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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484203

RESUMO

Sustained ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation (VF) are life-threatening arrhythmias which remain highly prevalent in patients with advanced heart failure. These ventricular arrhythmias may impair the support provided by continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs) and lead to frequent hospitalizations, antiarrhythmic medication use, external defibrillations, and need for heart transplantation. We report a case in which a patient with a CF-LVAD and an implantable cardioverter defibrillator at end of life presented with asymptomatic low-flow alarms and was found to have VF of unknown duration. Unique in our case was the presence of apparent organized contractility and rhythmic opening of the mitral valve on echocardiogram despite VF on electrocardiogram.

2.
Am J Med ; 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of loop diuretics on clinical outcomes in heart failure has not been evaluated in randomized controlled trials. In hospitalized patients with heart failure, a discharge loop diuretic prescription has been shown to be associated with improved 30-day outcomes, which appears to be more pronounced in subgroups with congestion. In the current study, we examined these associations and association modifications during longer follow-up. METHODS: We assembled a propensity score-matched cohort of 2191 pairs of hospitalized heart failure patients discharged with, vs without, a prescription for loop diuretics, balanced on 74 baseline characteristics (mean age 78 years; 54% women; 11% African American). RESULTS: Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for 6-year combined endpoint of heart failure readmission or all-cause mortality was 1.02 (0.96-1.09). HRs and 95% CIs for this combined endpoint in patients with no, mild-to-moderate, and severe pulmonary rales were 1.19 (1.07-1.33), 0.95 (0.86-1.04), and 0.77 (0.63-0.94), respectively (P for interaction, < .001). Respective HRs (95% CIs) for no, mild-to-moderate, and severe lower extremity edema were 1.16 (1.06-1.28), 0.94 (0.85-1.04), and 0.71 (0.56-0.89; interaction P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The association between a discharge loop diuretic prescription and long-term clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with heart failure is modified by admission congestion with worse, neutral, and better outcomes in patients with no, mild-to-moderate, and severe congestion, respectively. If these findings can be replicated, congestion may be used to risk-stratify patients with heart failure for potential optimization of loop diuretic prescription and outcomes.

3.
Am J Med ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New hypertension and heart failure guidelines recommend that systolic blood pressure (SBP) in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and hypertension be lowered to <130 mm Hg. METHODS: Of the 6778 hospitalized patients with HFpEF and a history of hypertension in the Medicare-linked OPTIMIZE-HF registry, 3111 had a discharge SBP <130 mm Hg. Using propensity scores for SBP <130 mm Hg, we assembled a matched cohort of 1979 pairs with SBP <130 versus ≥130 mm Hg, balanced on 66 baseline characteristics (mean age, 79 years; 69% women; 12% African American). We then assembled a second matched cohort of 1326 pairs with SBP <120 versus ≥130 mm Hg. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for outcomes associated with SBP <130 and <120 mm Hg were separately estimated in the matched cohorts using SBP ≥130 mm Hg as the reference. RESULTS: HRs (95% CIs) for 30-day, 12-month, and 6-year all-cause mortality associated with SBP <130 mm Hg were 1.20 (0.91-1.59; P = 0.200), 1.11 (0.99-1.26; P = 0.080), and 1.05 (0.98-1.14; P = 0.186), respectively. Respective HRs (95% CIs) associated with SBP <120 mm Hg were 1.68 (1.21-2.34; P = 0.002), 1.28 (1.11-1.48; P = 0.001), and 1.11 (1.02-1.22; P = 0.022). There was no association with readmission. CONCLUSIONS: Among older patients with HFpEF and hypertension, compared with SBP ≥130 mm Hg, the new target SBP <130 mm Hg had no association with outcomes but SBP <120 mm Hg was associated with a higher risk of death but not of readmission. Future prospective studies need to evaluate optimal SBP treatment goals in these patients.

4.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(6): 669-679, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a major source of morbidity and mortality. Fluid retention and shortness of breath are its cardinal manifestations for which loop diuretics are used. Although their usefulness is well accepted, less is known about their role in improving clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between loop diuretics and clinical outcomes in patients with HF. METHODS: Of the 25,345 older patients hospitalized for HF in the Medicare-linked OPTIMIZE-HF (Organized Program to Initiate Lifesaving Treatment in Hospitalized Patients with Heart Failure) registry, 9,866 (39%) received no pre-admission diuretics. The study excluded 1,083 patients receiving dialysis and 847 discharged on thiazide diuretics. Of the remaining 7,936 patients, 5,568 (70%) were prescribed loop diuretics at discharge. Using propensity scores for receipt of loop diuretics estimated for each of the 7,936 patients, a matched cohort of 2,191 pairs of patients was assembled balanced on 74 baseline characteristics. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for outcomes were estimated in the matched cohort. RESULTS: Matched patients (n = 4,382) had a mean age of 78 years, 54% were women, and 11% were African American. The 30-day all-cause mortality occurred in 4.9% (107 of 2,191) and 6.6% (144 of 2,191) of patients in the loop diuretic and no loop diuretic groups, respectively (HR when the use of loop diuretics was compared with nonuse: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.57 to 0.94; p = 0.016). Patients in the loop diuretic group had a significantly lower risk of 30-day HF readmission (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.63 to 0.99; p = 0.037) but not of 30-day all-cause readmission (HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.79 to 1.01; p = 0.081). None of the associations was statistically significant during 60 days of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized older patients not taking diuretics prior to hospitalization for HF decompensation who received a discharge prescription for loop diuretics had significantly better 30-day clinical outcomes than those not discharged on loop diuretics. These findings provide new information about short-term clinical benefits associated with loop diuretic use in HF.

5.
Am J Med ; 133(12): 1460-1470, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Digoxin reduces the risk of heart failure hospitalization but has no effect on mortality in patients with heart failure without atrial fibrillation in the randomized controlled trial setting. Observational studies of digoxin use in patients with atrial fibrillation have suggested a higher risk for poor outcomes. Less is known about this association in patients with heart failure and atrial fibrillation, the examination of which was the objective of the current study. METHODS: We conducted an observational propensity score-matched study of predischarge digoxin initiation in 1768 hospitalized patients with heart failure and atrial fibrillation in the Medicare-linked Organized Program to Initiate Lifesaving Treatment in Hospitalized Patients with Heart Failure (OPTIMIZE-HF) registry, balanced on 56 baseline characteristics (mean age, 79 years; 55% women; 7% African American). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for outcomes were estimated for the 884 patients initiated on digoxin compared with 884 not initiated on digoxin. RESULTS: HRs (95% CIs) for 30-day, 2-year, and 4-year all-cause mortality were 0.80 (0.55-1.18; P = .261), 0.94 (0.87-1.16; P = .936), and 1.01 (0.90-1.14; P = .729), respectively. Respective HRs (95% CIs) for heart failure readmission were 0.67 (0.49-0.92; P = .014), 0.81 (0.69-0.94; P = .005), and 0.85 (0.74-0.97; P = .022), and those for all-cause readmission were 0.78 (0.64-0.96; P = .016), 0.90 (0.81-1.00; P = .057), and 0.91 (0.83-1.01; P = .603). These associations were homogeneous between patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤45% vs >45%. CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalized older patients with heart failure (HFrEF and HFpEF) and atrial fibrillation, initiation of digoxin was associated with a lower risk of heart failure readmission but had no association with mortality.

6.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(3): 794-803, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319205

RESUMO

AIMS: Hypokalaemia is a risk factor for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death in ambulatory patients with chronic heart failure (HF). The objective of this study was to examine the association between hypokalaemia and outcomes in hospitalized patients with decompensated HF in whom sudden death is less common. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of the 5881 hospitalized patients with HF, 1052 had consistent hypokalaemia (both admission and discharge serum potassium <4.0 mmol/L), and 2538 had consistent normokalaemia (both admission and discharge serum potassium 4.0-5.0 mmol/L). Propensity scores for consistent hypokalaemia, estimated for each of 3590 (1052 + 2538) patients, were used to assemble a matched cohort of 971 pairs of patients with consistent hypokalaemia vs. consistent normokalaemia, balanced on 54 baseline characteristics (mean age, 75 years; 60% women; 28% African American). We repeated the above process to assemble 2327 pairs of patients with discharge potassium <4.0 vs. 4.0-5.0 mmol/L and 449 pairs of patients with discharge serum potassium <3.5 vs. 4.0-5.0 mmol/L. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with hypokalaemia were estimated in matched cohorts. 30 day all-cause mortality occurred in 5% and 4% of patients with consistent normokalaemia vs. consistent hypokalaemia, respectively (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.52-1.18; P = 0.241). HRs (95% CI) for 30 day mortality associated with discharge serum potassium <4.0 and <3.5 mmol/L were 0.90 (0.70-1.16; P = 0.419) and 1.69 (0.94-3.04; P = 0.078), respectively. Hypokalaemia (<4.0 or <3.5 mmol/L) had no association with long-term mortality or other outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalized older patients with HF, compared with normokalaemia (serum potassium 4.0-5.0 mmol/L), hypokalaemia (<4.0 or <3.5 mmol/L) had no significant associations with outcomes.

7.
Am J Med ; 133(10): 1187-1194, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Digoxin reduces the risk of heart failure hospitalization in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Less is known about this association in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), the examination of which was the objective of the current study. METHODS: In the Medicare-linked OPTIMIZE-HF registry, 7374 patients hospitalized for HF had ejection fraction ≥50% and were not receiving digoxin prior to admission. Of these, 5675 had a heart rate ≥50 beats per minute, an estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥30 mL/min/1.73 m2 or did not receive inpatient dialysis, and digoxin was initiated in 524 of these patients. Using propensity scores for digoxin initiation, calculated for each of the 5675 patients, we assembled a matched cohort of 513 pairs of patients initiated and not initiated on digoxin, balanced on 58 baseline characteristics (mean age, 80 years; 66% women; 8% African American). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for outcomes associated with digoxin initiation were estimated in the matched cohort. RESULTS: Among the 1026 matched patients with HFpEF, 30-day heart failure readmission occurred in 6% and 9% of patients initiated and not initiated on digoxin, respectively (HR 0.70; 95% CI, 0.45-1.10; P = .124). HRs (95% CIs) for 30-day all-cause readmission and all-cause mortality associated with digoxin initiation were 0.95 (0.73-1.23; P = .689) and 0.93 (0.55-1.56; P = .773), respectively. Digoxin initiation had no association with 6-year outcomes. CONCLUSION: Digoxin initiation prior to hospital discharge was not associated with 30-day or 6-year outcomes in older hospitalized patients with HFpEF.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Digoxina/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Mortalidade , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Volume Sistólico , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Pontuação de Propensão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Inibidores de Simportadores de Cloreto de Sódio e Potássio/uso terapêutico , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
8.
Am J Med ; 133(2): e25-e31, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) treatment trial, similar clinical benefits were observed between starting doses of enalapril and the target dose achieved by postrandomization up-titration. In our current analysis, protecting the randomization, we examined the early effects of starting doses of enalapril. METHODS: There were 2569 patients with mild-to-moderate chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (ejection fraction ≤35%) randomized to receive starting doses (5-10 mg/day) of placebo (n = 1284) or enalapril (n = 1285). At day 14, both study drugs were blindly up-titrated to the target dose (20 mg/day). Overall, 96% (2458/2569) of the patients returned for dose up-titration, which was achieved in 59% (1444/2458), 48% (696/1444) of whom were in the enalapril group. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for outcomes in the enalapril group were estimated. RESULTS: HRs (95% CIs) for all-cause mortality, heart failure hospitalization, and the combined endpoint of heart failure hospitalization or all-cause mortality at 14 days after randomization were 0.80 (0.32-2.03), 0.63 (0.35-1.12), and 0.65 (0.39-1.06), respectively. Corresponding HRs (95% CIs) at 30 days were 0.82 (0.41-1.67), 0.43 (0.27-0.68), and 0.43 (0.27-0.68), respectively. The magnitude of these early effects of starting doses of enalapril is similar to its previously reported long-term effects at the target dose. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that in stable ambulatory patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, the magnitude of the early effect of starting doses of enalapril is similar to that observed during longer-term therapy with the target doses of the drug.


Assuntos
Enalapril/administração & dosagem , Enalapril/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Doença Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Trends Cardiovasc Med ; 30(4): 223-229, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201005

RESUMO

Early generation left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) for treatment of refractory heart failure attempted to mimic the pulsatility of a native heart and were bulky and less durable due to valves within the inflow and outflow pathways. The next disruption came with the introduction of continuous flow pumps characterized by a low-pulse pressure circulation. Since the mechanism of action did not involve displacement of blood, these pumps were much smaller and less noisy in part due to fewer moving parts. Such devices include the HeartMate II axial-flow pathway pump which is implanted thoraco-abdominally and the HVAD, a centrifugal-flow pathway pump which is smaller and is implanted entirely within the thoracic cavity and uses a combination of hydrodynamic and magnetic levitation of the internal rotor. These pumps improved survival compared with the early generation LVADs and in a trial, the HVAD demonstrated non-inferiority compared with the HeartMate II but with an increase in ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. The HeartMate 3 LVAD is an intrapericardial centrifugal-flow pathway pump with a full magnetically levitated, frictionless rotor with a fixed intrinsic pulse. In a randomized trial, the HeartMate 3 "hybrid" pump was associated with near-elimination of pump thrombosis, a reduction in strokes of any type or severity and lower mucosal bleeding rates. Despite improvements in hemocompatibility, right heart failure and infections contribute to significant morbidity, and devices designed to be internally contained with a wireless power source and physiological flow characteristics are still required despite great strides in the field.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Coração Auxiliar/tendências , Magnetismo/tendências , Implantação de Prótese/tendências , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Animais , Difusão de Inovações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Desenho de Prótese/tendências , Implantação de Prótese/efeitos adversos , Implantação de Prótese/instrumentação , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Am J Ther ; 27(3): e235-e242, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30299270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEIs-ARBs) improve outcomes in heart failure (HF). Less is known about this association in nursing home (NH) residents. METHODS: Of the 8024 hospitalized HF patients, 542 were NH residents, of whom 250 received ACEIs-ARBs. We assembled a propensity score-matched cohort of 157 pairs of NH residents receiving and not receiving ACEIs-ARBs balanced on 29 baseline characteristics (mean age, 83 years, 74% women, 17% African American), in which we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for outcomes associated with ACEI-ARB use. We then checked for interaction in a matched cohort of 5130 patients (378 were NH residents) assembled from the 8024 patients. RESULTS: Among 314 matched NH residents, HRs (95% CIs) for 30-day all-cause readmission, HF readmission, and all-cause mortality were 0.78 (0.47-1.28), 0.68 (0.29-1.60), and 1.26 (0.70-2.27), respectively. Respective HRs (95% CIs) at 1 year were 0.76 (0.56-1.02), 0.68 (0.42-1.09), and 1.04 (0.78-1.38). Among 5130 matched patients, ACEI-ARB use was associated with a significantly lower risk of all outcomes at both times, with no significant interactions, except for 1-year mortality, which was only significant in the non-NH subgroup (P for interaction, 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that the use of ACEIs or ARBs is associated with improved outcomes in patients with HF in the NH setting. However, we also found no evidence that this association is different in NH residents with HF versus non-NH patients with HF. Future larger studies are needed to demonstrate effectiveness of these drugs in the NH setting.

11.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(24): 3054-3063, 2019 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: National guidelines recommend that systolic blood pressure (SBP) in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and hypertension be maintained below 130 mm Hg. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine associations of SBP <130 mm Hg with outcomes in patients with HFrEF. METHODS: Of the 25,345 patients in the Medicare-linked OPTIMIZE-HF registry, 10,535 had an ejection fraction (EF) ≤40%. Of these, 5,615 had stable SBP (≤20 mm Hg admission to discharge variation), and 3,805 (68%) had a discharge SBP <130 mm Hg. Propensity scores for SBP <130 mm Hg, estimated for each of the 5,615 patients, were used to assemble a matched cohort of 1,189 pairs of patients with SBP <130 versus ≥130 mm Hg, balanced on 58 baseline characteristics (mean age 76 years; mean EF 28%, 45% women, 13% African American). This process was repeated in 3,946 patients, after excluding 1,669 patients (30% of 5,615) with a discharge SBP <110 mm Hg and assembled a second matched balanced cohort of 1,099 pairs of patients with SBP 110 to 129 mm Hg versus ≥130 mm Hg. RESULTS: Thirty-day all-cause mortality occurred in 7% and 4% of matched patients with SBP <130 mm Hg versus ≥130 mm Hg, respectively (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24 to 2.48; p = 0.001). HRs (95% CIs) for all-cause mortality, all-cause readmission, and HF readmission at 1 year, associated with SBP <130 mm Hg, were 1.32 (1.15 to 1.53; p < 0.001), 1.11 (1.01 to 1.23; p = 0.030), and 1.24 (1.09 to 1.42; p = 0.001), respectively. HRs (95% CIs) for 30-day and 1-year all-cause mortality associated with SBP 110 to 129 mm Hg (vs. ≥130 mm Hg) were 1.50 (1.03 to 2.19; p = 0.035), and 1.19 (1.02 to 1.39; p = 0.029), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalized older patients with HFrEF, SBP <130 mm Hg is associated with poor outcomes. This association persisted when the analyses were repeated after excluding patients with SBP <110 mm Hg. There is an urgent need for randomized controlled trials to evaluate optimal SBP reduction goals in patients with HFrEF.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Volume Sistólico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Idoso , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
12.
Am J Med ; 132(11): 1311-1319, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure is a leading cause for hospital readmission. Digoxin use may lower this risk in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), but data on contemporary patients receiving other evidence-based therapies are lacking. METHODS: Of the 11,900 patients with HFrEF (ejection fraction ≤45%) in Medicare-linked OPTIMIZE-HF, 8401 were not on digoxin, of whom 1571 received discharge prescriptions for digoxin. We matched 1531 of these patients with 1531 not receiving digoxin by propensity scores for digoxin use. The matched cohort (n = 3062; mean age, 76 years; 44% women; 14% African American) was balanced on 52 baseline characteristics. We assembled a second matched cohort of 2850 patients after excluding those with estimated glomerular filtration rate <15 mL/min/1.73 m2 and heart rate <60 beats/min. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for digoxin-associated outcomes were estimated in the matched cohorts. RESULTS: Among the 3062 matched patients, digoxin use was associated with a significantly lower risk of heart failure readmission at 30 days (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.59-0.93), 1 year (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.72-0.92), and 6 years (HR, 0.90; 95% CI 0.81-0.99). The association with all-cause readmission was significant at 1 and 6 years but not 30 days. There was no association with mortality. Similar associations were observed among the 2850 matched patients without bradycardia or renal insufficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalized older patients with HFrEF receiving contemporary treatments for heart failure, digoxin use is associated with a lower risk of hospital readmission but not all-cause mortality.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Digoxina/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitalização , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pontuação de Propensão , Volume Sistólico , Estados Unidos
13.
Am J Cardiol ; 123(11): 1840-1844, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928031

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is the leading cause for 30-day all-cause readmission in older Medicare beneficiaries and 30-day all-cause readmission is associated with a higher risk of mortality. In the current analysis, we examined if that association varied by timing of 30-day all-cause readmission. Of the 8,049 Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized for HF, 1,688 had 30-day all-cause readmissions, of whom 1,519 were alive at 30 days. Of these, 626 (41%) had early (first 10 days) 30-day readmission. Propensity scores for early 30-day readmission, estimated for all 1,519 patients, were used to assemble a matched cohort of 596 pairs of patients with early versus late (11 to 30 days) all-cause readmission balanced on 34 baseline characteristics. Two-year all-cause mortality occurred in 51% and 57% of matched patients with early versus late 30-day all-cause readmissions, respectively (hazard ratio [HR] associated with late 30-day readmission, 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 1.42; p = 0.014). This association was not observed in the subset of 436 patients whose 30-day all-cause readmission was due to HF (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.28; p = 0.963), but was observed in the subset of 756 patients whose 30-day all-cause readmission was not due to HF (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.67; p = 0.002; p for interaction, 0.057). In conclusion, in a high-risk subset of older hospitalized HF patients readmitted within 30 days, readmission during 11 to 30 (vs 1 to 10) days was associated with a higher risk of death and this association appeared to be more pronounced in those readmitted for non-HF-related reasons.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Am J Med ; 132(1): 71-80.e1, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30240686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists or aldosterone antagonists in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is well known. Less is known about their effectiveness in real-world older patients with HFrEF. METHODS: Of the 8206 patients with heart failure and ejection fraction ≤35% without prior spironolactone use in the Medicare-linked OPTIMIZE-HF registry, 6986 were eligible for spironolactone therapy based on serum creatinine criteria (men ≤2.5 mg/dL, women ≤2.0 mg/dL) and 865 received a discharge prescription for spironolactone. Using propensity scores for spironolactone use, we assembled a matched cohort of 1724 (862 pairs) patients receiving and not receiving spironolactone, balanced on 58 baseline characteristics (Creatinine Cohort: mean age, 75 years, 42% women, 17% African American). We repeated the above process to assemble a secondary matched cohort of 1638 (819 pairs) patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (eGFR Cohort: mean age, 75 years, 42% women, 17% African American). RESULTS: In the matched Creatinine Cohort, spironolactone-associated hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for all-cause mortality, heart failure readmission, and combined endpoint of heart failure readmission or all-cause mortality were 0.92 (0.81-1.03), 0.87 (0.77-0.99), and 0.87 (0.79-0.97), respectively. Respective hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) in the matched eGFR Cohort were 0.87 (0.77-0.98), 0.92 (0.80-1.05), and 0.91 (0.82-1.02). CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide evidence of consistent, albeit modest, clinical effectiveness of spironolactone in older patients with HFrEF regardless of renal eligibility criteria used. Additional strategies are needed to improve the effectiveness of aldosterone antagonists in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Sistema de Registros , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Am J Med ; 131(12): 1473-1481, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30076815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beta-blockers in high target doses are recommended for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) but not for preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Treatment benefits are often more pronounced in high-risk subgroups, and patients with HFpEF with heart rate ≥70 beats per minute have emerged as such a high-risk subgroup. We examined the associations of high-dose beta-blocker use with outcomes in these patients. METHODS: Of the 8462 hospitalized patients with heart failure with ejection fraction ≥50% in the Medicare-linked Organized Program to Initiate Lifesaving Treatment in Hospitalized Patients with Heart Failure (OPTIMIZE-HF) registry, 5422 had a discharge heart rate ≥70 beats per minute. Of these, 4537 had no contraindications to beta-blocker use, of which 2797 (2592 with dose data) received prescriptions for beta-blockers. Of the 2592, 730 received high-dose beta-blockers, defined as atenolol ≥100 mg/day, carvedilol ≥50 mg/day, metoprolol tartrate or succinate ≥200 mg/day, or bisoprolol ≥10 mg/day, and 1740 received no beta-blockers. Using propensity scores for the receipt of high-dose beta-blockers, we assembled a matched cohort of 1280 patients, balanced on 58 characteristics. RESULTS: All-cause mortality occurred in 63% and 68% of matched patients receiving high-dose beta-blocker vs no beta-blocker, respectively, during 6 years (median, 2.8) of follow-up (hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.98; P = .027). The hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for all-cause readmission and the combined endpoint of all-cause readmission or all-cause mortality associated with high-dose beta-blocker use were 0.90 (0.81-1.02) and 0.89 (0.80-1.00), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with HFpEF and heart rate ≥70 beats per minute, high-dose beta-blocker use was associated with a significantly lower risk of death. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to examine this association.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Volume Sistólico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pontuação de Propensão
16.
Clin Cardiol ; 41(3): 406-412, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29569405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Digoxin use has been associated with a lower risk of 30-day all-cause admission and readmission in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). HYPOTHESIS: Digoxin use will be associated with improved outcomes in patients with HFrEF receiving ß-blockers. METHODS: Of the 3076 hospitalized Medicare beneficiaries with HFrEF (EF <45%), 1046 received a discharge prescription for ß-blockers, of which 634 were not on digoxin. Of the 634, 204 received a new discharge prescription for digoxin. Propensity scores for digoxin use, estimated for each of the 634 patients, were used to assemble a matched cohort of 167 pairs of patients receiving and not receiving digoxin, balanced on 30 baseline characteristics. Matched patients (n = 334) had a mean age of 74 years and were 46% female and 30% African American. RESULTS: 30-day all-cause readmission occurred in 15% and 27% of those receiving and not receiving digoxin, respectively (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.31-0.83, P = 0.007). This beneficial association persisted during 4 years of follow-up (HR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.57-0.92, P = 0.008). Digoxin use was also associated with a lower risk of the combined endpoint of all-cause readmission or all-cause mortality at 30 days (HR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.34-0.86, P = 0.009) and at 4 years (HR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.61-0.96, P = 0.020). CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalized patients with HFrEF receiving ß-blockers, digoxin use was associated with a lower risk of 30-day all-cause readmission but not mortality, which persisted during longer follow-up.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Digoxina/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Readmissão do Paciente/tendências , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Idoso , Alabama/epidemiologia , Cardiotônicos/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Quimioterapia Combinada , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
JAMA Cardiol ; 3(4): 288-297, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29450487

RESUMO

Importance: Lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels are associated with poor outcomes in patients with heart failure. Less is known about this association in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Objective: To determine the associations of SBP levels with mortality and other outcomes in HFpEF. Design, Setting, and Participants: A propensity score-matched observational study of the Medicare-linked Organized Program to Initiate Lifesaving Treatment in Hospitalized Patients with Heart Failure (OPTIMIZE-HF) registry included 25 354 patients who were discharged alive; 8873 (35.0%) had an ejection fraction of at least 50%, and of these, 3915 (44.1%) had stable SBP levels (≤20 mm Hg admission to discharge variation). Data were collected from 259 hospitals in 48 states between March 1, 2003, and December 31, 2004. Data were analyzed from March 1, 2003, to December 31, 2008. Exposure: Discharge SBP levels less than 120 mm Hg. A total of 1076 of 3915 (27.5%) had SBP levels less than 120 mm Hg, of whom 901 (83.7%) were matched by propensity scores with 901 patients with SBP levels of 120 mm Hg or greater who were balanced on 58 baseline characteristics. Main Outcomes and Measures: Thirty-day, 1-year, and overall all-cause mortality and heart failure readmission through December 31, 2008. Results: The 1802 matched patients had a mean (SD) age of 79 (10) years; 1147 (63.7%) were women, and 134 (7.4%) were African American. Thirty-day all-cause mortality occurred in 91 (10%) and 45 (5%) of matched patients with discharge SBP of less than 120 mm Hg vs 120 mm Hg or greater, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 2.07; 95% CI, 1.45-2.95; P < .001). Systolic blood pressure level less than 120 mm Hg was also associated with a higher risk of mortality at 1 year (39% vs 31%; HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.16-1.59; P < .001) and during a median follow-up of 2.1 (overall 6) years (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.05-1.30; P = .005). Systolic blood pressure level less than 120 mm Hg was associated with a higher risk of heart failure readmission at 30 days (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.08-2.01; P = .02) but not at 1 or 6 years. Hazard ratios for the combined end point of heart failure readmission or all-cause mortality associated with SBP level less than 120 mm at 30 days, 1 year, and overall were 1.71 (95% CI, 1.34-2.18; P < .001), 1.21 (95% CI, 1.07-1.38; P = .004), and 1.12 (95% CI, 1.01-1.24; P = .03), respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: Among hospitalized patients with HFpEF, an SBP level less than 120 mm Hg is significantly associated with poor outcomes. Future studies need to prospectively evaluate optimal SBP treatment goals in patients with HFpEF.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pontuação de Propensão , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco
18.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 20(2): 359-369, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28980368

RESUMO

AIMS: To examine associations of below-target and target dose of enalapril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, with outcomes in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) in the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) Treatment trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two thousand five hundred and sixty-nine patients with HFrEF (ejection fraction ≤35%) were randomized to below-target (5-10 mg/day) dose placebo (n = 1284) or enalapril (n = 1285). One month post-randomization, blind up-titration to target (20 mg/day) dose was attempted for both study drugs in 2458 patients. Among the 1444 patients who achieved dose up-titration (placebo, n = 748; enalapril, n = 696; mean dose for both groups, 20.0 mg/day), target dose enalapril (vs. target dose placebo) was associated with a 9% absolute lower risk of the combined endpoint of heart failure hospitalization or all-cause mortality [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.70; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60-0.81; P < 0.001] during 4 years of follow-up. Among the 1014 patients who could not achieve target dose (placebo, n = 486; enalapril, n = 528; mean dose for both groups, 8.8 mg/day), below-target dose enalapril (vs. below-target dose placebo) was associated with a 12% absolute lower risk of the combined endpoint of heart failure hospitalization or all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 0.68; 95% CI 0.57-0.81; P < 0.001). Among the 1224 patients receiving enalapril, target (vs. below-target) dose had no association with the combined endpoint of heart failure hospitalization or all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 1.04; 95% CI 0.87-1.23; P = 0.695). CONCLUSION: In patients with HFrEF, the clinical benefits of ACE inhibitors appear to be similar at both below-target and target doses.


Assuntos
Enalapril/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Canadá/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte/tendências , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 70(15): 1861-1871, 2017 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28982499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A lower heart rate is associated with better outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (EF). Less is known about this association in patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to examine associations of discharge heart rate with outcomes in hospitalized patients with HFpEF. METHODS: Of the 8,873 hospitalized patients with HFpEF (EF ≥50%) in the Medicare-linked OPTIMIZE-HF (Organized Program to Initiate Lifesaving Treatment in Hospitalized Patients with Heart Failure) registry, 6,286 had a stable heart rate, defined as ≤20 beats/min variation between admission and discharge. Of these, 2,369 (38%) had a discharge heart rate of <70 beats/min. Propensity scores for discharge heart rate <70 beats/min, estimated for each of the 6,286 patients, were used to assemble a cohort of 2,031 pairs of patients with heart rate <70 versus ≥70 beats/min, balanced on 58 baseline characteristics. RESULTS: The 4,062 matched patients had a mean age of 79 ± 10 years, 66% were women, and 10% were African American. During 6 years (median 2.8 years) of follow-up, all-cause mortality was 65% versus 70% for matched patients with a discharge heart rate <70 versus ≥70 beats/min, respectively (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.80 to 0.93; p < 0.001). A heart rate <70 beats/min was also associated with a lower risk for the combined endpoint of HF readmission or all-cause mortality (HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.84 to 0.96; p = 0.002), but not with HF readmission (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.85 to 1.01) or all-cause readmission (HR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.95 to 1.08). Similar associations were observed regardless of heart rhythm or receipt of beta-blockers. CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalized patients with HFpEF, a lower discharge heart rate was independently associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality, but not readmission.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Frequência Cardíaca , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Volume Sistólico , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Gravidade do Paciente , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Heart Fail Clin ; 13(3): 527-534, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28602370

RESUMO

Positive inotropic drugs have long been studied for their potential benefits in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Although there has been an extensive amount of research about the clinical effects of these drugs in general, few studies examined their effect in older patients. Therefore, there is little or no evidence to guide the use of positive inotropes in older patients with HFrEF. However, recommendations from national heart failure guidelines may be generalized to older HFrEF patients on an individual basis, taking into consideration the basic geriatric principles of pharmacotherapy: start low and go slow.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Cardiotônicos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Volume Sistólico
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