Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 7 de 7
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Diabetes Care ; 43(3): 607-615, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937608

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Assess the efficacy of inControl AP, a mobile closed-loop control (CLC) system. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This protocol, NCT02985866, is a 3-month parallel-group, multicenter, randomized unblinded trial designed to compare mobile CLC with sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy. Eligibility criteria were type 1 diabetes for at least 1 year, use of insulin pumps for at least 6 months, age ≥14 years, and baseline HbA1c <10.5% (91 mmol/mol). The study was designed to assess two coprimary outcomes: superiority of CLC over SAP in continuous glucose monitor (CGM)-measured time below 3.9 mmol/L and noninferiority in CGM-measured time above 10 mmol/L. RESULTS: Between November 2017 and May 2018, 127 participants were randomly assigned 1:1 to CLC (n = 65) versus SAP (n = 62); 125 participants completed the study. CGM time below 3.9 mmol/L was 5.0% at baseline and 2.4% during follow-up in the CLC group vs. 4.7% and 4.0%, respectively, in the SAP group (mean difference -1.7% [95% CI -2.4, -1.0]; P < 0.0001 for superiority). CGM time above 10 mmol/L was 40% at baseline and 34% during follow-up in the CLC group vs. 43% and 39%, respectively, in the SAP group (mean difference -3.0% [95% CI -6.1, 0.1]; P < 0.0001 for noninferiority). One severe hypoglycemic event occurred in the CLC group, which was unrelated to the study device. CONCLUSIONS: In meeting its coprimary end points, superiority of CLC over SAP in CGM-measured time below 3.9 mmol/L and noninferiority in CGM-measured time above 10 mmol/L, the study has demonstrated that mobile CLC is feasible and could offer certain usability advantages over embedded systems, provided the connectivity between system components is stable.

2.
N Engl J Med ; 381(18): 1707-1717, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Closed-loop systems that automate insulin delivery may improve glycemic outcomes in patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: In this 6-month randomized, multicenter trial, patients with type 1 diabetes were assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive treatment with a closed-loop system (closed-loop group) or a sensor-augmented pump (control group). The primary outcome was the percentage of time that the blood glucose level was within the target range of 70 to 180 mg per deciliter (3.9 to 10.0 mmol per liter), as measured by continuous glucose monitoring. RESULTS: A total of 168 patients underwent randomization; 112 were assigned to the closed-loop group, and 56 were assigned to the control group. The age range of the patients was 14 to 71 years, and the glycated hemoglobin level ranged from 5.4 to 10.6%. All 168 patients completed the trial. The mean (±SD) percentage of time that the glucose level was within the target range increased in the closed-loop group from 61±17% at baseline to 71±12% during the 6 months and remained unchanged at 59±14% in the control group (mean adjusted difference, 11 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 9 to 14; P<0.001). The results with regard to the main secondary outcomes (percentage of time that the glucose level was >180 mg per deciliter, mean glucose level, glycated hemoglobin level, and percentage of time that the glucose level was <70 mg per deciliter or <54 mg per deciliter [3.0 mmol per liter]) all met the prespecified hierarchical criterion for significance, favoring the closed-loop system. The mean difference (closed loop minus control) in the percentage of time that the blood glucose level was lower than 70 mg per deciliter was -0.88 percentage points (95% CI, -1.19 to -0.57; P<0.001). The mean adjusted difference in glycated hemoglobin level after 6 months was -0.33 percentage points (95% CI, -0.53 to -0.13; P = 0.001). In the closed-loop group, the median percentage of time that the system was in closed-loop mode was 90% over 6 months. No serious hypoglycemic events occurred in either group; one episode of diabetic ketoacidosis occurred in the closed-loop group. CONCLUSIONS: In this 6-month trial involving patients with type 1 diabetes, the use of a closed-loop system was associated with a greater percentage of time spent in a target glycemic range than the use of a sensor-augmented insulin pump. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; iDCL ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03563313.).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Pâncreas Artificial , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pâncreas Artificial/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Diabetes Care ; 41(3): 469-477, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29263164

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hyperglycemia and hyperlactatemia are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in critical illness. We evaluated the relationship among hyperlactatemia, glycemic control, and diabetes mellitus (DM) after cardiac surgery. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 4,098 cardiac surgery patients treated between 2011 and 2015. Patients were stratified by DM and glucose-lowering medication history. Hyperglycemia (glucose >180 mg/dL), hypoglycemia (<70 mg/dL), and the hyperglycemic index were assessed postoperatively (48 h). The relationship between lactate and glucose levels was modeled using generalized linear regression. Mortality was analyzed using an extended Cox regression model. RESULTS: Hyperglycemia occurred in 26.0% of patients without DM (NODM), 46.5% with DM without prior drug treatment (DMNT), 62.8% on oral medication (DMOM), and 73.8% on insulin therapy (DMIT) (P < 0.0001). Hypoglycemia occurred in 6.3%, 9.1%, 8.8%, and 10.8% of NODM, DMNT, DMOM, and DMIT, respectively (P = 0.0012). The lactate levels of all patients were temporarily increased with surgery. This increase was greater in patients who also had hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia and was markedly attenuated in patients with DM. Peak lactate was 5.8 mmol/L (95% CI 5.6, 6.0) in NODM with hyperglycemia vs. 3.3 (95% CI 3.2, 3.4) without hyperglycemia; in DMNT: 4.8 (95% CI 4.4, 5.2) vs. 3.4 (95% CI 3.1, 3.6); in DMOM: 3.8 (95% CI 3.5, 4.1) vs. 2.9 (95% CI 2.7, 3.1); and in DMIT: 3.3 (95% CI 3.0, 3.5) vs. 2.7 (95% CI 2.3, 3.0). Increasing lactate levels were associated with increasing mortality; increasing glucose reduced this effect in DM but not in NODM (P = 0.0069 for three-way interaction). CONCLUSIONS: Stress hyperlactatemia is markedly attenuated in patients with DM. There is a three-way interaction among DM, stress hyperlactatemia, and stress hyperglycemia associated with mortality after cardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/cirurgia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hiperlactatemia/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/psicologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Estado Terminal , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/cirurgia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/sangue , Angiopatias Diabéticas/mortalidade , Angiopatias Diabéticas/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Hiperlactatemia/etiologia , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 10(8)2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28768756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines advise waiting 5 to 7 days before operating on P2Y12 inhibitor-treated acute coronary syndrome patients, to allow dissipation of its antiplatelet effects. Platelet transfusion is often used to restore hemostasis during operations, but its effectiveness and optimal timing are unclear. We investigated the degree of functional gains obtained from platelet supplementation after loading and maintenance of dual antiplatelet therapy with ticagrelor and the influence of timing on this strategy. METHODS AND RESULTS: After baseline platelet testing (Multiplate Analyzer and VerifyNow), cardiovascular disease patients (n=20; 56.9±7.9 years; 65% men; 75% diabetic) received dual antiplatelet therapy as a single loading dose (ticagrelor 180 mg plus aspirin 325 mg) and as daily/maintenance treatment for 5 to 7 days (maintenance therapy: ticagrelor 90 mg BID plus aspirin 81 mg QD). At 4, 6, 24, and 48 hours from (last) dosing, patients' blood samples were supplemented with concentrated platelets from healthy donors in vitro, raising platelet counts by 0% (unsupplemented control), 25%, 50%, and 75%, and the function retested. Reactivity in supplemented samples was compared with respective 0% sample and with the pretreatment baseline. Results under loading dose and maintenance therapy regimens were nearly identical. Platelet reactivity was higher (P<0.05) in nearly all supplemented samples versus respective controls. Aggregations with supplementation were 59% to 79% of baseline at 24 hours and equal to baseline at 48 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Platelet reactivity of ticagrelor-treated patients can be restored using concentrated platelets after a loading dose/maintenance therapy in a time-dependent manner under in vitro testing. Although statistically significant improvements are evident 6 hours after (last) dosing, ≥24 hours maybe needed for clinically meaningful restoration in platelet function. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02201394.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Transfusão de Plaquetas , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/administração & dosagem , Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ticagrelor
5.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 102(10): 3674-3682, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28666360

RESUMO

Context: Closed-loop control (CLC) for the management of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a novel method for optimizing glucose control, and strategies for individualized implementation are being developed. Objective: To analyze glycemic control in an overnight CLC system designed to "reset" the patient to near-normal glycemic targets every morning. Design: Randomized, crossover, multicenter clinical trial. Participants: Forty-four subjects with T1D requiring insulin pump therapy. Intervention: Sensor-augmented pump therapy (SAP) at home vs 5 nights of CLC (active from 23:00 to 07:00) in a supervised outpatient setting (research house or hotel), with a substudy of 5 nights of CLC subsequently at home. Main Outcome Measure: The percentage of time spent in the target range (70 to 180 mg/dL measured using a continuous glucose monitor). Results: Forty subjects (age, 45.5 ± 9.5 years; hemoglobin A1c, 7.4% ± 0.8%) completed the study. The time in the target range (70 to 180 mg/dL) significantly improved in CLC vs SAP over 24 hours (78.3% vs 71.4%; P = 0.003) and overnight (85.7% vs 67.6%; P < 0.001). The time spent in a hypoglycemic range (<70 mg/dL) decreased significantly in the CLC vs SAP group over 24 hours (2.5% vs 4.3%; P = 0.002) and overnight (0.9% vs 3.2%; P < 0.001). The mean glucose level at 07:00 was lower with CLC than with SAP (123.7 vs 145.3 mg/dL; P < 0.001). The substudy at home, involving 10 T1D subjects, showed similar trends with an increased time in target (70 to 180 mg/dL) overnight (75.2% vs 62.2%; P = 0.07) and decreased time spent in the hypoglycemic range (<70 mg/dL) overnight in CLC vs SAP (0.6% vs 3.7%; P = 0.03). Conclusion: Overnight-only CLC increased the time in the target range over 24 hours and decreased the time in hypoglycemic range over 24 hours in a supervised outpatient setting. A pilot extension study at home showed a similar nonsignificant trend.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ritmo Circadiano , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Automonitorização da Glicemia/instrumentação , Automonitorização da Glicemia/métodos , Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Cross-Over , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
6.
Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes ; 19(2): 93-6, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22262000

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An overview of the global epidemic of diabetes and its impact on the understanding of the disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Once thought of as a disease of the West, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing at alarming rates in many other areas of the world. In recent years, significant attention has been placed on the growing Asian diabetes epidemic. As a result, the medical community has come to understand that previously defined risk factors, particularly BMI, may not be applicable to the global community. The heterogeneity of the disease has been demonstrated both through anthropometric and genetic studies. Despite this heterogeneity, some treatments, particularly lifestyle interventions, have been found to have an ethnic nonspecific positive impact on the disease. SUMMARY: Diabetes promises to become an even larger public health issue with significant social and economic burden with clinical practice and public health policy implications. Further population studies and identification of ethnic specific risk factors will guide research to develop a better understanding of the disease.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Epidemias , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Saúde Global , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Urbanização
7.
J Biol Chem ; 281(5): 2812-9, 2006 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16316988

RESUMO

The enzyme responsible for iodide salvage in the thyroid, iodotyrosine deiodinase, was solubilized from porcine thyroid microsomes by limited proteolysis with trypsin. The resulting protein retained deiodinase activity and was purified using anion exchange, dye, and hydrophobic chromatography successively. Peptide sequencing of the final isolate identified the gene responsible for the deiodinase. The amino acid sequence of the porcine enzyme is highly homologous to corresponding genes in a variety of mammals including humans, and the mouse gene was expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells to confirm its identity. The amino acid sequence of the deiodinase suggests the presence of three domains. The N-terminal domain provides a membrane anchor. The intermediate domain contains the highest sequence variability and lacks homology to structural motifs available in the common databases. The C-terminal domain is highly conserved and resembles bacterial enzymes of the NADH oxidase/flavin reductase superfamily. A three-dimensional model of the deiodinase based on the coordinates of the minor nitroreductase of Escherichia coli indicates that a Cys common to all of the mammal sequences is located adjacent to bound FMN. However, the deiodinase is not structurally related to other known flavoproteins containing redox-active cysteines or the iodothyronine deiodinases containing an active site selenocysteine.


Assuntos
FMN Redutase/química , Iodeto Peroxidase/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência Conservada , Cisteína , FMN Redutase/classificação , FMN Redutase/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Iodeto Peroxidase/classificação , Iodeto Peroxidase/isolamento & purificação , Microssomos/enzimologia , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Análise de Sequência , Suínos , Glândula Tireoide/enzimologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA