.


Assuntos
Acetogeninas/farmacologia , Annona/química , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetogeninas/química , Acetogeninas/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia
4.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 119: 104822, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217502

RESUMO

Zaleya decandra is a prostrate, glabrous, succulent herb of the family Aizoaceae. In recent years the pharmacological efficacy of the plant such as the hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities has been reported. However, a long-term toxicity study of Z. decandra is yet to be carried out. In the present study, the acute dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w. of ethanolic extract of Z. decandra (EEZD) administered orally to Wistar rats gained gradual weight with time and appeared healthy without any record of mortality. In the sub-chronic toxicity study, the rats showed no remarkable increase or decrease in their weight even at the highest dose of 500 mg/kg b.w. The haematological, biochemistry and serum marker enzyme parameters did not show any dose dependent change in the values. Further, the histology micrographs confirmed that the tissue architecture of all the vital organs were not affected by EEZD treatment. Hence, the EEZD (500 mg/kg b.w.) is considered safe for a 90-day period. Therefore, the present study warrants extensive investigation of EEZD using higher pre-clinical model system to substantiate the findings. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 39 phytoconstituents including octadecenoic acid, hexadecanoic and phytosterols such as campesterol, sitosterol and stigmasterol.


Assuntos
Aizoaceae , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Administração Oral , Animais , Etanol/química , Feminino , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Ratos Wistar , Solventes/química , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Testes de Toxicidade Subcrônica
6.
Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem ; 18(2): 124-134, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660409

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to isolate and characterize the bioactive compounds from Pleurotus djamor against human breast cancer (MDA-MD-231) and mouse T cell lymphoma (EL4) cell lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sequential fractionization and column chromatography methods were involved in compound isolation. The structures of the isolated compound were determined by NMR, GC/MS, and X-ray crystallography studies. RESULTS: The isolated compounds 1- 4 [D-mannitol (C1), ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3ß-ol (C2), 5,8- epidioxy-ergosta-6-22-dien-3ß-ol (C3), and palmitic acid (C4)] are white crystal and amorphous powder in nature. All these compounds were isolated from this mushroom for the first time. In vitro lipid peroxidation activities of isolated compounds were determined by ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method. The sterol derivatives C2 and C3 compounds displayed strong antioxidant activity and were not significantly different (p<0.05) to α-tocopherol. This finding elaborates on the isolation of a cytotoxic compound C2 and C3 from P. djamor via a rapid elution method. CONCLUSION: The compound C3 has exhibited better cytotoxic activity against MDA-MD-231 and EL4 cells. The present finding and data might provide new insights into the possible therapeutic and pharmaceutical use for the design of anti-cancer drugs from this edible mushroom.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pleurotus/química , Esteróis/química , Esteróis/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Esteróis/isolamento & purificação
8.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 203: 111773, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931385

RESUMO

Glioma is the prime cause of cancer allied mortality in adolescent people and it accounts about 80% of all malignant tumours. Eugenol is a major bioactive constituent present in the essential oils with numerous pharmacological benefits including nueroprotective activity. The major drawback of eugenol is its extreme volatile property and oxygen sensitivity therefore we increased the efficacy of drug; eugenol by encapsulating with chitosan polymer. Eugenol loaded chitosan polymer (EuCs) was characterized using FTIR, XRD, SEM, HR-TEM analysis and the encapsulation, drug release efficacy was assessed at in vitro condition. The induction of autophagy and anticancer efficacy of EuCs on glioma cells was evaluated with rat C6 glioma cells using MTT assay, acridine orange staining, immunocytochemical analysis of NFκß protein expression and FLOW cytometric analysis. The anti-metastatic property of Eu-CS was assessed by immunoblotting and RT-PCR analysis of epithelial mesenchymal transition protein expression in EuCs treated rat C6 glioma cells. Our characterization analysis proves that EuCs possess essential physical and functional properties of copolymer to be utilized as a drug. Further the MTT analysis and AO staining confirms even in the presence of oncogenic inducer and autophagic inhibitors, EuCs exhibits apoptotic potency on rat C6 glioma cells. The result of immunocytochemical studies depicts the inhibition of NFκß protein expression and flow cytometry studies confirm apoptosis induction by EuCs. The inhibition of metastasis by EuCs was proven by the decrease in epithelial mesenchymal transition protein expression in Eu-Cs treated rat C6 glioma cells. Over all our results authentically confirms eugenol loaded chitosan nanopolymer persuasively induces apoptosis and inhibits metastasis in rat C6 glioma cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitosana/química , Eugenol/química , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Nanoestruturas/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Eugenol/farmacologia , Glioma/metabolismo , Glioma/patologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ratos , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/metabolismo
9.
Mycobiology ; 49(1): 1-14, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536808

RESUMO

Pleurotus species are commercially essential mushrooms and widely cultivated throughout the world. The production of Pleurotus mushrooms alone accounts for around 25% of that total cultivated mushrooms globally. In America and Europe, Pleurotus species are considered specialty mushrooms, whereas, in Korea, their cultivation is economically profitable, and it is one of the highly consumed species. Pleurotus species are predominantly found in tropical forests and often grow on fallen branches, dead and decaying tree stumps, and wet logs. Biographical studies have shown that the Pleurotus genus is among the more conspicuous fungi that induce wood decay in terrestrial ecosystems worldwide due to its formidable lignin-modifying enzymes, including laccase and versatile peroxidases. Pleurotus species can be grown easily due to their fast colonization nature on diversified agro-substrates and their biological efficiency 100%. Pleurotus mushrooms are rich in proteins, dietary fiber, essential amino acids, carbohydrates, water-soluble vitamins, and minerals. These mushrooms are abundant in functional bioactive molecules, though to influence health. Pleurotus mushrooms are finding unique applications as flavoring, aroma, and excellent preservation quality. Apart from its unique applications, Pleurotus mushrooms have a unique status delicacy with high nutritional and medicinal values. The present review provides an insight into the cultivation of Pleurotus spp. using different agro-waste as growth substances paying attention to their effects on the growth and chemical composition.

10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18499, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285512

RESUMO

Lignosus rhinocerotis (tiger milk mushroom) is widely used by the indigenous people of Malaysia as a traditional remedy. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the antioxidant, cytotoxic and anti-neuroinflammatory activities of L. rhinocerotis extract on brain microglial cells (BV2). The antioxidant activity was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH•), 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS•+) scavenging assays, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The FRAP, DPPH and ABTS•+ scavenging capacities of the TE3 fraction were 420.77 mg FE/g, 58.01%, and 7%, respectively. The cytotoxic activity was determined by MTS assay. The in vitro model of anti-neuroinflammatory property was evaluated by measuring the production of nitric oxide (NO) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV2 cells. The TE3 fraction showed a significant NO reduction at 1 to 100 µg/mL. The TE3 fraction down-regulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) genes while it upregulated heme oxygenase (HO-1) and NADPH quinone acceptor oxidoreductase-1 (NQO-1) genes. The nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) transcription was also activated. The chemical component of the active fraction (TE3) was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). Overall, the BV2 in vitro model anti-neuroinflammatory activity of L. rhinocerotis may be caused by the lipid constituents identified in the fraction


Assuntos
Técnicas In Vitro/métodos , Células/classificação , Agaricales/classificação , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Lipídeos/efeitos adversos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/instrumentação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia
11.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 20(11): 1021-1030, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30806227

RESUMO

Lentinus edodes (shiitake mushroom) has exhibited fibrinolytic activity. We synthesized and characterized selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) using protein precipitated from the mushroom. We also investigated the fibrinolytic activity of the SeNPs. The proteins from a crude extract of L. edodes were recovered through the use of aqueous 2-phase separation, and these we used as the capping agent in SeNP biosynthesis. We characterized the SeNPs using UV-visible spectrophotometry, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), particle size distribution analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The fibrinolytic capability of the SeNPs was tested through an in vitro fibrin plate assay. The UV-visible spectra showed maximal absorbance at 220 nm. FESEM images showed that the SeNPs were dispersed and did not clump. The TEM images revealed a spherical shape and average size of the SeNPs. The particle size distribution analysis confirmed the mean size of the SeNPs at 64.53 nm. A strong signal for the presence of selenium was observed in the EDX analysis. The FT-IR spectrum revealed the involvement of protein functional groups in the reduction of sel-enite. Overall, the SeNPs capped with protein from shiitake mushroom were effective as an in vitro fibrinolytic agent.


Assuntos
Fibrinólise , Proteínas Fúngicas/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/química , Selênio/química , Cogumelos Shiitake/química , Bioensaio , Proteínas Fúngicas/química
12.
Front Pharmacol ; 8: 998, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29379443

RESUMO

Edible and medicinal mushrooms are regularly used in natural medicines and home remedies since antiquity for ailments like fever, inflammation, and respiratory disorders. Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden is a polypore found in Malaysia and other regions in South East Asia. It can be located on a spot where a tigress drips milk while feeding, hence the name "tiger's milk mushroom." The sclerotium of L. rhinocerotis is highly sought after by the native communities in Malaysia to stave off hunger, relieve cough and asthma, and provide stamina. The genomic features of L. rhinocerotis have been described. The pharmacological and toxicity effects, if any, of L. rhinocerotis sclerotium have been scientifically verified in recent years. In this review, the validated investigations including the cognitive function, neuroprotection, immune modulation, anti-asthmatic, anti-coagulation, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial/ anti-viral, anti-obesity, anti-cancer/ anti-tumor, and antioxidant properties are highlighted. These findings suggest that L. rhinocerotis can be considered as an alternative and natural medicine in the management of non-communicable diseases. However, there is a paucity of validation studies including human clinical trials of the mycochemicals of L. rhinocerotis.

13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 194: 1051-1059, 2016 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27816657

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hericium erinaceus is a culinary-medicinal mushroom and has a long history of usage in traditional Chinese medicine as a tonic for stomach disorders, ulcers and gastrointestinal ailments. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present investigation was aimed to evaluate the potential toxic effects of the aqueous extract from the fruiting bodies of H. erinaceus in rats by a sub-chronic oral toxicity study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this sub-chronic toxicity study, rats were orally administered with the aqueous extract of H. erinaceus (HEAE) at doses of 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg body weight (b.w.) for 90 days. Body weights were recorded on a weekly basis and general behavioural changes were observed. The blood samples were subjected to haematological, biochemical, serum electrolyte, and antioxidant enzyme estimations. The rats were sacrificed and organs were processed and examined for histopathological changes. RESULTS: No mortality or morbidity was observed in all the treated and control rats. The results showed that the oral administration of HEAE daily at three different doses for 90 days had no adverse effect on the general behaviour, body weight, haematology, clinical biochemistry, and relative organ weights. Histopathological examination at the end of the study showed normal architecture except for few non-treatment related histopathological changes observed in liver, heart and spleen. CONCLUSION: The results of this sub-chronic toxicity study provides evidence that oral administration of HEAE is safe up to 1000mg/kg and H. erinaceus consumption is relatively non-toxic.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Basidiomycota/química , Fatores Biológicos/administração & dosagem , Fatores Biológicos/toxicidade , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/efeitos adversos , Administração Oral , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Fatores Biológicos/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Modelos Animais , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda/métodos , Testes de Toxicidade Subcrônica/métodos
14.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 79: 25-34, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27177820

RESUMO

Senecio candicans DC. (Asteraceae) is used as a remedy for gastric ulcer and stomach pain in the Nilgiris, district, Tamil Nadu. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the sub-chronic toxicity of an aqueous extract of Senecio candicans (AESC) plant in Wistar albino rats. The study was conducted in consideration of the OECD 408 study design (Repeated Dose 90-Day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents) and the extract was administered via gavage at doses of 250, 500 or 750 mg/kg body weight per day for 90-days. Hematological, biochemical parameters were determined on days 0, 30, 60 and 90 of administration. Animals were euthanized after 90 d treatment and its liver and kidney sections were taken for histological study. The results of sub-chronic study showed significant increase (P < 0.05) in serum uric acid, creatinine, aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALP) levels. Histological examination of liver showed mild mononuclear infiltration in the portal trait, enlarged nucleus around the central vein and mild loss of hepatocyte architecture in rats treated with 750 mg/kg of AESC. Histological examination of kidney showed focal interstitial fibrosis, crowding of glomeruli and mild hydropic change with hypercellular glomeruli in rats treated with 750 mg/kg of AESC. However, no remarkable histoarchitectural change in hepatocytes and glomeruli were observed in rats treated with lower concentrations (250 and 500 mg/kg b.w.) of AESC compared to control group animals. The no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of AESC in the present study was 500 mg/kg b.w. Signs of toxic effects are evident from the current study. Although AESC contains low concentrations of PA, findings from this study suggest that regular consumers of herbal remedies derived from this plant may develop kidney and liver toxicity. Further studies on the isolation and characterization of PAs are necessary to determine the safe dose level of the extract for therapeutic use in traditional medicine.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina/toxicidade , Senécio/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade Subcrônica , Administração Oral , Animais , Antiulcerosos/administração & dosagem , Antiulcerosos/isolamento & purificação , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/sangue , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Fibrose , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Nefropatias/sangue , Nefropatias/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Medicinais , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina/administração & dosagem , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina/isolamento & purificação , Ratos Wistar , Medição de Risco , Senécio/química , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 10: 5853-63, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26425086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hericium erinaceus has been reported to have a wide range of medicinal properties such as stimulation of neurite outgrowth, promotion of functional recovery of axonotmetic peroneal nerve injury, antioxidant, antihypertensive, and antidiabetic properties. In recent years, the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has attracted intense interest due to the potential use in biomedical applications. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AuNPs from aqueous extract of H. erinaceus on neurite outgrowth of rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells. METHODS: The formation of AuNPs was characterized by UV-visible spectrum, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), particle size distribution, and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Furthermore, the neurite extension study of synthesized AuNPs was evaluated by in vitro assay. RESULTS: The AuNPs exhibited maximum absorbance between 510 and 600 nm in UV-visible spectrum. FESEM and TEM images showed the existence of nanoparticles with sizes of 20-40 nm. FTIR measurements were carried out to identify the possible biomolecules responsible for capping and efficient stabilization of the nanoparticles. The purity and the crystalline properties were confirmed by EDX diffraction analysis, which showed strong signals with energy peaks in the range of 2-2.4 keV, indicating the existence of gold atoms. The synthesized AuNPs showed significant neurite extension on PC-12 cells. Nerve growth factor 50 ng/mL was used as a positive control. Treatment with different concentrations (nanograms) of AuNPs resulted in neuronal differentiation and neuronal elongation. AuNPs induced maximum neurite outgrowth of 13% at 600 ng/mL concentration. CONCLUSION: In this study, the AuNPs synthesis was achieved by a simple, low-cost, and rapid bioreduction approach. AuNPs were shown to have potential neuronal differentiation and stimulated neurite outgrowth. The water-soluble bioconstituents could be responsible for the neuroactivity. This is the first report for the biosynthesis of AuNPs using the hot aqueous extract of H. erinaceus.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/tratamento farmacológico , Basidiomycota/química , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Neuritos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feocromocitoma/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Imunofluorescência , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Células PC12 , Tamanho da Partícula , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
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