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1.
Brain ; 142(11): 3473-3481, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608925

RESUMO

Rare genetic variants can cause epilepsy, and genetic testing has been widely adopted for severe, paediatric-onset epilepsies. The phenotypic consequences of common genetic risk burden for epilepsies and their potential future clinical applications have not yet been determined. Using polygenic risk scores (PRS) from a European-ancestry genome-wide association study in generalized and focal epilepsy, we quantified common genetic burden in patients with generalized epilepsy (GE-PRS) or focal epilepsy (FE-PRS) from two independent non-Finnish European cohorts (Epi25 Consortium, n = 5705; Cleveland Clinic Epilepsy Center, n = 620; both compared to 20 435 controls). One Finnish-ancestry population isolate (Finnish-ancestry Epi25, n = 449; compared to 1559 controls), two European-ancestry biobanks (UK Biobank, n = 383 656; Vanderbilt biorepository, n = 49 494), and one Japanese-ancestry biobank (BioBank Japan, n = 168 680) were used for additional replications. Across 8386 patients with epilepsy and 622 212 population controls, we found and replicated significantly higher GE-PRS in patients with generalized epilepsy of European-ancestry compared to patients with focal epilepsy (Epi25: P = 1.64×10-15; Cleveland: P = 2.85×10-4; Finnish-ancestry Epi25: P = 1.80×10-4) or population controls (Epi25: P = 2.35×10-70; Cleveland: P = 1.43×10-7; Finnish-ancestry Epi25: P = 3.11×10-4; UK Biobank and Vanderbilt biorepository meta-analysis: P = 7.99×10-4). FE-PRS were significantly higher in patients with focal epilepsy compared to controls in the non-Finnish, non-biobank cohorts (Epi25: P = 5.74×10-19; Cleveland: P = 1.69×10-6). European ancestry-derived PRS did not predict generalized epilepsy or focal epilepsy in Japanese-ancestry individuals. Finally, we observed a significant 4.6-fold and a 4.5-fold enrichment of patients with generalized epilepsy compared to controls in the top 0.5% highest GE-PRS of the two non-Finnish European cohorts (Epi25: P = 2.60×10-15; Cleveland: P = 1.39×10-2). We conclude that common variant risk associated with epilepsy is significantly enriched in multiple cohorts of patients with epilepsy compared to controls-in particular for generalized epilepsy. As sample sizes and PRS accuracy continue to increase with further common variant discovery, PRS could complement established clinical biomarkers and augment genetic testing for patient classification, comorbidity research, and potentially targeted treatment.

2.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485028

RESUMO

Gallstones Disease (GSD) is one of the most common digestive diseases requiring hospitalization and surgical procedures in the world. GSD has a high prevalence in populations with European or Amerindian ancestry (10-20%) and the influence of genetic factors is broadly acknowledged. However, known genetic variants do not entirely explain the disease heritability suggesting that additional genetic variants remain to be identified. Here, we examined the association of copy number variants (CNVs) with GSD in a sample of 4778 individuals (1929 GSD cases and 2849 controls) including two European cohorts from Germany (n = 3702) and one admixed Latin American cohort from Chile (n = 1076). We detected 2936 large and rare CNVs events (size > 100 kb, frequency < 1%). Case-control burden analysis and generalized linear regression models revealed significant association of CNVs with GSD in men, with the strongest effect observed with CNVs overlapping lipid metabolism genes (p-value = 6.54 × 10-4; OR = 2.76; CI 95% = 1.53-4.89). Our results indicate a clear link between CNVs and GSD in men and provides additional evidence that the genetic components of risk for GSD are complex, can be sex specific and include CNVs affecting genes involved in lipid metabolism.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 509-525, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422817

RESUMO

The human RNA helicase DDX6 is an essential component of membrane-less organelles called processing bodies (PBs). PBs are involved in mRNA metabolic processes including translational repression via coordinated storage of mRNAs. Previous studies in human cell lines have implicated altered DDX6 in molecular and cellular dysfunction, but clinical consequences and pathogenesis in humans have yet to be described. Here, we report the identification of five rare de novo missense variants in DDX6 in probands presenting with intellectual disability, developmental delay, and similar dysmorphic features including telecanthus, epicanthus, arched eyebrows, and low-set ears. All five missense variants (p.His372Arg, p.Arg373Gln, p.Cys390Arg, p.Thr391Ile, and p.Thr391Pro) are located in two conserved motifs of the RecA-2 domain of DDX6 involved in RNA binding, helicase activity, and protein-partner binding. We use functional studies to demonstrate that the first variants identified (p.Arg373Gln and p.Cys390Arg) cause significant defects in PB assembly in primary fibroblast and model human cell lines. These variants' interactions with several protein partners were also disrupted in immunoprecipitation assays. Further investigation via complementation assays included the additional variants p.Thr391Ile and p.Thr391Pro, both of which, similarly to p.Arg373Gln and p.Cys390Arg, demonstrated significant defects in P-body assembly. Complementing these molecular findings, modeling of the variants on solved protein structures showed distinct spatial clustering near known protein binding regions. Collectively, our clinical and molecular data describe a neurodevelopmental syndrome associated with pathogenic missense variants in DDX6. Additionally, we suggest DDX6 join the DExD/H-box genes DDX3X and DHX30 in an emerging class of neurodevelopmental disorders involving RNA helicases.

4.
Epilepsia ; 60(8): 1733-1742, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313283

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The cyclin-dependent kinase like 5 (CDKL5) gene is a known cause of early onset developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, also known as CDKL5 deficiency disorder (CDD). We sought to (1) provide a description of seizure types in patients with CDD, (2) provide an assessment of the frequency of seizure-free periods and cortical visual impairment (CVI), (3) correlate these features with genotype and gender, and (4) correlate these features with developmental milestones. METHODS: This is a cohort study of patients with CDD. Phenotypic features were explored and correlated with gene variant grouping and gender. A developmental score was created based on achieving seven primary milestones. Phenotypic variables were correlated with the developmental score to explore markers of better developmental outcomes. Multivariate linear regression was used to account for age at last visit. RESULTS: Ninety-two patients with CDD were seen during the enrollment period. Eighteen were male (19%); median age at last visit was 5 years (interquartile range = 2.0-11.0). Eighty-one percent of patients developed epileptic spasms, but only 47% of those also had hypsarrhythmia. Previously described hypermotor-tonic-spasms sequence was seen in only 24% of patients, but 56% of patients had seizures with multiple phases (often tonic and spasms). Forty-three percent of patients experienced a seizure-free period ranging from 1 to >12 months, but only 6% were still seizure-free at the last visit. CVI was present in 75% of all CDD patients. None of these features was associated with genotype group or gender. CVI was correlated with reduced milestone achievement after adjusting for age at last visit and a history of hypsarrhythmia. SIGNIFICANCE: The most common seizure types in CDD are epileptic spasms (often without hypsarrhythmia) and tonic seizures that may cluster together. CVI is a common feature in CDD and is correlated with achieving fewer milestones.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3043, 2019 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292440

RESUMO

There are established associations between advanced paternal age and offspring risk for psychiatric and developmental disorders. These are commonly attributed to genetic mutations, especially de novo single nucleotide variants (dnSNVs), that accumulate with increasing paternal age. However, the actual magnitude of risk from such mutations in the male germline is unknown. Quantifying this risk would clarify the clinical significance of delayed paternity. Using parent-child trio whole-exome-sequencing data, we estimate the relationship between paternal-age-related dnSNVs and risk for five disorders: autism spectrum disorder (ASD), congenital heart disease, neurodevelopmental disorders with epilepsy, intellectual disability and schizophrenia (SCZ). Using Danish registry data, we investigate whether epidemiologic associations between each disorder and older fatherhood are consistent with the estimated role of dnSNVs. We find that paternal-age-related dnSNVs confer a small amount of risk for these disorders. For ASD and SCZ, epidemiologic associations with delayed paternity reflect factors that may not increase with age.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos , Modelos Genéticos , Idade Paterna , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Criança , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/genética , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Humanos , Incidência , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
6.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(11): 1738-1744, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358956

RESUMO

It is challenging to estimate genetic variant burden across different subtypes of epilepsy. Herein, we used a comparative approach to assess the genetic variant burden and genotype-phenotype correlations in four most common brain lesions in patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Targeted sequencing analysis was performed for a panel of 161 genes with a mean coverage of >400×. Lesional tissue was histopathologically reviewed and dissected from hippocampal sclerosis (n = 15), ganglioglioma (n = 16), dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (n = 8), and focal cortical dysplasia type II (n = 15). Peripheral blood (n = 12) or surgical tissue samples histopathologically classified as lesion-free (n = 42) were available for comparison. Variants were classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines. Overall, we identified pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants in 25.9% of patients with a mean coverage of 383×. The highest number of pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants was observed in patients with ganglioglioma (43.75%; all somatic) and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (37.5%; all somatic), and in 20% of cases with focal cortical dysplasia type II (13.33% somatic, 6.67% germline). Pathogenic/likely pathogenic positive genes were disorder specific and BRAF V600E the only recurrent pathogenic variant. This study represents a reference for the genetic variant burden across the four most common lesion entities in patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. The observed large variability in variant burden by epileptic lesion type calls for whole exome sequencing of histopathologically well-characterized tissue in a diagnostic setting and in research to discover novel disease-associated genes.

7.
Genet Med ; 21(11): 2496-2503, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056551

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to gain insight into frequencies of genetic variants in genes implicated in neurodevelopmental disorder with epilepsy (NDD+E) by investigating large cohorts of patients in a diagnostic setting. METHODS: We analyzed variants in NDD+E using epilepsy gene panel sequencing performed between 2013 and 2017 by two large diagnostic companies. We compared variant frequencies in 6994 panels with another 8588 recently published panels as well as exome-wide de novo variants in 1942 individuals with NDD+E and 10,937 controls. RESULTS: Genes with highest frequencies of ultrarare variants in NDD+E comprised SCN1A, KCNQ2, SCN2A, CDKL5, SCN8A, and STXBP1, concordant with the two other epilepsy cohorts we investigated. In only 46% of the analyzed 262 dominant and X-linked panel genes ultrarare variants in patients were reported. Among genes with contradictory evidence of association with epilepsy, CACNB4, CLCN2, EFHC1, GABRD, MAGI2, and SRPX2 showed equal frequencies in cases and controls. CONCLUSION: We show that improvement of panel design increased diagnostic yield over time, but panels still display genes with low or no diagnostic yield. With our data, we hope to improve current diagnostic NDD+E panel design and provide a resource of ultrarare variants in individuals with NDD+E to the community.

8.
Bioinformatics ; 35(21): 4478-4479, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086968

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: The correct classification of missense variants as benign or pathogenic remains challenging. Pathogenic variants are expected to have higher deleterious prediction scores than benign variants in the same gene. However, most of the existing variant annotation tools do not reference the score range of benign population variants on gene level. RESULTS: We present a web-application, Variant Score Ranker, which enables users to rapidly annotate variants and perform gene-specific variant score ranking on the population level. We also provide an intuitive example of how gene- and population-calibrated variant ranking scores can improve epilepsy variant prioritization. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: http://vsranker.broadinstitute.org. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

9.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(W1): W99-W105, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31114901

RESUMO

Clinical genetic testing has exponentially expanded in recent years, leading to an overwhelming amount of patient variants with high variability in pathogenicity and heterogeneous phenotypes. A large part of the variant level data is aggregated in public databases such as ClinVar. However, the ability to explore this rich resource and answer general questions such as 'How many genes inside ClinVar are associated with a specific disease? or 'In which part of the protein are patient variants located?' is limited and requires advanced bioinformatics processing. Here, we present Simple ClinVar (http://simple-clinvar.broadinstitute.org/) a web server application that is able to provide variant, gene and disease level summary statistics based on the entire ClinVar database in a dynamic and user-friendly web-interface. Overall, our web application is able to interactively answer basic questions regarding genetic variation and its known relationships to disease. By typing a disease term of interest, the user can identify in seconds the genes and phenotypes most frequently reported to ClinVar. Subsets of variants can then be further explored, filtered or mapped and visualized in the corresponding protein sequences. Our website will follow ClinVar monthly releases and provide easy access to ClinVar resources to a broader audience including basic and clinical scientists.

10.
Pediatr Neurol ; 97: 18-25, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928302

RESUMO

Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) deficiency disorder (CDD) is a developmental encephalopathy caused by pathogenic variants in the gene CDKL5. This unique disorder includes early infantile onset refractory epilepsy, hypotonia, developmental intellectual and motor disabilities, and cortical visual impairment. We review the clinical presentations and genetic variations in CDD based on a systematic literature review and experience in the CDKL5 Centers of Excellence. We propose minimum diagnostic criteria. Pathogenic variants include deletions, truncations, splice variants, and missense variants. Pathogenic missense variants occur exclusively within the kinase domain or affect splice sites. The CDKL5 protein is widely expressed in the brain, predominantly in neurons, with roles in cell proliferation, neuronal migration, axonal outgrowth, dendritic morphogenesis, and synapse development. The molecular biology of CDD is revealing opportunities in precision therapy, with phase 2 and 3 clinical trials underway or planned to assess disease specific and disease modifying treatments.

11.
Epilepsia ; 60(5): 830-844, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968951

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pathogenic variants in SCN8A have been associated with a wide spectrum of epilepsy phenotypes, ranging from benign familial infantile seizures (BFIS) to epileptic encephalopathies with variable severity. Furthermore, a few patients with intellectual disability (ID) or movement disorders without epilepsy have been reported. The vast majority of the published SCN8A patients suffer from severe developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). In this study, we aimed to provide further insight on the spectrum of milder SCN8A-related epilepsies. METHODS: A cohort of 1095 patients were screened using a next generation sequencing panel. Further patients were ascertained from a network of epilepsy genetics clinics. Patients with severe DEE and BFIS were excluded from the study. RESULTS: We found 36 probands who presented with an SCN8A-related epilepsy and normal intellect (33%) or mild (61%) to moderate ID (6%). All patients presented with epilepsy between age 1.5 months and 7 years (mean = 13.6 months), and 58% of these became seizure-free, two-thirds on monotherapy. Neurological disturbances included ataxia (28%) and hypotonia (19%) as the most prominent features. Interictal electroencephalogram was normal in 41%. Several recurrent variants were observed, including Ile763Val, Val891Met, Gly1475Arg, Gly1483Lys, Phe1588Leu, Arg1617Gln, Ala1650Val/Thr, Arg1872Gln, and Asn1877Ser. SIGNIFICANCE: With this study, we explore the electroclinical features of an intermediate SCN8A-related epilepsy with mild cognitive impairment, which is for the majority a treatable epilepsy.

12.
Epilepsia ; 60(4): 689-706, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866059

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Copy number variations (CNVs) represent a significant genetic risk for several neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy. As knowledge increases, reanalysis of existing data is essential. Reliable estimates of the contribution of CNVs to epilepsies from sizeable populations are not available. METHODS: We assembled a cohort of 1255 patients with preexisting array comparative genomic hybridization or single nucleotide polymorphism array based CNV data. All patients had "epilepsy plus," defined as epilepsy with comorbid features, including intellectual disability, psychiatric symptoms, and other neurological and nonneurological features. CNV classification was conducted using a systematic filtering workflow adapted to epilepsy. RESULTS: Of 1097 patients remaining after genetic data quality control, 120 individuals (10.9%) carried at least one autosomal CNV classified as pathogenic; 19 individuals (1.7%) carried at least one autosomal CNV classified as possibly pathogenic. Eleven patients (1%) carried more than one (possibly) pathogenic CNV. We identified CNVs covering recently reported (HNRNPU) or emerging (RORB) epilepsy genes, and further delineated the phenotype associated with mutations of these genes. Additional novel epilepsy candidate genes emerge from our study. Comparing phenotypic features of pathogenic CNV carriers to those of noncarriers of pathogenic CNVs, we show that patients with nonneurological comorbidities, especially dysmorphism, were more likely to carry pathogenic CNVs (odds ratio = 4.09, confidence interval = 2.51-6.68; P = 2.34 × 10-9 ). Meta-analysis including data from published control groups showed that the presence or absence of epilepsy did not affect the detected frequency of CNVs. SIGNIFICANCE: The use of a specifically adapted workflow enabled identification of pathogenic autosomal CNVs in 10.9% of patients with epilepsy plus, which rose to 12.7% when we also considered possibly pathogenic CNVs. Our data indicate that epilepsy with comorbid features should be considered an indication for patients to be selected for a diagnostic algorithm including CNV detection. Collaborative large-scale CNV reanalysis leads to novel declaration of pathogenicity in unexplained cases and can promote discovery of promising candidate epilepsy genes.

13.
Neurology ; 92(11): e1238-e1249, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737342

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to expand the spectrum of epilepsy syndromes related to STX1B, encoding the presynaptic protein syntaxin-1B, and establish genotype-phenotype correlations by identifying further disease-related variants. METHODS: We used next-generation sequencing in the framework of research projects and diagnostic testing. Clinical data and EEGs were reviewed, including already published cases. To estimate the pathogenicity of the variants, we used established and newly developed in silico prediction tools. RESULTS: We describe 17 new variants in STX1B, which are distributed across the whole gene. We discerned 4 different phenotypic groups across the newly identified and previously published patients (49 patients in 23 families): (1) 6 sporadic patients or families (31 affected individuals) with febrile and afebrile seizures with a benign course, generally good drug response, normal development, and without permanent neurologic deficits; (2) 2 patients with genetic generalized epilepsy without febrile seizures and cognitive deficits; (3) 13 patients or families with intractable seizures, developmental regression after seizure onset and additional neuropsychiatric symptoms; (4) 2 patients with focal epilepsy. More often, we found loss-of-function mutations in benign syndromes, whereas missense variants in the SNARE motif of syntaxin-1B were associated with more severe phenotypes. CONCLUSION: These data expand the genetic and phenotypic spectrum of STX1B-related epilepsies to a diverse range of epilepsies that span the International League Against Epilepsy classification. Variants in STX1B are protean and contribute to many different epilepsy phenotypes, similar to SCN1A, the most important gene associated with fever-associated epilepsies.

14.
Epileptic Disord ; 21(1): 65-77, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30782578

RESUMO

We comprehensively studied the clinical presentation, stereo-EEG and MRI findings, histopathological diagnosis, and brain somatic mutations in a retrospective series of drug-resistant patients with difficult-to-localize epilepsy due to focal cortical dysplasia at the bottom of a sulcus (BOS-FCD). We identified 10 patients with BOS-FCD from the Cleveland Clinic epilepsy surgery database submitted for intracranial video-EEG monitoring. Brain MRI, including voxel-based morphometric analysis and surgical tissue submitted for histopathology, was reviewed. Paraffin tissue samples from five patients were made available for targeted next-generation sequencing. Postsurgical follow-up was available in nine patients. BOS-FCD was identified in the superior frontal sulcus in six patients, inferior frontal sulcus in one patient, central sulcus in one patient, and intraparietal sulcus in two patients. All patients had stereotyped seizures. Intracranial EEG recordings identified ictal onset at the BOS-FCD in all 10 patients, whereas ictal scalp EEG had a localizing value in only six patients. Complete resection was achieved by lesionectomy or focal corticectomy in nine patients. Histopathologically, six patients had FCD type IIb and three had FCD type IIa. Next-generation sequencing analysis of DNA extracted from lesion-enriched (micro-dissected) tissue from five patients with FCD type II led to the identification of a germline frameshift insertion in DEPDC5, introducing a premature stop in one patient. Eight out of nine patients with available follow-up were completely seizure-free (Engel Class IA) after a mean follow-up period of six years. Our results confirm previous studies classifying difficult-to-localize BOS-FCD into the emerging spectrum of FCD ILAE type II mTORopathies. Further studies with large patient numbers and ultra-deep genetic testing may help to bridge the current knowledge gap in genetic aetiologies of FCD.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Parciais/diagnóstico , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Eletrocorticografia , Epilepsias Parciais/genética , Epilepsias Parciais/patologia , Epilepsias Parciais/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/genética , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/patologia , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Adulto Jovem
15.
Curr Opin Neurol ; 32(2): 183-190, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664068

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent publications point to an increasingly important role of variants in genes encoding GABAA receptor subunits associated with both common and rare forms of epilepsies. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the current clinical phenotypes, genetic findings and pathophysiological mechanisms related to GABAA receptor variants. RECENT FINDINGS: Early work showed that inherited variants in GABRG2 and GABRA1 cause relatively mild forms of monogenic epilepsies in large families. More recent studies have revealed that de novo variants in several GABAA receptor genes cause severe developmental and epileptic encephalopathies, inherited variants cause remarkably variable phenotypes within the same pedigrees ranging from asymptomatic carriers to developmental and epileptic encephalopathies, and variants in all GABAA receptor genes are enriched in common forms of epilepsy, namely rolandic epilepsy and genetic generalized epilepsy. Analyses from cellular expression systems and mouse models suggest that all variants cause a loss of GABAA receptor function resulting in GABAergic disinhibition. SUMMARY: Genetic studies have revealed a crucial role of the GABAergic system in the underlying pathogenesis of various forms of common and rare epilepsies. Our understanding of functional consequences of GABAA receptor variants provide an opportunity to develop precision-based therapeutic strategies that are hopefully free from the side-effect burden seen with currently available GABAergic drugs.

16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 410, 2019 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679432

RESUMO

The contribution of de novo variants in severe intellectual disability (ID) has been extensively studied whereas the genetics of mild ID has been less characterized. To elucidate the genetics of milder ID we studied 442 ID patients enriched for mild ID (>50%) from a population isolate of Finland. Using exome sequencing, we show that rare damaging variants in known ID genes are observed significantly more often in severe (27%) than in mild ID (13%) patients. We further observe a significant enrichment of functional variants in genes not yet associated with ID (OR: 2.1). We show that a common variant polygenic risk significantly contributes to ID. The heritability explained by polygenic risk score is the highest for educational attainment (EDU) in mild ID (2.2%) but lower for more severe ID (0.6%). Finally, we identify a Finland enriched homozygote variant in the CRADD ID associated gene.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização CRADD/genética , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Exoma , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/epidemiologia , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Geografia , Homozigoto , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Patologia Molecular , Prevalência , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
17.
Epilepsia ; 60(3): 406-418, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682224

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the phenotypic spectrum associated with GNAO1 variants and establish genotype-protein structure-phenotype relationships. METHODS: We evaluated the phenotypes of 14 patients with GNAO1 variants, analyzed their variants for potential pathogenicity, and mapped them, along with those in the literature, on a three-dimensional structural protein model. RESULTS: The 14 patients in our cohort, including one sibling pair, had 13 distinct, heterozygous GNAO1 variants classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic. We attributed the same variant in two siblings to parental mosaicism. Patients initially presented with seizures beginning in the first 3 months of life (8/14), developmental delay (4/14), hypotonia (1/14), or movement disorder (1/14). All patients had hypotonia and developmental delay ranging from mild to severe. Nine had epilepsy, and nine had movement disorders, including dystonia, ataxia, chorea, and dyskinesia. The 13 GNAO1 variants in our patients are predicted to result in amino acid substitutions or deletions in the GNAO1 guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding region, analogous to those in previous publications. Patients with variants affecting amino acids 207-221 had only movement disorder and hypotonia. Patients with variants affecting the C-terminal region had the mildest phenotypes. SIGNIFICANCE: GNAO1 encephalopathy most frequently presents with seizures beginning in the first 3 months of life. Concurrent movement disorders are also a prominent feature in the spectrum of GNAO1 encephalopathy. All variants affected the GTP-binding domain of GNAO1, highlighting the importance of this region for G-protein signaling and neurodevelopment.

18.
Epilepsia ; 59(11): 2145-2152, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30341947

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Increasing availability of surgically resected brain tissue from patients with focal epilepsy and focal cortical dysplasia or low-grade glioneuronal tumors has fostered large-scale genetic examination. However, assessment of pathogenicity of germ line and somatic variants remains difficult. Here, we present a state-of-the-art evaluation of reported genes and variants associated with epileptic brain lesions. METHODS: We critically reevaluated the pathogenicity for all neuropathology-associated variants reported to date in the PubMed and ClinVar databases, including 101 neuropathology-associated missense variants encompassing 11 disease-related genes. We assessed gene variant tolerance and classified all identified missense variants according to guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG). We further extended the bioinformatic variant prediction by introducing a novel gene-specific deleteriousness ranking for prediction scores. RESULTS: Application of ACMG guidelines and in silico gene variant tolerance analysis classified only seven of 11 genes to be likely disease-associated according to the reported disease mechanism, whereas 61 (60.4%) of 101 variants of those genes were classified as of uncertain significance, 37 (36.6%) as being likely pathogenic, and 3 (3%) as being pathogenic. SIGNIFICANCE: We concluded that the majority of neuropathology-associated variants reported to date do not have enough evidence to be classified as pathogenic. Interpretation of lesion-associated variants remains challenging, and application of current ACMG guidelines is recommended for interpretation and prediction.

20.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0202022, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30148849

RESUMO

Genetic Generalized Epilepsy (GGE) and benign epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes or Rolandic Epilepsy (RE) are common forms of genetic epilepsies. Rare copy number variants have been recognized as important risk factors in brain disorders. We performed a systematic survey of rare deletions affecting protein-coding genes derived from exome data of patients with common forms of genetic epilepsies. We analysed exomes from 390 European patients (196 GGE and 194 RE) and 572 population controls to identify low-frequency genic deletions. We found that 75 (32 GGE and 43 RE) patients out of 390, i.e. ~19%, carried rare genic deletions. In particular, large deletions (>400 kb) represent a higher burden in both GGE and RE syndromes as compared to controls. The detected low-frequency deletions (1) share genes with brain-expressed exons that are under negative selection, (2) overlap with known autism and epilepsy-associated candidate genes, (3) are enriched for CNV intolerant genes recorded by the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) and (4) coincide with likely disruptive de novo mutations from the NPdenovo database. Employing several knowledge databases, we discuss the most prominent epilepsy candidate genes and their protein-protein networks for GGE and RE.

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