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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no internationally vetted set of anatomic terms to describe human surface anatomy. OBJECTIVE: To establish expert consensus on a standardized set of terms that describe clinically-relevant human surface anatomy. METHODS: We conducted a Delphi consensus on surface anatomy terminology between July 2017 and July 2019. The initial survey included 385 anatomic terms, organized in 7 levels of hierarchy. If agreement exceeded the 75% established threshold, the term was considered 'accepted' and included in the final list. Terms added by the participants were passed on to the next round of consensus. Terms with less than 75% agreement were included in subsequent surveys along with alternative terms proposed by participants until agreement was reached on all terms. RESULTS: The Delphi included 21 participants. We found consensus (≥75% agreement) on 361/385 (93.8%) terms and eliminated one term in the first round. Of 49 new terms suggested by participants, 45 were added via consensus. To adjust for a recently published ICD-ST list of terms, a third survey including 111 discrepant terms was sent to participants. Finally, a total of 513 terms reached agreement via the Delphi method. CONCLUSIONS: We have established a set of 513 clinically-relevant terms for denoting human surface anatomy, towards the use of standardized terminology in dermatologic documentation.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749663

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Few data on possible local factors that can influence the achievement of response in nonsegmental vitiligo (NSV) treated with narrowband ultraviolet B (Nb-UVB) phototherapy are available. Our objective is to evaluate possible correlations between therapeutic outcomes and dermoscopic and local (lesional) clinical findings of vitiligous lesions undergoing Nb-UVB phototherapy to find positive and/or negative response predictor factors to such treatment. METHODS: For each target patch, we calculated the extension area using a computer-aided method and assessed dermoscopic and local (lesional) clinical findings at baseline. After 30 phototherapy sessions (twice weekly), surface area of the lesions was reevaluated to assess clinical improvement, correlating the therapeutic outcome with initial clinical and dermoscopic features. RESULTS: A total of 70 lesions were finally included in the study. At the end of therapy, 18 patches (25.7%) achieved improvement, and the presence of perifollicular pigmentation on baseline dermoscopic examination was found to be associated with a 12-fold higher probability of having a positive therapeutic outcome. Similarly, face localization was also correlated with clinical amelioration, with a sevenfold higher probability for improvement. No association (p > 0.05) between therapeutic outcomes (either good or poor) and other dermoscopic or local clinical variables (including leukotrichia) was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Therapeutic response of vitiligo to Nb-UVB phototherapy may be positively affected by local features of the lesions, i.e., face localization and presence of perifollicular pigmentation on baseline dermoscopic examination, which might be considered as positive response predictor factors to optimize treatment of vitiligo.

4.
Dermatol Ther ; : e13958, 2020 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621642

RESUMO

Bullous pemphigoid (BP) patients are predominantly above 70 years of age, with limited tolerance to the side effects of the immunosuppressive drugs. Advancements in our understanding of the pathophysiology of BP have led to the development of molecules which target specific pathways involved in induction and perpetuation of disease. Patients with BP Disease Area Index above 60 and less than 100 were split into two groups-one with high and the other with normal levels of IgE. The tested parameters included eosinophils' count, total IgE serum level, and interleukins (IL) 16, 17A, and 23 counts in the peripheral blood and skin bulla serum, before any therapeutic intervention. Thirty individuals fulfilled the criteria for enrollment. Patients with high IgE blood serum levels had significantly higher levels of IL17A and normal IL23 levels in blood and bulla serum. Patients with normal serum IgE levels had slightly higher IL23 levels in blood and bulla serum. The eosinophil count was positively related to IL17 blood serum level and negatively related to IL23. IL16 did not differ in the two groups. BP patients may represent a group of patients benefiting most substantially from the introduction of nonimmunosuppressive therapeutics into the treatment regimens for their disease. Clinical criteria and immune biomarkers are needed for making the best therapeutic choice.

5.
Nat Med ; 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572267

RESUMO

The rapid increase in telemedicine coupled with recent advances in diagnostic artificial intelligence (AI) create the imperative to consider the opportunities and risks of inserting AI-based support into new paradigms of care. Here we build on recent achievements in the accuracy of image-based AI for skin cancer diagnosis to address the effects of varied representations of AI-based support across different levels of clinical expertise and multiple clinical workflows. We find that good quality AI-based support of clinical decision-making improves diagnostic accuracy over that of either AI or physicians alone, and that the least experienced clinicians gain the most from AI-based support. We further find that AI-based multiclass probabilities outperformed content-based image retrieval (CBIR) representations of AI in the mobile technology environment, and AI-based support had utility in simulations of second opinions and of telemedicine triage. In addition to demonstrating the potential benefits associated with good quality AI in the hands of non-expert clinicians, we find that faulty AI can mislead the entire spectrum of clinicians, including experts. Lastly, we show that insights derived from AI class-activation maps can inform improvements in human diagnosis. Together, our approach and findings offer a framework for future studies across the spectrum of image-based diagnostics to improve human-computer collaboration in clinical practice.

6.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A recently introduced dermatoscopic method for diagnosis of early lentigo maligna (LM) is based on the absence of prevalent patterns of pigmented actinic keratosis (PAK) and solar lentigo/flat seborrheic keratosis (SL/SK). We term this the "inverse approach" OBJECTIVE: To determine whether training on the inverse approach increases the diagnostic accuracy of readers as compared to classic pattern analysis. METHODS: We used clinical and dermatoscopic images of histopathologically diagnosed LMs, PAKs and SLs/SKs. Participants of a dermatoscopy masterclass classified the lesions at baseline, after training on pattern analysis and the inverse approach. We compared their diagnostic performance among the 3 time points and to that of a trained convolutional neural network (CNN). RESULTS: The mean sensitivity for LM without training was 51.5%, after training on pattern analysis increased to 56.7% and after learning the inverse approach to 83.6%. The mean proportion of correct answers at the 3 time points was 62.1%, 65.5% and 78.5%. The percentage of readers outperforming the CNN was 6.4%, 15.4% and 53.9%, respectively. LIMITATIONS: The experimental setting and the inclusion of histopathologically diagnosed lesions only. CONCLUSIONS: The inverse approach, added to the classic pattern analysis, significantly improves the sensitivity of human readers for early LM diagnosis.

7.
J Dermatol ; 2020 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32537762

RESUMO

Polarized dermoscopy enables visualization of linear shiny white structures in melanomas, thought to be due to the existence of fibrosis in the dermis. Our objective was to establish the existence of two types of linear shiny white structures and assess their association with different histological structures. We performed a cross-sectional study including all non-acral, non-facial melanomas from our hospital with linear shiny white structures. The outcome variable was the type of linear shiny white structures: shiny white streaks and white strands. We evaluated their association with explanatory variables that may affect the reflectance of melanomas and Breslow index. We used χ2 statistics and also calculated the sensitivity and specificity of each linear shiny white structure to predict those variables. We detected linear shiny white structures in 118 melanomas. Regarding shiny white streaks, we only found a statistically significant positive relationship with fibrosis in the papillary dermis. Regarding white strands, we found statistically significant and positive relationships with hyperkeratosis, Breslow index of 0.8 mm or more and acanthosis. Sensitivity and specificity study revealed that the presence of shiny white streaks was the most sensitive (81.7%) and specific (72.3%) for fibrosis in the papillary dermis, and presence of white strands was the most sensitive (91.1%) and specific (85.7%) for hyperkeratosis.

9.
Hautarzt ; 71(8): 627-646, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377768

RESUMO

Dermatoscopy as a noninvasive diagnostic tool is not only useful in the differentiation of malignant and benign skin tumors, but is also effective in the diagnosis of inflammatory, infiltrative and infectious dermatoses. As a result, the need for diagnostic punch biopsies in dermatoses could be reduced. Hereby the selection of affected skin areas is essential. The diagnostic accuracy is independent of the skin type. Helpful dermatoscopic features include vessels morphology and distribution, scales colors and distribution, follicular findings, further structures such as colors and morphology as well as specific clues. The dermatoscopic diagnosis is made based on the descriptive approach in clinical routine, teaching and research. In all clinical and dermatoscopic diagnoses that remain unclear, a punch biopsy with histopathology should be performed. The dermatoscope should be cleaned after every examination according to the guidelines.

10.
Int J Dermatol ; 59(7): 813-821, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nevus-associated melanoma (NAM) has been regarded as a distinct biological entity from de-novo melanoma (DNM); however, static dermoscopy often fails in differentiating these entities. Digital dermoscopic monitoring allows to identify dynamic changes occurring during follow-up; this may improve diagnostic accuracy and potentially our knowledge on NAM biology. We aimed to define main independent factors associated with NAM diagnosis and those influencing follow-up time in a population of melanomas excised at follow-up. METHODS: A cohort of melanomas excised at follow-up was retrospectively and consecutively selected. NAMs and DNMs were compared according to baseline features and main dermoscopic changes occurring during follow-up. Univariate and multivariable logistic and Cox's regression analysis were performed to respectively define factors associated with NAM diagnosis and those influencing the risk for excision. RESULTS: Eighty-six melanomas were enrolled, of which 21 (24.4%) were nevus-associated. During follow-up NAMs mainly underwent atypical network modifications (47.6%), followed by inverse network (28.6%) and dermoscopic island (23.8%) worsening or appearance. DNMs were also mainly characterized by atypical network modifications (47.7%), however, a significant proportion of cases underwent irregular pigmentation/dots/globules or regression changes (29.2%), which were rarely seen among NAMs. Furthermore, both multivariable logistic and Cox's regression analysis demonstrated a significant association between NAM and a longer follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that among melanomas excised at follow-up, different patterns of dermoscopic changes may be found between NAMs and DNMs. This finding, together with the association of NAM with a longer follow-up time, supports the hypothesis of different biological behavior of these two entities.

16.
Dermatol Ther ; 33(3): e13289, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125744

RESUMO

Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are the most common types of skin neoplasm. The finger, toe, and nail unit are uncommon and rare locations of BCC. Only a few patients with foot BCC have been reported, and ungual BCC is even less frequent. We present a patient with a BCC on the left first toe. Clinically, it appeared as a brown-colored plaque with an irregular border on the nail fold and dorsum of the left thumb. Histopathological findings were consistent with the pigmented type of BCC. Surgical approach with subsequent full thickness mesh graft led to a complete remission. Follow-up at 10 months revealed a functionally and cosmetically acceptable outcome. The clinical presentation of nail unit BCC is variable, and nonspecific manifestations occur more frequently. Our case stated the necessity of histopathologic examination in ulcerous lesions resistant to topical treatment.

19.
JAMA Dermatol ; 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101255

RESUMO

Importance: The clinical and dermoscopic features of the vast majority of uncommon variants of cutaneous melanoma have been rarely reported, leading to difficulty in making accurate diagnoses. Objective: To define the main clinical and dermoscopic features of the most frequently reported but uncommon histologic variants of cutaneous melanoma. Evidence Review: A 2-step systematic review of the literature was performed (from inception to November 2018) using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. The first step identified those uncommon variants of melanoma for which at least 1 case reporting dermoscopy was described in the literature. The keywords searched were melanoma, uncommon, rare, dermoscopy, and dermatoscopy. In the second step, each previously identified uncommon variant was searched for in the same databases by combining the following terms with melanoma, dermoscopy, and dermatoscopy: amelanotic, hypopigmented, animal, melanocytoma, balloon, desmoplastic, follicular, nested, nevoid, dermal, spitz*, spindle, and verrucous. The institution's database was also searched from January 2012 to September 2019 for histopathologically confirmed cases of the same melanoma variants. Each reviewer also assessed the quality of reporting in the included articles based on previously described guidelines. Findings: In total, 62 articles met the inclusion criteria, reporting 433 melanoma cases. An additional 56 cases of uncommon melanoma variants were retrieved from the institution's database for a total of 489 cases: 283 cases of amelanotic superficial spreading melanoma, 18 cases of animal-type and pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma, 7 cases of balloon cell melanoma, 71 cases of desmoplastic melanoma, 3 cases of follicular melanoma, 10 cases of nested melanoma, 33 cases of nevoid melanoma, 2 cases of primary dermal melanoma, 57 cases of spitzoid melanoma, and 5 cases of verrucous melanoma. These variants of melanoma occurred more frequently in women than men (147 cases vs 132 cases). Clinically, these tumors were mainly palpable (162 of 217 [74.7%]) or amelanotic (283 of 489 [57.9%]) lesions that could resemble other benign or malignant skin conditions; dermoscopy typically revealed a homogeneous pinkish background, white structures, and polymorphic vessels. The mean age of all included was 58 years (range, 1-89 years). Conclusions and Relevance: Uncommon melanoma variants may resemble both inflammatory disorders and other cutaneous neoplasms, representing a diagnostic pitfall even for the most experienced dermatologist. The purpose of this systematic review was to provide an extensive and detailed overview of specific clinical and dermoscopic features of each uncommon melanoma variant, highlighting the main criteria for differentiating these variants from other benign or malignant skin lesions.

20.
G Ital Dermatol Venereol ; 155(1): 65-75, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100974

RESUMO

Nevus-associated melanoma (NAM) is defined on histopathological basis by the coexistence of melanoma and nevus components. Melanomas developing on pre-existing congenital or acquired nevi are usually of the superficial spreading subtype and harbor the BRAFV600E mutation. NAM accounts for almost one-third of melanoma cases As compared to de novo melanoma, NAM develops on younger patients, is more frequently located on the trunk, and is associated with a high nevus count, light eye color and history of frequent sunburns. NAM has been regarded as a model to investigate melanoma origin. Molecular analysis defining the mutation profile of NAM's nevus and melanoma components supported the existence of two pathways of melanoma development, the first not involving clinically visible precursors, the second involving melanocytic nevi as precursors. Concerning diagnosis, dermatoscopy may identify nevus and melanoma components when located side-by-side, but no specific criteria have been described when superimposed. In-vivo reflectance confocal microscopy significantly enhances the recognition of NAM by allowing the detection of nevus remnants when superficially located. Regarding prognosis, NAM is generally thinner and more frequently in-situ than de-novo melanoma. Furthermore, studies reporting survival analysis demonstrated a trend towards better overall, distant-metastasis-free and recurrence-free survival. Although a clinical, phenotypic and molecular profile of NAM has been defined, controversies still exist. In the current review, we widely report and discuss facts and controversies on NAM.

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