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1.
Cells ; 9(3)2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Development of radioresistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains a significant problem in cancer treatment, contributing to the lack of improvement in survival trends in recent decades. Effective strategies to overcome radioresistance are necessary to improve the therapeutic outcomes of radiotherapy in OSCC patients. METHODS: Cells and xenograft tumors were irradiated using the Small Animal Radiation Research Platform. AKT inhibitor capivasertib (AZD5363) was encapsulated into cathepsin B-responsible nanoparticles (NPs) for tumor-specific delivery. Cell viability was measured by alamarBlue, cell growth was determined by colony formation and 3D culture, and apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry with the staining of Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) Annexin V and PI. An orthotopic tongue tumor model was used to evaluate the in vivo therapeutic effects. The molecular changes induced by the treatments were assessed by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: We show that upregulation of AKT signaling is the critical mechanism for radioresistance in OSCC cells, and AKT inactivation by a selective and potent AKT inhibitor capivasertib results in radiosensitivity. Moreover, relative to irradiation (IR) alone, IR combined with the delivery of capivasertib in association with tumor-seeking NPs greatly enhanced tumor cell repression in 3D cell cultures and OSCC tumor shrinkage in an orthotopic mouse model. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that capivasertib is a potent agent that sensitizes radioresistant OSCC cells to IR and is a promising strategy to overcome failure of radiotherapy in OSCC patients.

2.
Ann Biomed Eng ; 48(4): 1230-1240, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916125

RESUMO

Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is an emerging technology for non-thermal ablation of solid tumors. This study sought to integrate electrodes into microporous poly(caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds previously shown to recruit metastasizing cancer cells in vivo in order to facilitate application of IRE to disseminating cancer cells. As the ideal parallel plate geometry would render much of the porous scaffold surface inaccessible to infiltrating cells, numerical modeling was utilized to predict the spatial profile of electric field strength within the scaffold for alternative electrode designs. Metal mesh electrodes with 0.35 mm aperture and 0.16 mm wire diameter established electric fields with similar spatial uniformity as the parallel plate geometry. Composite PCL-IRE scaffolds were fabricated by placing cylindrical porous PCL scaffolds between two PCL dip-coated stainless steel wire meshes. PCL-IRE scaffolds exhibited no difference in cell infiltration in vivo compared to PCL scaffolds. In addition, upon application of IRE in vivo, cells infiltrating the PCL-IRE scaffolds were successfully ablated, as determined by histological analysis 3 days post-treatment. The ability to establish homogeneous electric fields within a biomaterial that can recruit metastatic cancer cells, especially when combined with immunotherapy, may further advance IRE technology beyond solid tumors to the treatment of systemic cancer.

3.
Int J Hyperthermia ; 36(1): 130-138, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676126

RESUMO

Focal thermal therapy (Heat), cryosurgery (Cryo) and irreversible electroporation (IRE) are increasingly used to treat cancer. However, local recurrence and systemic spread are persistent negative outcomes. Nevertheless, emerging work with immunotherapies (i.e., checkpoint blockade or dendritic cell (DC) vaccination) in concert with focal therapies may improve outcomes. To understand the role of focal therapy in priming the immune system for immunotherapy, an in vitro model of T cell response after exposure to B16 melanoma cell lysates after lethal exposures was designed. Exposure included: Heat (50 °C, 30 min), Cryo (-80 °C, 30 min) and IRE (1250 V/cm, 99 pulses, 50 µs pulses with 1 Hz intervals). After viability assessment (CCK-8 assay), cell lysates were collected and assessed for protein release (BCA assay), protein denaturation (FTIR-spectroscopy), TRP-2 antigen release (western blot), and T cell activation (antigen-specific CD8 T cell proliferation). Results showed IRE released the most protein and antigen (TRP-2), followed by Cryo and Heat. In contrast, Cryo released the most native (not denatured) protein, compared to IRE and Heat. Finally, IRE dramatically outperformed both Cryo and Heat in T cell activation while Cryo modestly outperformed Heat. This study demonstrates that despite all focal therapies ability to destroy cells, the 'quantity' (i.e., amount) and 'quality' (i.e., molecular state) of tumor protein (including antigen) released can dramatically change the ensuing priming of the immune system. This suggests protein-based metrics whereby focal therapies can be designed to prime the immune system in concert with immunotherapies to eventually achieve improved and durable cancer treatment in vivo.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos
4.
J Soc Psychol ; 159(3): 284-298, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29634454

RESUMO

Previous research shows that people with high self-esteem cope with threats to the self by reducing the extent to which their self-worth is contingent on the threatened domain (Buckingham, Weber, & Sypher, 2012). The present studies tested the hypothesis that this is a defensive process. In support of this hypothesis, Study 1 (N = 160), showed that self-affirmation attenuates the tendency for people with high self-esteem to reduce their contingencies of self-worth following self-threat. Furthermore, Study 2 (N = 286), showed that this tendency was more prevalent among people with defensive self-esteem than among those with secure self-esteem. The present studies imply that reducing contingent self-worth after self-threat is a defensive process. We discuss implications for theories of contingent self-worth.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Mecanismos de Defesa , Autoimagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
5.
Pain ; 159(7): 1325-1345, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29561359

RESUMO

Molecular neurobiological insight into human nervous tissues is needed to generate next-generation therapeutics for neurological disorders such as chronic pain. We obtained human dorsal root ganglia (hDRG) samples from organ donors and performed RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to study the hDRG transcriptional landscape, systematically comparing it with publicly available data from a variety of human and orthologous mouse tissues, including mouse DRG (mDRG). We characterized the hDRG transcriptional profile in terms of tissue-restricted gene coexpression patterns and putative transcriptional regulators, and formulated an information-theoretic framework to quantify DRG enrichment. Relevant gene families and pathways were also analyzed, including transcription factors, G-protein-coupled receptors, and ion channels. Our analyses reveal an hDRG-enriched protein-coding gene set (∼140), some of which have not been described in the context of DRG or pain signaling. Most of these show conserved enrichment in mDRG and were mined for known drug-gene product interactions. Conserved enrichment of the vast majority of transcription factors suggests that the mDRG is a faithful model system for studying hDRG, because of evolutionarily conserved regulatory programs. Comparison of hDRG and tibial nerve transcriptomes suggests trafficking of neuronal mRNA to axons in adult hDRG, and are consistent with studies of axonal transport in rodent sensory neurons. We present our work as an online, searchable repository (https://www.utdallas.edu/bbs/painneurosciencelab/sensoryomics/drgtxome), creating a valuable resource for the community. Our analyses provide insight into DRG biology for guiding development of novel therapeutics and a blueprint for cross-species transcriptomic analyses.


Assuntos
Gânglios Espinais/metabolismo , Dor/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Neurociências , Dor/genética
6.
Cancer Res ; 73(1): 97-107, 2013 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23090117

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cell clearance of tumor cell emboli following surgery is thought to be vital in preventing postoperative metastases. Using a mouse model of surgical stress, we transferred surgically stressed NK cells into NK-deficient mice and observed enhanced lung metastases in tumor-bearing mice as compared with mice that received untreated NK cells. These results establish that NK cells play a crucial role in mediating tumor clearance following surgery. Surgery markedly reduced NK cell total numbers in the spleen and affected NK cell migration. Ex vivo and in vivo tumor cell killing by NK cells were significantly reduced in surgically stressed mice. Furthermore, secreted tissue signals and myeloid-derived suppressor cell populations were altered in surgically stressed mice. Significantly, perioperative administration of oncolytic parapoxvirus ovis (ORFV) and vaccinia virus can reverse NK cell suppression, which correlates with a reduction in the postoperative formation of metastases. In human studies, postoperative cancer surgery patients had reduced NK cell cytotoxicity, and we show for the first time that oncolytic vaccinia virus markedly increases NK cell activity in patients with cancer. These data provide direct in vivo evidence that surgical stress impairs global NK cell function. Perioperative therapies aimed at enhancing NK cell function will reduce metastatic recurrence and improve survival in surgical cancer patients.


Assuntos
Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Metástase Neoplásica/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Experimentais/imunologia , Neoplasias Experimentais/patologia , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/imunologia , Terapia Viral Oncolítica/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Animais , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Metástase Neoplásica/imunologia , Neoplasias Experimentais/cirurgia , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Vírus Oncolíticos , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia
7.
Altern Ther Health Med ; 13(2): 30-5, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17405676

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Patients often combine prescription medications with herbal and dietary substances (herein referred to as herbal medicines). A variety of potential adverse herb-drug interactions exist based on the pharmacological properties of herbal and prescription medications. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of potential and observed adverse herb-drug interactions in patients using herbal medicines with prescription medications. DESIGN: Consecutive patients were questioned about their use of herbal medicines in 6 outpatient clinics. Patients reporting use of these products provided a list of their prescription medications, which were reviewed for any potential adverse herb-drug interactions using a comprehensive natural medicine database. Any potential adverse herb-drug interactions prompted a review of the patient's chart for evidence of an observed adverse herb-drug interaction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The rate of potential and observed adverse herb-drug interactions. RESULTS: Eight hundred four patients were surveyed, and 122 (15%) used herbal medicines. Eighty-five potential adverse herb-drug interactions were found in 49 patients (40% of herbal medicine users). Twelve possible adverse herb-drug interactions in 8 patients (7% of herbal medicine users) were observed. In all 12 cases, the severity scores were rated as mild, including 8 cases of hypoglycemia in diabetics taking nopal (prickly pear cactus). CONCLUSIONS: A substantial number of potential adverse herb-drug interactions were detected and a small number of adverse herb-drug interactions observed, particularly in diabetics taking nopal. Screening for herbal medicine usage in 804 patients did not uncover any serious adverse interactions with prescription medications.


Assuntos
Interações Ervas-Drogas , Materia Medica/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/efeitos adversos , Fitoterapia/efeitos adversos , Plantas Medicinais/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Narração , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
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