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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Longitudinal evidence of poor visual acuity associating with higher risk of incident dementia is mixed. This study aimed to examine if poor visual acuity was associated with higher dementia incidence in a large community cohort of older adults, independent of the possible biases relating to misclassification error, reverse causality, and confounding effects due to health problems and behaviours. METHODS: A total of 15,576 community-living older adults without dementia at baseline were followed for 6 years to the outcome of incident dementia, which was diagnosed according to the ICD-10 or a Clinical Dementia Rating of 1 to 3. Visual acuity was assessed using the Snellen's chart at baseline and follow-up. Important variables including demographics (age, sex, education, and socioeconomic status), physical and psychiatric comorbidities (cardiovascular risks, ophthalmological conditions, hearing impairment, poor mobility, and depression), and lifestyle behaviours (smoking, diet, physical, intellectual, and social activities) were also assessed. RESULTS: Over 68,904 person-years of follow-up, 1,349 participants developed dementia. Poorer visual acuity at baseline was associated with higher dementia incidence in 6 years, even after adjusting for demographics, health problems, and lifestyle behaviours, and excluding those who developed dementia within 3 years after baseline. Compared with normal vision, the hazard ratio of dementia was 1.19 (p=0.31), 2.09 (p<0.001), and 8.66 (p<0.001) for mild, moderate, and severe visual impairment, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate-to-severe visual impairment could be a potential predictor and possibly a risk factor for dementia. From a clinical perspective, older adults with poor visual acuity might warrant further risk assessment for dementia.

2.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 35(2): 163-173, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657091

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to characterize the clinical pathways that people with dementia (PwD) in different countries follow to reach specialized dementia care. METHODS: We recruited 548 consecutive clinical attendees with a standardized diagnosis of dementia, in 19 specialized public centres for dementia care in 15 countries. The WHO "encounter form," a standardized schedule that enables data concerning basic socio-demographic, clinical, and pathways data to be gathered, was completed for each participant. RESULTS: The median time from the appearance of the first symptoms to the first contact with specialist dementia care was 56 weeks. The primary point of access to care was the general practitioners (55.8%). Psychiatrists, geriatricians, and neurologists represented the most important second point of access. In about a third of cases, PwD were prescribed psychotropic drugs (mostly antidepressants and tranquillizers). Psychosocial interventions (such as psychological counselling, psychotherapy, and practical advice) were delivered in less than 3% of situations. The analyses of the "pathways diagram" revealed that the path of PwD to receiving care is complex and diverse across countries and that there are important barriers to clinical care. CONCLUSIONS: The study of pathways followed by PwD to reach specialized care has implications for the subsequent course and the outcome of dementia. Insights into local differences in the clinical presentations and the implementation of currently available dementia care are essential to develop more tailored strategies for these patients, locally, nationally, and internationally.

3.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 75(3): 560-570, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30496547

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Dementia interferes with older adults' functioning in cognitive, daily, psychosocial, and neuroendocrine domains. The present study examined the psychophysiological effects of dance movement therapy (DMT) and physical exercise for older adults with dementia. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial recruited 204 older adults diagnosed with mild dementia into the DMT, exercise, or waitlist control group. Both DMT and exercise interventions had similar intensity and comprised 24 hr of intervention that spanned over 12 weeks. All participants completed self-report questionnaires on psychosocial well-being, daily functioning, neurocognitive assessments, and salivary cortisol measures at baseline and 3 follow-up measurements more than 1 year. RESULTS: The DMT group showed significant decreases in depression, loneliness, and negative mood (d = 0.33-0.42, p < .05) and improved daily functioning (d = 0.40, p < .01) and diurnal cortisol slope (d = 0.30, p < .01). The effects on daily functioning and cortisol slope remained at 1-year follow-up. The exercise group of matched intensity showed no significant effects on the outcomes. DISCUSSION: The study findings support the potential utility of DMT as a multifaceted intervention for improving various aspects of functioning in older adults with declining cognitive abilities. The lack of beneficial effects for our exercise intervention and long-term DMT effects highlights the need to maintain persistent levels of exercise with adequate intensity and duration.

4.
J Atten Disord ; 24(1): 126-135, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30259782

RESUMO

Objective: We examined adulthood diagnostic, functioning, and social outcomes of childhood ADHD in a Hong Kong Chinese clinical sample. Method: We identified from the central registry 499 Chinese adults clinically diagnosed with ADHD aged 6 to 12 in 2002-2005 in four Hong Kong child psychiatric centers. Assessments included ADHD Clinical Diagnostic Scale (ACDS), Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders (SCID), and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHO-DAS). Results: Eligible participants = 499. One hundred forty-five completed assessments, two deceased, six incarcerated, 100 had invalid contact, 83 declined, 34 emigrated, and 129 unable to attend. Mean follow-up duration = 14.9 years. Nonrespondents were slightly younger (19.78 vs. 20.53, p < .001). In all, 83.1% of all participants currently met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) ADHD criteria (36.8% inattentive subtype (IA), 43% combined, 3.3% hyperactive/impulsive subtype (H/I) ). One third of persistent ADHD participants currently received care. ADHD persistence was associated with significantly increased psychiatric comorbidity (49.5% vs. 22.7%, p = .02) and poor academic and social outcomes. ADHD persistence and comorbidity independently predicted impairment. Conclusion: Adulthood-persistence of clinically presented childhood ADHD is common and impairing in Hong Kong Chinese.

5.
Age Ageing ; 48(6): 838-844, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: although type 2 diabetes increases risk of dementia by 2-fold, whether optimizing glycemic level in late life can reduce risk of dementia remains uncertain. We examined if achieving the glycemic goal recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) within a year was associated with lower risk of dementia in 6 years. METHODS: in this population-based observational study, we examined 2246 community-living dementia-free Chinese older adults with type 2 diabetes who attended the Elderly Health Centres in Hong Kong at baseline and followed their HbA1c level and cognitive status for 6 years. In line with the ADA recommendation, we defined the glycemic goal as HbA1c < 7.5%. The study outcome was incident dementia in 6 years, diagnosed according to the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) or Clinical Dementia Rating of 1-3. RESULTS: those with HbA1c ≥ 7.5% at baseline and HbA1c < 7.5% in 1 year were associated with higher rather than lower incidence of dementia, independent of severe hypoglycemia, glycemic variability and other health factors. Sensitivity analyses showed that a relative reduction of ≥10%, but not 5-10%, in HbA1c within a year was associated with higher incidence of dementia in those with high (≥8%) and moderate (6.5-7.9%) HbA1c at baseline. CONCLUSION: a large reduction in HbA1c could be a potential predictor and possibly a risk factor for dementia in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Our findings suggest that optimizing or intensifying glycemic control in this population requires caution.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556447

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the longer-term effects of benefit-finding on caregivers' depressive symptoms (primary outcome), and global burden, role overload, psychological well-being, and positive aspects of caregiving (secondary outcomes). METHOD: 96 Hong Kong Chinese caregivers of relatives with Alzheimer's disease were randomly assigned to receive the benefit-finding intervention (BFT) or one of two control conditions, namely, simplified psychoeducation (lectures only; SIM-PE) or standard psychoeducation (STD-PE). Caregivers received four biweekly one-to-one interventions of three hours each at their own homes. We focused on outcomes measured at 4- and 10-month follow-ups. The trajectories of intervention effects were modeled by BFT x time and BFT x time2 interaction terms. RESULTS: Mixed-effects regression showed significant BFT x time2 interaction effects on depressive symptoms against both control conditions, suggesting diminishing BFT effects over time. Z tests showed that, compared with controls, BFT participants reported substantial reductions in depressive symptoms at 4-month follow-up (d=-0.85 and -0.75 vs. SIM-PE and STD-PE respectively). For depressive symptoms measured at 10-month follow-up, BFT was indistinguishable from STD-PE whereas a moderate effect was observed in the comparison with SIM-PE (d=-0.52). Moreover, positive aspects of caregiving, but not other secondary outcomes, continued to show intervention effect up to 10-month follow-up. DISCUSSION: Benefit-finding is an efficacious intervention for depressive symptoms in Alzheimer caregivers, with strong effects in the medium-term post-intervention and possible moderate effects in the longer-term.

7.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 25(11): 1270-1276, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) is increasingly used as a probe of function and therapeutics in experimental neuroscience and neurorehabilitation. Scalp-to-cortex distance (SCD), as a key parameter, has been shown to potentially impact on the electric field. This study aimed to examine the region-specific SCD and its relationship with cognitive function in the context of age-related brain atrophy. METHODS: We analyzed the SCD and cortical thickness (CT) of left primary motor cortex (M1) in 164 cognitively normal (CN) adults and 43 dementia patients drawn from the Open Access Series of Imaging Studies (OASIS). The degree of brain atrophy was measured by the volume of ventricular system. Computational head model was developed to simulate the impact of SCD on the electric field. RESULTS: Increased SCD of left M1 was only found in dementia patients (P < .001). When considering CT, the ratio of SCD to CT (F = 27.41, P < .001) showed better differential value than SCD. The SCD of left M1 was associated with worse global cognition (r = -.207, P = .011) and enlarged third ventricle (r = .241, P < .001). The electric field was consequently reduced with the increased SCD across cognitively normal elderly and dementia groups. CONCLUSIONS: Scalable distance measures, including SCD and CT, are markedly correlated with reduced electric field in dementia patients. The findings suggest that it is important to be aware of region-specific distance measures when conducting NIBS-based rehabilitation in individuals with brain atrophy.

8.
J Trauma Stress ; 32(5): 664-676, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393657

RESUMO

This study examined the epidemiology of trauma exposure (TE) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among community-dwelling Chinese adults in Hong Kong. Multistage stratification sampling design was used, and 5,377 participants were included. In Phase 1, TE, probable PTSD (p-PTSD), and psychiatric comorbid conditions were examined. In Phase 2, the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV (SCID-I) was used to determine the weighted diagnostic prevalence of lifetime full PTSD. Disability level and health service utilization were studied. The findings showed that the weighted prevalence of TE was 64.8%, and increased to 88.7% when indirect TE types were included, with transportation accidents (50.8%) reported as the most common TE. The prevalence of current p-PTSD among participants with TE was 2.9%. Results of logistic regression suggested that nine specific trauma types were significantly associated with p-PTSD; among this group, severe human suffering, sexual assault, unwanted or uncomfortable sexual experience, captivity, and sudden and violent death carried the greatest risks for developing PTSD, odds ratio (OR) = 2.32-2.69. The occurrence of p-PTSD was associated with more mental health burdens, including (a) sixfold higher rates for any past-week common mental disorder, OR = 28.4, (b) more mental health service utilization, p < .001, (c) poorer mental health indexes in level of symptomatology, suicide ideation and functioning, p < .001, and (d) more disability, ps < .001-p = .014. The associations found among TE, PTSD, and health service utilization suggest that both TE and PTSD should be considered public health concerns.

9.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 62(7): 2411-2424, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251679

RESUMO

Purpose We report a preliminary study that prospectively tests the potential cognitive enhancing effect of foreign language (FL) learning in older adults with no clear signs of cognitive decline beyond what is age typical. Because language learning engages a large brain network that overlaps with the network of cognitive aging, we hypothesized that learning a new language later in life would be beneficial. Method Older adults were randomly assigned to 3 training groups: FL, games, and music appreciation. All were trained predominately by a computer-based program for 6 months, and their cognitive abilities were tested before, immediately after, and 3 months after training. Results FL and games, but not music appreciation, improved overall cognitive abilities that were maintained at 3 months after training. Conclusion This is the 1st randomized control study providing preliminary support for the cognitive benefits of FL learning.

10.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 27(9): 984-994, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076215

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of the group benefit-finding therapeutic intervention (BFT) for Alzheimer family caregivers up to 10-month follow-up. METHODS: This was a cluster-randomized double-blind controlled trial in social centers and clinics. Participants included 129 caregivers. Inclusion criteria were 1) primary caregiver aged 18 years and older and without cognitive impairment, 2) providing 14 or more care hours per week to a relative with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease, and 3) scoring 3 or more on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Exclusion criterion was care-recipient having parkinsonism or other forms of dementia. BFT (using cognitive reappraisal to find positive meanings) was evaluated against two forms of psychoeducation as controls-standard and simplified (lectures only) psychoeducation. All interventions had eight weekly sessions of 2 hours each. Primary outcome was depressive symptoms, whereas secondary outcomes were global burden, role overload, and psychological well-being. Measures were collected at baseline, postintervention, and 4- and 10-month follow-up. RESULTS: Mixed-effects regression showed that BFT's effect on depressive symptoms conformed to a curvilinear pattern, in which the strong initial effect leveled out after postintervention and was maintained up to 10-month follow-up; this was true when compared against either control group. The effect on global burden was less impressive but moderate effect sizes were found at the two follow-ups. For psychological well-being, there was an increase in the BFT group at 4-month follow-up and a return to baseline afterward. No effect on role overload was found. CONCLUSION: Benefit-finding reduces depressive symptoms as well as global burden in the long-term and increases psychological well-being in the medium-term.

11.
Int Psychogeriatr ; 31(8): 1099-1107, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030690

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study of predeath grief is hampered by measures that are often lengthy and not clearly differentiated from other caregiving outcomes, most notably burden. We aimed to validate a new 11-item Caregiver Grief Questionnaire (CGQ) assessing two dimensions of predeath grief, namely relational deprivation and emotional pain. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Community and psychogeriatric clinics. PARTICIPANTS: 173 Alzheimer (AD) caregivers who cared for relatives with different degrees of severity (63 mild, 60 moderate, and 50 severe). MEASUREMENTS: Besides the CGQ, measures of caregiver burden and depressive symptoms, and care-recipients' neuropsychiatric symptoms and functional impairment were assessed. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized 2-factor over the 1-factor model, and both subscales were only moderately correlated with burden. Two-week test-retest reliabilities were excellent. Caregivers for mild AD reported less grief than those caring for more severe relatives. Z tests revealed significantly different correlational patterns for the two dimensions, with emotional pain more related to global burden and depressive symptoms, and relational deprivation more related to care-recipients' functional impairment. Both dimensions were mildly correlated with neuropsychiatric symptoms (especially disruptive behaviors and psychotic symptoms) of the care-recipient. CONCLUSIONS: Results supported the reliability and validity of the two-dimensional measure of predeath grief. As a brief measure, it can be readily added to research instruments to facilitate study of this important phenomenon along with other caregiving outcomes.

12.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 67(4): 1331-1341, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30689573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scalp to cortex distance (SCD), as a key technological parameter, has been highlighted in the guidelines of non-invasive brain stimulation. However, in the context of age-related brain changes, the region-specific SCD and its impact on stimulation-induced electric field remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the region-specific SCD and its relationship with morphometric features and cognitive function in age- and disease-specific populations. METHODS: We analyzed the SCD and cortical thickness (CT) of left primary motor cortex (M1) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in 214 cognitively normal adults and 43 dementia patients. CT-adjusted SCD was used to control the influence of CT on SCD. Head model was developed to simulate the impact of SCD on the electric field induced by transcranial electrical stimulation. RESULTS: We found age-related increased SCD in the left DLPFC (p < 0.001), but not M1 (p = 0.134), and dementia-related increased SCD in both left DLPFC (p < 0.001) and M1 (p < 0.001). CT-adjusted SCD showed greater region-specific impact on left DLPFC rather than M1. The electric field induced by stimulation was consequently decreased with the increased SCD across normal aging and dementia groups. CONCLUSIONS: Age and dementia have differential impacts on the SCDs of left DLPFC and M1. The findings suggest that it is important to be aware of region-specific distance measures when conducting neuromodulation in individuals with old age and dementia.

13.
Aging Ment Health ; 23(6): 711-717, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29517270

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) refers to an early but abnormal state of cognitive impairment with minimal functional impairment. The present study aimed to evaluate the validity of Fuld Object Memory Evaluation (FOME) as a measure of episodic memory function. METHOD: The study sample included 204 Chinese older adults with cognitive impairments. The participants completed five recall trials and a delayed trial in FOME, neurocognitive measures on digit spans and trail making, and daily functioning. Discriminative power of FOME to differentiate between MCI and dementia was inspected via receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. RESULTS: FOME showed good test-retest reliability and convergent validity with digit spans and trail making. Controlling for gender, age, and education, lower levels of FOME total retrieval, verbal fluency, and daily functioning significantly predicted a higher likelihood of dementia compared to MCI. The optimal cut-off scores for total retrieval, verbal fluency, and daily functioning to differentiate dementia were 37/38 (77% sensitivity and 83% specificity), 28/29 (85% sensitivity and 72% specificity), and 14/15 (92% sensitivity and 78% specificity), respectively, in the younger subgroup. The corresponding figures were 34/35 (69% sensitivity and 76% specificity) and 27/28 (92% sensitivity and 62% specificity), and 11/12 (74% sensitivity and 80% specificity), respectively, in the older subgroup. CONCLUSION: The findings support the FOME as a valid assessment tool of episodic memory function in older Chinese adults. The combined use of FOME and daily functioning is recommended to distinguish persons with dementia from MCI.

14.
Int Psychogeriatr ; 31(4): 467-475, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30426917

RESUMO

ABSTRACTObjectives:Loneliness and social networks have been extensively studied in relation to cognitive impairments, but how they interact with each other in relation to cognition is still unclear. This study aimed at exploring the interaction of loneliness and various types of social networks in relation to cognition in older adults. DESIGN: a cross-sectional study. SETTING: face-to-face interview. PARTICIPANTS: 497 older adults with normal global cognition were interviewed. MEASUREMENTS: Loneliness was assessed with Chinese 6-item De Jong Gierverg's Loneliness Scale. Confiding network was defined as people who could share inner feelings with, whereas non-confiding network was computed by subtracting the confiding network from the total network size. Cognitive performance was expressed as a global composite z-score of Cantonese version of mini mental state examination (CMMSE), Categorical verbal fluency test (CVFT) and delayed recall. Linear regression was used to test the main effects of loneliness and the size of various networks, and their interaction on cognitive performance with the adjustment of sociodemographic, physical and psychological confounders. RESULTS: Significant interaction was found between loneliness and non-confiding network on cognitive performance (B = .002, ß = .092, t = 2.099, p = .036). Further analysis showed a significant interaction between loneliness and the number of family members in non-confiding network on cognition (B = .021, ß = .119, t = 2.775, p = .006). CONCLUSIONS: Results suggested that a non-confiding relationship with family members might put lonely older adults at risk of cognitive impairment. Our study might have implications on designing psychosocial intervention for those who are vulnerable to loneliness as an early prevention of neurocognitive impairments.


Assuntos
Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Solidão/psicologia , Apoio Social , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Carência Psicossocial , Comportamento Verbal
15.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 64(3): 815-826, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29914037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Memory and learning, as the core brain function, shows controversial results across studies focusing on aging and dementia. One of the reasons is because of the multi-faceted nature of memory and learning. However, there is still a dearth of comparable proxies with psychometric and morphometric portrait in clinical and non-clinical populations. OBJECTIVE: We aim to investigate the proxies of memory and learning function with direct and derived measures and examine their associations with morphometric features in senior adults with different cognitive status. METHODS: Based on two modality-driven tests, we assessed the component-specific memory and learning in the individuals with high performing (HP), normal aging, and neurocognitive disorders (NCD) (n = 488). Structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the regional cortical thickness with surface-based morphometry analysis in a subsample (n = 52). METHODS: Compared with HP elderly, the ones with normal aging and minor NCD showed declined recognition memory and working memory, whereas had better learning performance (derived scores). Meanwhile, major NCD patients showed more breakdowns of memory and learning function. The correlation between proxies of memory and learning and cortical thickness exhibited the overlapped and unique neural underpinnings. CONCLUSIONS: The proxies of memory and learning could be characterized by component-specific constructs with psychometric and morphometric bases. Overall, the constructs of memory are more likely related to the pathological changes, and the constructs of learning tend to reflect the cognitive abilities of compensation.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Vida Independente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/diagnóstico por imagem , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Curva ROC , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
16.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 75(7): 697-703, 2018 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29847678

RESUMO

Importance: Associations between late-life participation in intellectual activities and decreased odds of developing dementia have been reported. However, reverse causality and confounding effects due to other health behaviors or problems have not been adequately addressed. Objective: To examine whether late-life participation in intellectual activities is associated with a lower risk of incident dementia years later, independent of other lifestyle and health-related factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: A longitudinal observational study was conducted at all Elderly Health Centres of the Department of Health of the Government of Hong Kong among 15 582 community-living Chinese individuals age 65 years or older at baseline who were free of dementia, with baseline evaluations performed January 1 to June 30, 2005, and follow-up assessments performed from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2012. Statistical analysis was performed from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was incident dementia as diagnosed by geriatric psychiatrists in accordance with the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision, or a Clinical Dementia Rating of 1 to 3. At baseline and follow-up interviews, self-reported information on participation in intellectual activities within 1 month before assessment was collected. Examples of intellectual activities, which were described by a local validated classification system, were reading books, newspapers, or magazines; playing board games, Mahjong, or card games; and betting on horse racing. Other important variables including demographics (age, sex, and educational level), physical and psychiatric comorbidities (cardiovascular risks, depression, visual and hearing impairments, and poor mobility), and lifestyle factors (physical exercise, adequate fruit and vegetable intake, smoking, and recreational and social activities) were also assessed. Results: Of the 15 582 individuals in the study, 9950 (63.9%) were women, and the median age at baseline was 74 years (interquartile range, 71-77 years). A total of 1349 individuals (8.7%) developed dementia during a median follow-up period of 5.0 years. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the estimated odds ratio for incident dementia was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.60-0.84; P < .001) for those with intellectual activities at baseline, after excluding those who developed dementia within 3 years after baseline and adjusting for health behaviors, physical and psychiatric comorbidities, and sociodemographic factors. Conclusions and Relevance: Active participation in intellectual activities, even in late life, might help delay or prevent dementia in older adults.


Assuntos
Demência/epidemiologia , Jogos Recreativos , Leitura , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Dieta , Exercício , Feminino , Jogo de Azar , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Fatores de Proteção , Risco , Participação Social
18.
Int Psychogeriatr ; 30(8): 1149-1152, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29208076

RESUMO

In many countries around the world, owing to the lack of specialists and equipment, delay up to a few years in help-seeking and getting diagnostic examinations for dementia is not uncommon (Sayegh and Knight, 2013), and this situation is considerably more serious in "atypical dementias" due to the challenge they present for differential diagnosis. For instance, a survey in the USA showed that misdiagnosis was common in patients with Lewy body dementia who, on average, saw at least three physicians over a year's time or more before getting the proper diagnosis (Lewy Body Dementia Association, 2010). Furthermore, in multiethnic communities, cultural and language barriers between practitioners and patients may lead to substantial delay as well (Sayegh and Knight, 2013).


Assuntos
Barreiras de Comunicação , Demência/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Erros de Diagnóstico , Humanos , Doença por Corpos de Lewy/diagnóstico , Revelação da Verdade
19.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 18(9): 807.e17-807.e29, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28754516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a prevalent symptom associated with the increased risk of dementia. There are many cognitive tests available for detection of MCI, and investigation of the diagnostic performance of the tests is deemed necessary. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic performance of different cognitive tests used for MCI detection. DATA SOURCES: A list of cognitive tests was identified in previous reviews and from online search engines. Literature searches were performed on each of the cognitive tests in MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO from the earliest available dates of individual databases to December 31, 2016. Google Scholar was used as a supplementary search tool. STUDY SELECTION: Studies that were used to assess the diagnostic performance of the cognitive tests were extracted with inclusion and exclusion criteria. Each test's performance was compared with the standard diagnostic criteria. Bivariate random effects models were used to summarize the test performance as a point estimate for sensitivity and specificity, and presented in a summary receiver operating characteristic curve. Reporting quality and risk of bias were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 108 studies with 23,546 participants were selected to evaluate 9 cognitive tests for MCI detection. Most of the studies used the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) (n = 58) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) (n = 35). The combined diagnostic performance of the MMSE in MCI detection was 0.71 sensitivity [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66-0.75] and 0.74 specificity (95% CI: 0.70-0.78), and of the MoCA in MCI detection was 0.83 sensitivity (95% CI: 0.80-0.86) and 0.75 specificity (95% CI: 0.69-0.80). Among the 9 cognitive tests, recall tests showed the best diagnostic performance with 0.89 sensitivity (95% CI: 0.86-0.92) and 0.84 specificity (95% CI, 0.79-0.89). In subgroup analyses, long- or short-delay recall tests have shown better performance than immediate recall tests. CONCLUSIONS: Recall tests were shown to be the most effective test in MCI detection, especially for the population with symptoms of memory deterioration. They can be potentially used as the triage screening test for MCI in primary care setting. But when a patient shows cognitive impairments beyond memory deterioration, a more comprehensive test such as the MoCA should be used.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Rememoração Mental , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 58(3): 927-937, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28527207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Processing speed has been highlighted as a diagnostic item for neurocognitive disorders (NCD) in DSM-5. The utility of information processing speed (IPS) enclosed with multiscale constructs in the diagnosis of NCD warrants exploration. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the IPS with two types of measurements in the patients with NCD due to vascular disease (NCD-vascular) and NCD due to Alzheimer's disease (NCD-AD), and examine the associations between IPS measures and morphometric features. METHODS: The IPS was evaluated using trail making test (TMT) and flanker test (n = 204). Direct scores, derived scores, and reaction time (RT) were used as IPS measures. Further, surface-based morphometry cortical volume was calculated in a subsample (n = 44) with structural MRI data. RESULTS: All IPS measures showed a significant value to differentiate NCD patients from healthy subjects. Only mean RT could distinguish NCD-AD from NCD-vascular groups. TMT-B score and difference score were correlated with gray matter volume (GMV) of inferior frontal gyrus, precuneus and superior temporal cortex. Mean RT was associated with the GMV of post-central gyrus (r = -0.327, p = 0.035), and executive speed was associated with inferior frontal cortex (r = -0.475, p = 0.001), cingulate gyrus (r = -0.497, p = 0.001), and superior temporal gyrus (r = -0.36, p = 0.019). CONCLUSION: The cognitive and morphometric correlates of IPS measures indicate that complex IPS might be decomposed into the domain-specific components with corresponding neural underpinnings. Our findings may also provide essential insights into the diagnostic item of NCD.


Assuntos
Processos Mentais , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/diagnóstico , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/patologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Área Sob a Curva , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Coortes , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/complicações , Curva ROC , Tempo de Reação
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