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2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(2): 213-220, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30075112

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are identified in ∼20% of families with multiple individuals affected by early-onset breast and/or ovarian cancer. Extensive searches for additional highly penetrant genes or alternative mutational mechanisms altering BRCA1 or BRCA2 have not explained the missing heritability. Here, we report a dominantly inherited 5' UTR variant associated with epigenetic BRCA1 silencing due to promoter hypermethylation in two families affected by breast and ovarian cancer. BRCA1 promoter methylation of ten CpG dinucleotides in families who are affected by breast and/or ovarian cancer but do not have germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic variants was assessed by pyrosequencing and clonal bisulfite sequencing. RNA and DNA sequencing of BRCA1 from lymphocytes was undertaken to establish allelic expression and the presence of germline variants. BRCA1 promoter hypermethylation was identified in 2 of 49 families in which multiple women are affected by grade 3 breast cancer or high-grade serous ovarian cancer. Soma-wide BRCA1 promoter hypermethylation was confirmed in blood, buccal mucosa, and hair follicles. Pyrosequencing showed that DNA was ∼50% methylated, consistent with the silencing of one allele, which was confirmed by clonal bisulfite sequencing. RNA sequencing revealed the allelic loss of BRCA1 expression in both families and that this loss of expression segregated with the heterozygous variant c.-107A>T in the BRCA1 5' UTR. Our results establish a mechanism whereby familial breast and ovarian cancer is caused by an in cis 5' UTR variant associated with epigenetic silencing of the BRCA1 promoter in two independent families. We propose that methylation analyses be undertaken to establish the frequency of this mechanism in families affected by early-onset breast and/or ovarian cancer without a BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic variant.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(1): 3-18, 2018 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29909963

RESUMO

Multiple primary tumors (MPTs) affect a substantial proportion of cancer survivors and can result from various causes, including inherited predisposition. Currently, germline genetic testing of MPT-affected individuals for variants in cancer-predisposition genes (CPGs) is mostly targeted by tumor type. We ascertained pre-assessed MPT individuals (with at least two primary tumors by age 60 years or at least three by 70 years) from genetics centers and performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on 460 individuals from 440 families. Despite previous negative genetic assessment and molecular investigations, pathogenic variants in moderate- and high-risk CPGs were detected in 67/440 (15.2%) probands. WGS detected variants that would not be (or were not) detected by targeted resequencing strategies, including low-frequency structural variants (6/440 [1.4%] probands). In most individuals with a germline variant assessed as pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P/LP), at least one of their tumor types was characteristic of variants in the relevant CPG. However, in 29 probands (42.2% of those with a P/LP variant), the tumor phenotype appeared discordant. The frequency of individuals with truncating or splice-site CPG variants and at least one discordant tumor type was significantly higher than in a control population (χ2 = 43.642; p ≤ 0.0001). 2/67 (3%) probands with P/LP variants had evidence of multiple inherited neoplasia allele syndrome (MINAS) with deleterious variants in two CPGs. Together with variant detection rates from a previous series of similarly ascertained MPT-affected individuals, the present results suggest that first-line comprehensive CPG analysis in an MPT cohort referred to clinical genetics services would detect a deleterious variant in about a third of individuals.

4.
Genet Med ; 2018 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29565421

RESUMO

PurposeBRCA1/BRCA2 predictive test negatives are proven noncarriers of a BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation that is carried by their relatives. The risk of developing breast cancer (BC) or epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) in these women is uncertain. The study aimed to estimate risks of invasive BC and EOC in a large cohort of BRCA1/BRCA2 predictive test negatives.MethodsWe used cohort analysis to estimate incidences, cumulative risks, and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs).ResultsA total of 1,895 unaffected women were eligible for inclusion in the BC risk analysis and 1,736 in the EOC risk analysis. There were 23 incident invasive BCs and 2 EOCs. The cumulative risk of invasive BC was 9.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.9-15%) by age 85 years and the corresponding risk of EOC was 0.6% (95% CI 0.2-2.6%). The SIR for invasive BC was 0.93 (95% CI 0.62-1.40) in the overall cohort, 0.85 (95% CI 0.48-1.50) in noncarriers from BRCA1 families, and 1.03 (95% CI 0.57-1.87) in noncarriers from BRCA2 families. The SIR for EOC was 0.79 (95% CI 0.20-3.17) in the overall cohort.ConclusionOur results did not provide evidence for elevated risks of invasive BC or EOC in BRCA1/BRCA2 predictive test negatives.Genetics in Medicine advance online publication, 22 March 2018; doi:10.1038/gim.2018.44.

5.
J Med Genet ; 55(6): 384-394, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29386252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline pathogenic variants in SDHB/SDHC/SDHD are the most frequent causes of inherited phaeochromocytomas/paragangliomas. Insufficient information regarding penetrance and phenotypic variability hinders optimum management of mutation carriers. We estimate penetrance for symptomatic tumours and elucidate genotype-phenotype correlations in a large cohort of SDHB/SDHC/SDHD mutation carriers. METHODS: A retrospective survey of 1832 individuals referred for genetic testing due to a personal or family history of phaeochromocytoma/paraganglioma. 876 patients (401 previously reported) had a germline mutation in SDHB/SDHC/SDHD (n=673/43/160). Tumour risks were correlated with in silico structural prediction analyses. RESULTS: Tumour risks analysis provided novel penetrance estimates and genotype-phenotype correlations. In addition to tumour type susceptibility differences for individual genes, we confirmed that the SDHD:p.Pro81Leu mutation has a distinct phenotype and identified increased age-related tumour risks with highly destabilising SDHB missense mutations. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, the penetrance (cumulative risk of clinically apparent tumours) in SDHB and (paternally inherited) SDHD mutation-positive non-probands (n=371/67 with detailed clinical information) by age 60 years was 21.8% (95% CI 15.2% to 27.9%) and 43.2% (95% CI 25.4% to 56.7%), respectively. Risk of malignant disease at age 60 years in non-proband SDHB mutation carriers was 4.2%(95% CI 1.1% to 7.2%). With retrospective cohort analysis to adjust for ascertainment, cumulative tumour risks for SDHB mutation carriers at ages 60 years and 80 years were 23.9% (95% CI 20.9% to 27.4%) and 30.6% (95% CI 26.8% to 34.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Overall risks of clinically apparent tumours for SDHB mutation carriers are substantially lower than initially estimated and will improve counselling of affected families. Specific genotype-tumour risk associations provides a basis for novel investigative strategies into succinate dehydrogenase-related mechanisms of tumourigenesis and the development of personalised management for SDHB/SDHC/SDHD mutation carriers.

6.
J Med Genet ; 55(7): 442-448, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29483236

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The identification of BRCA1, BRCA2 or mismatch repair (MMR) pathogenic gene variants in familial breast/ovarian/colorectal cancer families facilitates predictive genetic testing of at-risk relatives. However, controversy still exists regarding overall lifetime risks of cancer in individuals testing positive. METHODS: We assessed the penetrance of BRCA1, BRCA2, MLH1 and MSH2 mutations in men and women using Bayesian calculations based on ratios of positive to negative presymptomatic testing by 10-year age cohorts. Mutation position was also assessed for BRCA1/BRCA2. RESULTS: Using results from 2264 presymptomatic tests in first-degree relatives (FDRs) of mutation carriers in BRCA1 and BRCA2 and 646 FDRs of patients with MMR mutations, we assessed overall associated cancer penetrance to age of 68 years as 73% (95% CI 61% to 82%) for BRCA1, 60% (95% CI 49% to 71%) for BRCA2, 95% (95% CI 76% to 99%) for MLH1% and 61% (95% CI 49% to 76%) for MSH2. There was no evidence for significant penetrance for males in BRCA1 or BRCA2 families and males had equivalent penetrance to females with Lynch syndrome. Mutation position and degree of family history influenced penetrance in BRCA2 but not BRCA1. CONCLUSION: We describe a new method for assessing penetrance in cancer-prone syndromes. Results are in keeping with published prospective series and present modern-day estimates for overall disease penetrance that bypasses retrospective series biases.

7.
J Med Genet ; 55(2): 89-96, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28918392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification of CNVs through chromosomal microarray (CMA) testing is the first-line investigation in individuals with learning difficulties/congenital abnormalities. Although recognised that CMA testing may identify CNVs encompassing a cancer predisposition gene (CPG), limited information is available on the frequency and nature of such results. METHODS: We investigated CNV gains and losses affecting 39 CPGs in 3366 pilot index case individuals undergoing CMA testing, and then studied an extended cohort (n=10 454) for CNV losses at 105 CPGs and CNV gains at 9 proto-oncogenes implicated in inherited cancer susceptibility. RESULTS: In the pilot cohort, 31/3366 (0.92%) individuals had a CNV involving one or more of 16/39 CPGs. 30/31 CNVs involved a tumour suppressor gene (TSG), and 1/30 a proto-oncogene (gain of MET). BMPR1A, TSC2 and TMEM127 were affected in multiple cases. In the second stage analysis, 49/10 454 (0.47%) individuals in the extended cohort had 50 CNVs involving 24/105 CPGs. 43/50 CNVs involved a TSG and 7/50 a proto-oncogene (4 gains, 3 deletions). The most frequently involved genes, FLCN (n=10) and SDHA (n=7), map to the Smith-Magenis and cri-du-chat regions, respectively. CONCLUSION: Incidental identification of a CNV involving a CPG is not rare and poses challenges for future cancer risk estimation. Prospective data collection from CPG-CNV cohorts ascertained incidentally and through syndromic presentations is required to determine the risks posed by specific CNVs. In particular, ascertainment and investigation of adults with CPG-CNVs and adults with learning disability and cancer, could provide important information to guide clinical management and surveillance.

8.
Gut ; 67(7): 1306-1316, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28754778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most patients with path_MMR gene variants (Lynch syndrome (LS)) now survive both their first and subsequent cancers, resulting in a growing number of older patients with LS for whom limited information exists with respect to cancer risk and survival. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: This observational, international, multicentre study aimed to determine prospectively observed incidences of cancers and survival in path_MMR carriers up to 75 years of age. RESULTS: 3119 patients were followed for a total of 24 475 years. Cumulative incidences at 75 years (risks) for colorectal cancer were 46%, 43% and 15% in path_MLH1, path_MSH2 and path_MSH6 carriers; for endometrial cancer 43%, 57% and 46%; for ovarian cancer 10%, 17% and 13%; for upper gastrointestinal (gastric, duodenal, bile duct or pancreatic) cancers 21%, 10% and 7%; for urinary tract cancers 8%, 25% and 11%; for prostate cancer 17%, 32% and 18%; and for brain tumours 1%, 5% and 1%, respectively. Ovarian cancer occurred mainly premenopausally. By contrast, upper gastrointestinal, urinary tract and prostate cancers occurred predominantly at older ages. Overall 5-year survival for prostate cancer was 100%, urinary bladder 93%, ureter 85%, duodenum 67%, stomach 61%, bile duct 29%, brain 22% and pancreas 0%. Path_PMS2 carriers had lower risk for cancer. CONCLUSION: Carriers of different path_MMR variants exhibit distinct patterns of cancer risk and survival as they age. Risk estimates for counselling and planning of surveillance and treatment should be tailored to each patient's age, gender and path_MMR variant. We have updated our open-access website www.lscarisk.org to facilitate this.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Urogenitais/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29046738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We have previously reported a high incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in carriers of pathogenic MLH1 variants (path_MLH1) despite follow-up with colonoscopy including polypectomy. METHODS: The cohort included Finnish carriers enrolled in 3-yearly colonoscopy (n = 505; 4625 observation years) and carriers from other countries enrolled in colonoscopy 2-yearly or more frequently (n = 439; 3299 observation years). We examined whether the longer interval between colonoscopies in Finland could explain the high incidence of CRC and whether disease expression correlated with differences in population CRC incidence. RESULTS: Cumulative CRC incidences in carriers of path_MLH1 at 70-years of age were 41% for males and 36% for females in the Finnish series and 58% and 55% in the non-Finnish series, respectively (p > 0.05). Mean time from last colonoscopy to CRC was 32.7 months in the Finnish compared to 31.0 months in the non-Finnish (p > 0.05) and was therefore unaffected by the recommended colonoscopy interval. Differences in population incidence of CRC could not explain the lower point estimates for CRC in the Finnish series. Ten-year overall survival after CRC was similar for the Finnish and non-Finnish series (88% and 91%, respectively; p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The hypothesis that the high incidence of CRC in path_MLH1 carriers was caused by a higher incidence in the Finnish series was not valid. We discuss whether the results were influenced by methodological shortcomings in our study or whether the assumption that a shorter interval between colonoscopies leads to a lower CRC incidence may be wrong. This second possibility is intriguing, because it suggests the dogma that CRC in path_MLH1 carriers develops from polyps that can be detected at colonoscopy and removed to prevent CRC may be erroneous. In view of the excellent 10-year overall survival in the Finnish and non-Finnish series we remain strong advocates of current surveillance practices for those with LS pending studies that will inform new recommendations on the best surveillance interval.

10.
JAMA Oncol ; 3(12): 1702-1706, 2017 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28772289

RESUMO

Importance: Lynch syndrome is caused by dominantly inherited germline mutations that predispose individuals to colorectal, endometrial, ovarian, and other cancers through inactivation of the cellular mismatch repair system. Lynch syndrome­associated cancers are amenable to surveillance strategies that may improve survival. The age at which surveillance should start is disputed. Objective: To determine whether mutated gene and type of mutation influence age at onset of Lynch syndrome­associated cancers. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study of individuals with Lynch syndrome­associated colorectal, endometrial, and/or ovarian cancers whose medical records were included in the clinical database of a large quaternary referral center for genomic medicine in the Northwest of England. Exposures: Mutated gene (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and/or PMS2) and type of mutation (truncating, splicing, or large rearrangement). Main Outcomes and Measures: Age at cancer diagnosis. Results: A total of 1063 individuals with proven Lynch syndrome were included, 495 male and 568 female (mean age 52 years; age range, 10-93 years [children were included in the database, but no children developed cancer]). There were 546 men and women with colorectal cancer, 162 women with endometrial cancer, and 49 women with ovarian cancer; mean follow-up was 68.2 months. Among MLH1 mutation carriers, mutations in MLH1 were associated with colorectal cancer in 249 (61%) of 409 men and women; endometrial cancer in 53 of 196 (27%) women; and ovarian cancer in 15 (8%) of 196 women. Among MSH2 mutation carriers, mutations in MSH2 (the most prevalent mutations overall) were most commonly associated with female-specific cancers: endometrial cancer in 83 (30%) of 279 women; ovarian cancer in 28 (10%) of 279 women; and colorectal cancer in 239 (50%) 479 men and women. Mutations in MSH6 were less prevalent, and MSH6 mutation carriers presented with colorectal and endometrial cancer at later ages than carriers of mutations in MSH2 or MLH1. When stratified by mutation type, women with truncating MLH1 mutations had later ages of onset of endometrial cancer than those with nontruncating mutations (median difference, 6.6 years; 95% CI, 2.7-10.4; P = .002). Carriers of truncating MLH1 mutations presented with colorectal cancer at later ages than those with other mutations, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions and Relevance: Individuals with known Lynch syndrome could be risk stratified by mutated gene and mutation type in tailored surveillance programs. Specifically, individuals with MSH6 mutations could be offered cancer surveillance from a later age. Furthermore, those with truncating MLH1 mutations could begin endometrial cancer surveillance later than those with nontruncating mutations.

11.
J Med Genet ; 54(10): 674-681, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28490612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the requirement for thresholds for testing for mutations in BRCA1/2 is being questioned, they are likely to remain for individuals unaffected by a relevant cancer. It is still useful to provide pretesting likelihoods, but models need to take into account tumour pathology. METHODS: The Manchester Scoring System (MSS) is a well-used, simple, paper-based model for assessing carrier probability that already incorporates pathology data. We have used mutation testing data from 4115 unrelated samples from affected non-Jewish individuals alongside tumour pathology to further refine the scoring system. RESULTS: Adding additional points for high-grade serous ovarian cancer <60 (HGSOC=+2) and adding grade score to those with triple-negative breast cancer, while reducing the score for those with HER2+ breast cancer (-6), resulted in significantly improved sensitivity and minor improvements in specificity to the MSS. Sporadic HGSOC <60 years thus reached a score of 15-19 points within the 10% grouping consistent with the 15/113-13.2% that were identified with a BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant. Validation in a population series of ovarian cancer from Cambridge showed high sensitivity at the 10% threshold 15/17 (88.2%). CONCLUSIONS: The new pathology-adjusted Manchester score MSS3 appears to provide an effective and simple-to-use estimate of the 10% and 20% thresholds for BRCA1/2 likelihood. For unaffected individuals, the 20-point (20%) threshold in their affected first-degree relative can be used to determine eligibility at the 10% threshold.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Testes Genéticos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Mutação , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 5(3): 237-250, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28546994

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of germline SDHA mutation analysis by (1) comprehensive literature review, (2) description of novel germline SDHA mutations and (3) in silico structural prediction analysis of missense substitutions in SDHA. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A systematic literature review and a retrospective review of the molecular and clinical features of patients identified with putative germline variants in UK molecular genetic laboratories was performed. To evaluate the molecular consequences of SDHA missense variants, a novel model of the SDHA/B/C/D complex was generated and the structural effects of missense substitutions identified in the literature, our UK novel cohort and a further 32 "control missense variants" were predicted by the mCSM computational platform. These structural predictions were correlated with the results of tumor studies and other bioinformatic predictions. RESULTS: Literature review revealed reports of 17 different germline SDHA variants in 47 affected individuals from 45 kindreds. A further 10 different variants in 15 previously unreported cases (seven novel variants in eight patients) were added from our UK series. In silico structural prediction studies of 11 candidate missense germline mutations suggested that most (63.7%) would destabilize the SDHA protomer, and that most (78.1%) rare SDHA missense variants present in a control data set (ESP6500) were also associated with impaired protein stability. CONCLUSION: The clinical spectrum of SDHA-associated neoplasia differs from that of germline mutations in other SDH-subunits. The interpretation of the significance of novel SDHA missense substitutions is challenging. We recommend that multiple investigations (e.g. tumor studies, metabolomic profiling) should be performed to aid classification of rare missense variants before genetic testing results are used to influence clinical management.

15.
Gut ; 66(9): 1657-1664, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27261338

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Today most patients with Lynch syndrome (LS) survive their first cancer. There is limited information on the incidences and outcome of subsequent cancers. The present study addresses three questions: (i) what is the cumulative incidence of a subsequent cancer; (ii) in which organs do subsequent cancers occur; and (iii) what is the survival following these cancers? DESIGN: Information was collated on prospectively organised surveillance and prospectively observed outcomes in patients with LS who had cancer prior to inclusion and analysed by age, gender and genetic variants. RESULTS: 1273 patients with LS from 10 countries were followed up for 7753 observation years. 318 patients (25.7%) developed 341 first subsequent cancers, including colorectal (n=147, 43%), upper GI, pancreas or bile duct (n=37, 11%) and urinary tract (n=32, 10%). The cumulative incidences for any subsequent cancer from age 40 to age 70 years were 73% for pathogenic MLH1 (path_MLH1), 76% for path_MSH2 carriers and 52% for path_MSH6 carriers, and for colorectal cancer (CRC) the cumulative incidences were 46%, 48% and 23%, respectively. Crude survival after any subsequent cancer was 82% (95% CI 76% to 87%) and 10-year crude survival after CRC was 91% (95% CI 83% to 95%). CONCLUSIONS: Relative incidence of subsequent cancer compared with incidence of first cancer was slightly but insignificantly higher than cancer incidence in patients with LS without previous cancer (range 0.94-1.49). The favourable survival after subsequent cancers validated continued follow-up to prevent death from cancer. The interactive website http://lscarisk.org was expanded to calculate the risks by gender, genetic variant and age for subsequent cancer for any patient with LS with previous cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Progressão da Doença , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Sobrevida
16.
Gut ; 66(3): 464-472, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26657901

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Estimates of cancer risk and the effects of surveillance in Lynch syndrome have been subject to bias, partly through reliance on retrospective studies. We sought to establish more robust estimates in patients undergoing prospective cancer surveillance. DESIGN: We undertook a multicentre study of patients carrying Lynch syndrome-associated mutations affecting MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2. Standardised information on surveillance, cancers and outcomes were collated in an Oracle relational database and analysed by age, sex and mutated gene. RESULTS: 1942 mutation carriers without previous cancer had follow-up including colonoscopic surveillance for 13 782 observation years. 314 patients developed cancer, mostly colorectal (n=151), endometrial (n=72) and ovarian (n=19). Cancers were detected from 25 years onwards in MLH1 and MSH2 mutation carriers, and from about 40 years in MSH6 and PMS2 carriers. Among first cancer detected in each patient the colorectal cancer cumulative incidences at 70 years by gene were 46%, 35%, 20% and 10% for MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 mutation carriers, respectively. The equivalent cumulative incidences for endometrial cancer were 34%, 51%, 49% and 24%; and for ovarian cancer 11%, 15%, 0% and 0%. Ten-year crude survival was 87% after any cancer, 91% if the first cancer was colorectal, 98% if endometrial and 89% if ovarian. CONCLUSIONS: The four Lynch syndrome-associated genes had different penetrance and expression. Colorectal cancer occurred frequently despite colonoscopic surveillance but resulted in few deaths. Using our data, a website has been established at http://LScarisk.org enabling calculation of cumulative cancer risks as an aid to genetic counselling in Lynch syndrome.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/mortalidade , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Bases de Dados Factuais , Neoplasias do Endométrio/mortalidade , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
17.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(11): 1591-1597, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27273131

RESUMO

The sensitivity of testing BRCA1 and BRCA2 remains unresolved as the frequency of deep intronic splicing variants has not been defined in high-risk familial breast/ovarian cancer families. This variant category is reported at significant frequency in other tumour predisposition genes, including NF1 and MSH2. We carried out comprehensive whole gene RNA analysis on 45 high-risk breast/ovary and male breast cancer families with no identified pathogenic variant on exonic sequencing and copy number analysis of BRCA1/2. In addition, we undertook variant screening of a 10-gene high/moderate risk breast/ovarian cancer panel by next-generation sequencing. DNA testing identified the causative variant in 50/56 (89%) breast/ovarian/male breast cancer families with Manchester scores of ≥50 with two variants being confirmed to affect splicing on RNA analysis. RNA sequencing of BRCA1/BRCA2 on 45 individuals from high-risk families identified no deep intronic variants and did not suggest loss of RNA expression as a cause of lost sensitivity. Panel testing in 42 samples identified a known RAD51D variant, a high-risk ATM variant in another breast ovary family and a truncating CHEK2 mutation. Current exonic sequencing and copy number analysis variant detection methods of BRCA1/2 have high sensitivity in high-risk breast/ovarian cancer families. Sequence analysis of RNA does not identify any variants undetected by current analysis of BRCA1/2. However, RNA analysis clarified the pathogenicity of variants of unknown significance detected by current methods. The low diagnostic uplift achieved through sequence analysis of the other known breast/ovarian cancer susceptibility genes indicates that further high-risk genes remain to be identified.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Testes Genéticos/normas , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Linhagem , Processamento de RNA , Análise de Sequência de DNA/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/diagnóstico , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Íntrons , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Rad51 Recombinase/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
Recent Results Cancer Res ; 205: 105-24, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27075351

RESUMO

About 30% of phaeochromocytomas or paragangliomas are genetic. Whilst some individuals will have clinical features or a family history of inherited cancer syndrome such as neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) or multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 (MEN2), the majority will present as an isolated case. To date, 14 genes have been described in which pathogenic mutations have been demonstrated to cause paraganglioma or phaeochromocytoma . Many cases with a pathogenic mutation may be at risk of developing further tumours. Therefore, identification of genetic cases is important in the long-term management of these individuals, ensuring that they are entered into a surveillance programme. Mutation testing also facilitates cascade testing within the family, allowing identification of other at-risk individuals. Many algorithms have been described to facilitate cost-effective genetic testing sequentially of these genes, with phenotypically driven pathways. New genetic technologies including next-generation sequencing and whole-exome sequencing will allow much quicker, cheaper and extensive testing of individuals in whom a genetic aetiology is suspected.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/terapia , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/diagnóstico , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/terapia , Paraganglioma/diagnóstico , Paraganglioma/terapia , Feocromocitoma/diagnóstico , Feocromocitoma/terapia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Paraganglioma/genética , Feocromocitoma/genética
20.
J Med Genet ; 52(8): 553-6, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26101330

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lynch syndrome is known to cause an increased risk of malignancies, including bowel and endometrial cancers. However, the risk of breast cancer associated with mutations in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes that cause Lynch syndrome is still unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study assesses the cumulative risk of breast cancer in 106 MLH1 and 118 MSH2 families. Families were referred on the basis of clinical criteria. Pedigree information was obtained, and tumour immunohistochemistry and microsatellite testing performed. Appropriate patients underwent sequencing and multiple ligation dependent probe amplification of all relevant exons of the MMR genes. Kaplan-Meier analysis of cumulative lifetime risk of breast cancer was made combining proven mutation carriers and their first-degree female relatives. RESULTS: After allocation of mutation status, the cumulative risk of breast cancer to 70 years in MLH1 carriers was 18.6% (95% CI 11.3 to 25.9)). This is significantly higher than the cumulative risk for MSH2 which was 11.2% (95% CI 1.4 to 21.0) to age 70 years (p=0.014). The UK population risk is 7.5%-8% at the age of 70 years. Prospective analysis identified six breast cancers in 1120 years of follow-up with an OR of 3.41 (95% CI 1.53 to 7.59). DISCUSSIONS: Female MLH1 carriers would appear to be at moderate risk of breast cancer and should be considered for breast screening at ages earlier than national screening programmes.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/complicações , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Repetições de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL , Linhagem , Medição de Risco
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