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1.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152107

RESUMO

Risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (RRBSO) is highly effective for the prevention of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) in BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant carriers (PVCs), but does not completely eliminate future risk of primary peritoneal cancer (PPC). The requirement to completely remove fallopian tubes at RRBSO and carefully exclude occult cancer/serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) lesions may not have been appreciated historically. We calculated rates of HGSOC and PPC in confirmed BRCA1/2 PVCs registered on the regional database in those who did (cases) and did not (controls) undergo RRBSO after genetic testing. Expected annual rates of ovarian/peritoneal cancer were 1% for BRCA1 ≥ 35 years and 0.5% for BRCA2 ≥ 45 years. Follow-up before 35/45 years was "risk free" and lead time excluded RRBSO <35 years and <45 years for BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively. Women were followed from personal mutation report (controls) or RRBSO (cases) to death, ovarian/peritoneal cancer or last follow-up, whichever was sooner. In total, 891 cases (BRCA1 = 468, BRCA2 = 423) and 1302 controls had follow-up ≥35 years (BRCA1 = 736) and ≥45 years (BRCA2 = 566), respectively, over a total of 7261.1 risk eligible years (mean = 8.15 years). Twenty-one occult ovarian cancers were found at RRBSO (2.4%), 16 at stage 1. Post RRBSO, 56.97 ovarian/peritoneal cancers were expected but only 3 were observed (HR = 0.053; 95% CI = 0.013-0.14), with combined Kaplan-Meier analysis HR = 0.029 (95% CI = 0.009-0.100, P < .001). Risk reduction was greater in specialist (HR = 0.03; 95% CI = 0.001-0.13) compared to non-specialist centres (HR = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.02-0.37) (P = .07). In controls, 23.35 ovarian/peritoneal cancers were expected with 32 observed (HR = 1.37; 95% CI = 0.95-1.91). RRBSO <35/<45 years reduces the risk of ovarian/peritoneal cancer by 95% in BRCA1/2 PVCs and may be greater in specialist centres.

2.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary causes of ovarian cancer include Lynch syndrome, which is due to inherited pathogenic variants affecting one of the four mismatch repair genes involved in DNA repair. The aim of this study was to evaluate tumour mismatch repair deficiency and prevalence of Lynch syndrome in high-risk women referred to the Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine with ovarian cancer over the past 20 years. METHODS: Women with ovarian cancer diagnosed before the age of 35 years and/or with a suggestive personal or family history of Lynch syndrome cancers underwent tumour testing with immunohistochemistry for mismatch repair deficiency and, where indicated, MLH1 promoter methylation testing followed by constitutional testing for Lynch syndrome. RESULTS: In total, 261 ovarian cancers were tested and 27 (10.3%; 95% CI 6.9% to 14.7%) showed mismatch repair deficiency by immunohistochemistry. Three of 7 with MLH1 loss showed MLH1 promoter hypermethylation, and 18 of the remaining 24 underwent constitutional testing for Lynch syndrome. A further 15 women with mismatch repair proficient tumours underwent constitutional testing because of a strong family history of Lynch syndrome cancers. Pathogenic variants were identified in 9/33 (27%) women who underwent constitutional testing, aged 33-59 years (median 48 years), including one whose tumour was mismatch repair proficient. Most Lynch syndrome tumours were of endometrioid histological subtype. CONCLUSIONS: Tumour mismatch repair deficiency identified by immunohistochemistry is a useful prescreen for constitutional testing in women with ovarian cancer with personal or family histories suggestive of Lynch syndrome.

3.
N Engl J Med ; 383(11): 1028-1039, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of combination therapy with eflornithine and sulindac, as compared with either drug alone, in delaying disease progression in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis are unknown. METHODS: We evaluated the efficacy and safety of the combination of eflornithine and sulindac, as compared with either drug alone, in adults with familial adenomatous polyposis. The patients were stratified on the basis of anatomical site with the highest polyp burden and surgical status; the strata were precolectomy (shortest projected time to disease progression), rectal or ileal pouch polyposis after colectomy (longest projected time), and duodenal polyposis (intermediate projected time). The patients were then randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive 750 mg of eflornithine, 150 mg of sulindac, or both once daily for up to 48 months. The primary end point, assessed in a time-to-event analysis, was disease progression, defined as a composite of major surgery, endoscopic excision of advanced adenomas, diagnosis of high-grade dysplasia in the rectum or pouch, or progression of duodenal disease. RESULTS: A total of 171 patients underwent randomization. Disease progression occurred in 18 of 56 patients (32%) in the eflornithine-sulindac group, 22 of 58 (38%) in the sulindac group, and 23 of 57 (40%) in the eflornithine group, with a hazard ratio of 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 1.32) for eflornithine-sulindac as compared with sulindac (P = 0.29) and 0.66 (95% CI, 0.36 to 1.24) for eflornithine-sulindac as compared with eflornithine. Among 37 precolectomy patients, the corresponding values in the treatment groups were 2 of 12 patients (17%), 6 of 13 (46%), and 5 of 12 (42%) (hazard ratios, 0.30 [95% CI, 0.07 to 1.32] and 0.20 [95% CI, 0.03 to 1.32]); among 34 patients with rectal or ileal pouch polyposis, the values were 4 of 11 patients (36%), 2 of 11 (18%), and 5 of 12 (42%) (hazard ratios, 2.03 [95% CI, 0.43 to 9.62] and 0.84 [95% CI, 0.24 to 2.90]); and among 100 patients with duodenal polyposis, the values were 12 of 33 patients (36%), 14 of 34 (41%), and 13 of 33 (39%) (hazard ratios, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.34 to 1.52] and 0.76 [95% CI, 0.35 to 1.64]). Adverse and serious adverse events were similar across the treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial involving patients with familial adenomatous polyposis, the incidence of disease progression was not significantly lower with the combination of eflornithine and sulindac than with either drug alone. (Funded by Cancer Prevention Pharmaceuticals; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01483144; EudraCT number, 2012-000427-41.).


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Progressão da Doença , Eflornitina/uso terapêutico , Sulindaco/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Quimioterapia Combinada , Eflornitina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Sulindaco/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(11): 1541-1547, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651552

RESUMO

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors improve survival in BRCA-mutant high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. As a result, germline and somatic BRCA1/2 testing has become standard practice in women diagnosed with ovarian cancer. We outline changes in testing and detection rates of germline BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants (PVs) in cases of non-mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed during three eras, spanning 12 years, within the North West of England, and compare the uptake of cascade testing in families identified by oncology-led mainstreaming versus regional genetics clinics. Eras included: Period 1 (20% risk threshold for testing): between January 2007 and May 2013; Period 2 (10% risk threshold for testing): between June 2013 and October 2017 and; Period 3 (mainstream testing): between November 2017 and November 2019. A total of 1081 women underwent germline BRCA1/2 testing between January 2007 and November 2019 and 222 (20.5%) were found to have a PV. The monthly testing rate increased by 3.3-fold and 2.5-fold between Periods 1-2 and Periods 2-3, respectively. A similar incidence of germline BRCA1/2 PVs were detected in Period 2 (17.2%) and Period 3 (18.5%). Uptake of cascade testing from first-degree relatives was significantly lower in those women undergoing mainstream testing compared with those tested in regional genetics clinics (31.6% versus 47.3%, P = 0.038). Mainstream testing allows timely detection of germline BRCA1/2 status to select patients for PARP inhibitors, but shortfalls in the uptake of cascade testing in first-degree relatives requires optimisation to broaden benefits within families.

5.
Eur J Cancer ; 136: 169-175, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An association between BRCA pathogenic variants and an increased endometrial cancer risk, specifically serous-like endometrial cancer, has been postulated but remains unproven, particularly for BRCA2 carriers. Mechanistic evidence is lacking, and any link may be related to tamoxifen exposure or testing bias. Hysterectomy during risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is, therefore, of uncertain benefit. Data from a large, prospective cohort will be informative. METHODS: Data on UK BRCA pathogenic variant carriers were interrogated for endometrial cancer diagnoses. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated in four distinct cohorts using national endometrial cancer rates; either from 1/1/1980 or age 20, prospectively from date of personal pathogenic variant report, date of family pathogenic variant report or date of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy. Somatic BRCA sequencing of 15 serous endometrial cancers was performed to detect pathogenic variants. RESULTS: Fourteen cases of endometrial cancer were identified in 2609 women (1350 BRCA1 and 1259 BRCA2), of which two were prospectively diagnosed. No significant increase in either overall or serous-like endometrial cancer risk was identified in any of the cohorts examined (SIR = 1.70, 95% confidence interval = 0.74-3.33; no cases of serous endometrial cancer diagnosed). Results were unaffected by the BRCA gene affected, previous breast cancer or tamoxifen use. No BRCA pathogenic variants were detected in any of the serous endometrial cancers tested. CONCLUSIONS: Women with a BRCA pathogenic variant do not appear to have a significant increased risk of all-type or serous-like endometrial cancer compared with the general population. These data provide some reassurance that hysterectomy is unlikely to be of significant benefit if performed solely as a preventive measure.

6.
J Clin Med ; 9(7)2020 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708519

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To survey risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) practice and advice regarding hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women with Lynch syndrome. METHODS: We conducted a survey in 31 contributing centers from the Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD), which incorporates 18 countries worldwide. The survey covered local policies for risk-reducing hysterectomy and BSO in Lynch syndrome, the timing when these measures are offered, the involvement of stakeholders and advice regarding HRT. RESULTS: Risk-reducing hysterectomy and BSO are offered to path_MLH1 and path_MSH2 carriers in 20/21 (95%) contributing centers, to path_MSH6 carriers in 19/21 (91%) and to path_PMS2 carriers in 14/21 (67%). Regarding the involvement of stakeholders, there is global agreement (~90%) that risk-reducing surgery should be offered to women, and that this discussion may involve gynecologists, genetic counselors and/or medical geneticists. Prescription of estrogen-only HRT is offered by 15/21 (71%) centers to women of variable age range (35-55 years). CONCLUSIONS: Most centers offer risk-reducing gynecological surgery to carriers of path_MLH1, path_MSH2 and path_MSH6 variants but less so for path_PMS2 carriers. There is wide variation in how, when and to whom this is offered. The Manchester International Consensus Group developed recommendations to harmonize clinical practice across centers, but there is a clear need for more research.

9.
Genet Med ; 22(9): 1524-1532, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398773

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is a rare, autosomal-dominantly inherited cancer predisposition caused in approximately 50% of cases by pathogenic germline variants in SMAD4 and BMPR1A. We aimed to gather detailed clinical and molecular genetic information on JPS disease expression to provide a basis for management guidelines and establish open access variant databases. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, questionnaire-based European multicenter survey on and established a cohort of SMAD4/BMPR1A pathogenic variant carriers from the medical literature. RESULTS: We analyzed questionnaire-based data on 221 JPS patients (126 kindreds) from ten European centers and retrieved literature-based information on 473 patients. Compared with BMPR1A carriers, SMAD4 carriers displayed anemia twice as often (58% vs. 26%), and exclusively showed overlap symptoms with hemorrhagic telangiectasia (32%) and an increased prevalence (39% vs. 13%) of gastric juvenile polyps. Cancer, reported in 15% of JPS patients (median age 41 years), mainly occurred in the colorectum (overall: 62%, SMAD4: 58%, BMPR1A: 88%) and the stomach (overall: 21%; SMAD4: 27%, BMPR1A: 0%). CONCLUSION: This comprehensive retrospective study on genotype-phenotype correlations in 694 JPS patients corroborates previous observations on JPS in general and SMAD4 carriers in particular, facilitates recommendations for clinical management, and provides the basis for open access variant SMAD4 and BMPR1A databases.

10.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants (PVs) has been available in North West England since 1995. We assessed uptake of pre-symptomatic testing in 1564 families with PVs over a 24.5year follow-up (FU) period. METHODS: First-degree relatives (FDRs) in families with BRCA1 or BRCA2 PVs were eligible from date of index family report if unaffected by a relevant cancer and alive at report date. FDRs were censored as not having undergone a pre-symptomatic test at diagnosis of a relevant cancer, date of death, age 93 or 30/03/2019. Time to uptake of pre-symptomatic testing was assessed by Kaplan-Meier curves, by gender and children. RESULTS: 2554 male and 3115 female FDRs were eligible. Overall uptake was 775 (30.3%) in men and 1935 (62.1%) in women. This increased at 15 years to 33.6% and 67.9%, and continued to rise until 24 years (p<0.001). For women, the 29-year to 39-year age group had the highest uptake at 10 years FU (72.5%; p<0.01), whereas the 50-year to 59-year age group was highest in men (37.2%; p<0.01). Women <18 years at the time of familial variant identification had lower initial uptake, but this rose to >80% by 15 years. Uptake was higher in parous women (p<0.001) and in men with daughters (p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: Uptake of BRCA1/2 pre-symptomatic testing is age, gender and time-dependent, and higher in women with children and men with daughters.

11.
J Med Genet ; 57(12): 829-834, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170000

RESUMO

Advances in technology have led to a massive expansion in the capacity for genomic analysis, with a commensurate fall in costs. The clinical indications for genomic testing have evolved markedly; the volume of clinical sequencing has increased dramatically; and the range of clinical professionals involved in the process has broadened. There is general acceptance that our early dichotomous paradigms of variants being pathogenic-high risk and benign-no risk are overly simplistic. There is increasing recognition that the clinical interpretation of genomic data requires significant expertise in disease-gene-variant associations specific to each disease area. Inaccurate interpretation can lead to clinical mismanagement, inconsistent information within families and misdirection of resources. It is for this reason that 'national subspecialist multidisciplinary meetings' (MDMs) for genomic interpretation have been articulated as key for the new NHS Genomic Medicine Service, of which Cancer Variant Interpretation Group UK (CanVIG-UK) is an early exemplar. CanVIG-UK was established in 2017 and now has >100 UK members, including at least one clinical diagnostic scientist and one clinical cancer geneticist from each of the 25 regional molecular genetics laboratories of the UK and Ireland. Through CanVIG-UK, we have established national consensus around variant interpretation for cancer susceptibility genes via monthly national teleconferenced MDMs and collaborative data sharing using a secure online portal. We describe here the activities of CanVIG-UK, including exemplar outputs and feedback from the membership.

13.
Gut ; 69(3): 411-444, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780574

RESUMO

Heritable factors account for approximately 35% of colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, and almost 30% of the population in the UK have a family history of CRC. The quantification of an individual's lifetime risk of gastrointestinal cancer may incorporate clinical and molecular data, and depends on accurate phenotypic assessment and genetic diagnosis. In turn this may facilitate targeted risk-reducing interventions, including endoscopic surveillance, preventative surgery and chemoprophylaxis, which provide opportunities for cancer prevention. This guideline is an update from the 2010 British Society of Gastroenterology/Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland (BSG/ACPGBI) guidelines for colorectal screening and surveillance in moderate and high-risk groups; however, this guideline is concerned specifically with people who have increased lifetime risk of CRC due to hereditary factors, including those with Lynch syndrome, polyposis or a family history of CRC. On this occasion we invited the UK Cancer Genetics Group (UKCGG), a subgroup within the British Society of Genetic Medicine (BSGM), as a partner to BSG and ACPGBI in the multidisciplinary guideline development process. We also invited external review through the Delphi process by members of the public as well as the steering committees of the European Hereditary Tumour Group (EHTG) and the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). A systematic review of 10 189 publications was undertaken to develop 67 evidence and expert opinion-based recommendations for the management of hereditary CRC risk. Ten research recommendations are also prioritised to inform clinical management of people at hereditary CRC risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Vigilância da População , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/prevenção & controle , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/terapia , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/terapia , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Saúde da Família , Humanos , Polipose Intestinal/congênito , Polipose Intestinal/genética , Polipose Intestinal/terapia , Irlanda , Estilo de Vida , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/terapia , Síndrome de Peutz-Jeghers/genética , Síndrome de Peutz-Jeghers/terapia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/normas , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido
14.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is a tumour predisposition syndrome characterised by predisposition to cutaneous and uterine leiomyomata and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). OBJECTIVE: To define the clinical findings, molecular genetics, and prognosis in a cohort of 69 families with a fumarate hydratase (FH) pathogenic variant and/or clinical features of HLRCC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Clinical and molecular findings were obtained for 185 individuals from 69 families from four UK regional genetics clinics. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Ages at confirmed diagnoses, last dates of follow-up, and molecular results were attained for probands and relatives. To study the effect of potential ascertainment bias, phenotypes of probands and their affected relatives were compared. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A germline FH variant (19 novel and 21 known, >50% missense variants) was identified in 68/69 probands and 90 relatives. Cutaneous leiomyomata occurred in 90/185 (48.6%) individuals (mean age 45.9 yr) and uterine leiomyomata in 33/107 (30.8%) females (mean age 35.0 yr). Of 185 individuals, 23 (12.4%) had a confirmed renal tumour, and histopathology where known (n = 18) was variable: seven clear cell RCCs, nine papillary RCCs (six of type 2), one collecting duct tumour, and one tumour with oncocytic cystic morphology. Mean age at symptomatic RCC diagnosis was 44.0 yr and median survival was 21.0 mo. Eighty-one individuals underwent 187 renal imaging surveillance scans; three stage 1 RCCs were detected. Mean survival of individuals diagnosed with stage 1/2 RCC was significantly longer than those diagnosed with stage 3/4 RCC (p = 0.0004). CONCLUSIONS: Management of HLRCC is challenging as RCC occurs in a minority of cases but is highly aggressive. This large multicentre series has identified novel features and evidence that renal screening in HLRCC detects early-stage RCCs. PATIENT SUMMARY: We show that hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer is associated with a 21% lifetime risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC; 95% confidence interval 8.2-37.1), and renal imaging screening detects early-stage RCC.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636762

RESUMO

Background: We previously reported that in pathogenic mismatch repair (path_MMR) variant carriers, the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) was not reduced when colonoscopy was undertaken more frequently than once every 3 years, and that CRC stage and interval since last colonoscopy were not correlated. Methods: The Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD) that records outcomes of surveillance was examined to determine survival after colon cancer in relation to the time since previous colonoscopy and pathological stage. Only path_MMR variants scored by the InSiGHT variant database as class 4 or 5 (clinically actionable) were included in the analysis. Results: Ninety-nine path_MMR carriers had no cancer prior to or at first colonoscopy, but subsequently developed colon cancer. Among these, 96 were 65 years of age or younger at diagnosis, and included 77 path_MLH1, 17 path_MSH2, and 2 path_MSH6 carriers. The number of cancers detected within < 1.5, 1.5-2.5, 2.5-3.5 and at > 3.5 years after previous colonoscopy were 9, 43, 31 and 13, respectively. Of these, 2, 8, 4 and 3 were stage III, respectively, and only one stage IV (interval 2.5-3.5 years) disease. Ten-year crude survival after colon cancer were 93, 94 and 82% for stage I, II and III disease, respectively (p < 0.001). Ten-year crude survival when the last colonoscopy had been < 1.5, 1.5-2.5, 2.5-3.5 or > 3.5 years before diagnosis, was 89, 90, 90 and 92%, respectively (p = 0.91). Conclusions: In path_MLH1 and path_MSH2 carriers, more advanced colon cancer stage was associated with poorer survival, whereas time since previous colonoscopy was not. Although the numbers are limited, together with our previously reported findings, these results may be in conflict with the view that follow-up of path_MMR variant carriers with colonoscopy intervals of less than 3 years provides significant benefit.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858900

RESUMO

Background: Recent epidemiological evidence shows that colorectal cancer (CRC) continues to occur in carriers of pathogenic mismatch repair (path_MMR) variants despite frequent colonoscopy surveillance in expert centres. This observation conflicts with the paradigm that removal of all visible polyps should prevent the vast majority of CRC in path_MMR carriers, provided the screening interval is sufficiently short and colonoscopic practice is optimal. Methods: To inform the debate, we examined, in the Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD), whether the time since last colonoscopy was associated with the pathological stage at which CRC was diagnosed during prospective surveillance. Path_MMR carriers were recruited for prospective surveillance by colonoscopy. Only variants scored by the InSiGHT Variant Interpretation Committee as class 4 and 5 (clinically actionable) were included. CRCs detected at the first planned colonoscopy, or within one year of this, were excluded as prevalent cancers. Results: Stage at diagnosis and interval between last prospective surveillance colonoscopy and diagnosis were available for 209 patients with 218 CRCs, including 162 path_MLH1, 45 path_MSH2, 10 path_MSH6 and 1 path_PMS2 carriers. The numbers of cancers detected within < 1.5, 1.5-2.5, 2.5-3.5 and at > 3.5 years since last colonoscopy were 36, 93, 56 and 33, respectively. Among these, 16.7, 19.4, 9.9 and 15.1% were stage III-IV, respectively (p = 0.34). The cancers detected more than 2.5 years after the last colonoscopy were not more advanced than those diagnosed earlier (p = 0.14). Conclusions: The CRC stage and interval since last colonoscopy were not correlated, which is in conflict with the accelerated adenoma-carcinoma paradigm. We have previously reported that more frequent colonoscopy is not associated with lower incidence of CRC in path_MMR carriers as was expected. In contrast, point estimates showed a higher incidence with shorter intervals between examinations, a situation that may parallel to over-diagnosis in breast cancer screening. Our findings raise the possibility that some CRCs in path_MMR carriers may spontaneously disappear: the host immune response may not only remove CRC precursor lesions in path_MMR carriers, but may remove infiltrating cancers as well. If confirmed, our suggested interpretation will have a bearing on surveillance policy for path_MMR carriers.

17.
World J Gastrointest Oncol ; 11(2): 102-116, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30788038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification of germ-line mutations in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) could impact on patient/family. AIM: To assess the referral pathways for genetic consultations in PDAC. METHODS: Electronic records of PDAC patients were reviewed retrospectively. Patients eligible for genetic consultation referral were identified following the European Registry of Hereditary Pancreatitis and Familial Pancreatic Cancer (EUROPAC) criteria. RESULTS: Four-hundred patients were eligible. Of 113 patients (28.3%) meeting EUROPAC criteria, 8.8% were referred for genetic opinion. Germ-line mutations were identified in 0.75% of the whole population. CONCLUSION: Earlier referrals and increased awareness may be able to overcome the low rate of successful genetic appointments.

18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(2): 213-220, 2018 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30075112

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are identified in ∼20% of families with multiple individuals affected by early-onset breast and/or ovarian cancer. Extensive searches for additional highly penetrant genes or alternative mutational mechanisms altering BRCA1 or BRCA2 have not explained the missing heritability. Here, we report a dominantly inherited 5' UTR variant associated with epigenetic BRCA1 silencing due to promoter hypermethylation in two families affected by breast and ovarian cancer. BRCA1 promoter methylation of ten CpG dinucleotides in families who are affected by breast and/or ovarian cancer but do not have germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic variants was assessed by pyrosequencing and clonal bisulfite sequencing. RNA and DNA sequencing of BRCA1 from lymphocytes was undertaken to establish allelic expression and the presence of germline variants. BRCA1 promoter hypermethylation was identified in 2 of 49 families in which multiple women are affected by grade 3 breast cancer or high-grade serous ovarian cancer. Soma-wide BRCA1 promoter hypermethylation was confirmed in blood, buccal mucosa, and hair follicles. Pyrosequencing showed that DNA was ∼50% methylated, consistent with the silencing of one allele, which was confirmed by clonal bisulfite sequencing. RNA sequencing revealed the allelic loss of BRCA1 expression in both families and that this loss of expression segregated with the heterozygous variant c.-107A>T in the BRCA1 5' UTR. Our results establish a mechanism whereby familial breast and ovarian cancer is caused by an in cis 5' UTR variant associated with epigenetic silencing of the BRCA1 promoter in two independent families. We propose that methylation analyses be undertaken to establish the frequency of this mechanism in families affected by early-onset breast and/or ovarian cancer without a BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic variant.


Assuntos
Regiões 5' não Traduzidas/genética , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética
19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(1): 3-18, 2018 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29909963

RESUMO

Multiple primary tumors (MPTs) affect a substantial proportion of cancer survivors and can result from various causes, including inherited predisposition. Currently, germline genetic testing of MPT-affected individuals for variants in cancer-predisposition genes (CPGs) is mostly targeted by tumor type. We ascertained pre-assessed MPT individuals (with at least two primary tumors by age 60 years or at least three by 70 years) from genetics centers and performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on 460 individuals from 440 families. Despite previous negative genetic assessment and molecular investigations, pathogenic variants in moderate- and high-risk CPGs were detected in 67/440 (15.2%) probands. WGS detected variants that would not be (or were not) detected by targeted resequencing strategies, including low-frequency structural variants (6/440 [1.4%] probands). In most individuals with a germline variant assessed as pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P/LP), at least one of their tumor types was characteristic of variants in the relevant CPG. However, in 29 probands (42.2% of those with a P/LP variant), the tumor phenotype appeared discordant. The frequency of individuals with truncating or splice-site CPG variants and at least one discordant tumor type was significantly higher than in a control population (χ2 = 43.642; p ≤ 0.0001). 2/67 (3%) probands with P/LP variants had evidence of multiple inherited neoplasia allele syndrome (MINAS) with deleterious variants in two CPGs. Together with variant detection rates from a previous series of similarly ascertained MPT-affected individuals, the present results suggest that first-line comprehensive CPG analysis in an MPT cohort referred to clinical genetics services would detect a deleterious variant in about a third of individuals.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo
20.
Genet Med ; 20(12): 1575-1582, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29565421

RESUMO

PURPOSE: BRCA1/BRCA2 predictive test negatives are proven noncarriers of a BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation that is carried by their relatives. The risk of developing breast cancer (BC) or epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) in these women is uncertain. The study aimed to estimate risks of invasive BC and EOC in a large cohort of BRCA1/BRCA2 predictive test negatives. METHODS: We used cohort analysis to estimate incidences, cumulative risks, and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). RESULTS: A total of 1,895 unaffected women were eligible for inclusion in the BC risk analysis and 1,736 in the EOC risk analysis. There were 23 incident invasive BCs and 2 EOCs. The cumulative risk of invasive BC was 9.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.9-15%) by age 85 years and the corresponding risk of EOC was 0.6% (95% CI 0.2-2.6%). The SIR for invasive BC was 0.93 (95% CI 0.62-1.40) in the overall cohort, 0.85 (95% CI 0.48-1.50) in noncarriers from BRCA1 families, and 1.03 (95% CI 0.57-1.87) in noncarriers from BRCA2 families. The SIR for EOC was 0.79 (95% CI 0.20-3.17) in the overall cohort. CONCLUSION: Our results did not provide evidence for elevated risks of invasive BC or EOC in BRCA1/BRCA2 predictive test negatives.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
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