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Am J Bot ; 105(11): 1888-1910, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30368769


PREMISE OF THE STUDY: We present the first plastome phylogeny encompassing all 77 monocot families, estimate branch support, and infer monocot-wide divergence times and rates of species diversification. METHODS: We conducted maximum likelihood analyses of phylogeny and BAMM studies of diversification rates based on 77 plastid genes across 545 monocots and 22 outgroups. We quantified how branch support and ascertainment vary with gene number, branch length, and branch depth. KEY RESULTS: Phylogenomic analyses shift the placement of 16 families in relation to earlier studies based on four plastid genes, add seven families, date the divergence between monocots and eudicots+Ceratophyllum at 136 Mya, successfully place all mycoheterotrophic taxa examined, and support recognizing Taccaceae and Thismiaceae as separate families and Arecales and Dasypogonales as separate orders. Only 45% of interfamilial divergences occurred after the Cretaceous. Net species diversification underwent four large-scale accelerations in PACMAD-BOP Poaceae, Asparagales sister to Doryanthaceae, Orchidoideae-Epidendroideae, and Araceae sister to Lemnoideae, each associated with specific ecological/morphological shifts. Branch ascertainment and support across monocots increase with gene number and branch length, and decrease with relative branch depth. Analysis of entire plastomes in Zingiberales quantifies the importance of non-coding regions in identifying and supporting short, deep branches. CONCLUSIONS: We provide the first resolved, well-supported monocot phylogeny and timeline spanning all families, and quantify the significant contribution of plastome-scale data to resolving short, deep branches. We outline a new functional model for the evolution of monocots and their diagnostic morphological traits from submersed aquatic ancestors, supported by convergent evolution of many of these traits in aquatic Hydatellaceae (Nymphaeales).

Especiação Genética , Genomas de Plastídeos , Magnoliopsida/genética , Filogenia , DNA Intergênico , Zingiberales/genética
Am J Bot ; 105(3): 480-494, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29730895


PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Phylogenomic studies employing large numbers of genes, including those based on plastid genomes (plastomes), are becoming common. Nonphotosynthetic plants such as mycoheterotrophs (which rely on root-associated fungi for essential nutrients, including carbon) tend to have highly elevated rates of plastome evolution, substantial genome reduction, or both. Mycoheterotroph plastomes therefore provide excellent test cases for investigating how extreme conditions impact phylogenomic inference. METHODS: We used parsimony and likelihood analysis of protein-coding gene sets from published and newly completed plastomes to infer the phylogenetic placement of taxa from the 10 angiosperm families in which mycoheterotrophy evolved. KEY RESULTS: Despite multiple very long branches that reflect elevated substitution rates, and frequently patchy gene recovery due to genome reduction, inferred phylogenetic placements of most mycoheterotrophic lineages in DNA-based likelihood analyses are both well supported and congruent with other studies. Amino-acid-based likelihood placements are broadly consistent with DNA-based inferences, but extremely rate-elevated taxa can have unexpected placements-albeit with weak support. In contrast, parsimony analysis is strongly misled by long-branch attraction among many distantly related mycoheterotrophic monocots. CONCLUSIONS: Mycoheterotrophic plastomes provide challenging cases for phylogenomic inference, as substitutional rates can be elevated and genome reduction can lead to sparse gene recovery. Nonetheless, diverse likelihood frameworks provide generally well-supported and mutually concordant phylogenetic placements of mycoheterotrophs, consistent with recent phylogenetic studies and angiosperm-wide classifications. Previous predictions of parallel photosynthesis loss within families are supported for Burmanniaceae, Ericaceae, Gentianaceae, and Orchidaceae. Burmanniaceae and Thismiaceae should not be combined as a single family in Dioscoreales.

Evolução Biológica , Genes de Plantas , Genomas de Plastídeos , Processos Heterotróficos/genética , Magnoliopsida/genética , Fotossíntese/genética , Filogenia , Aminoácidos/análise , DNA de Plantas/análise , Ericaceae/genética , Evolução Molecular , Fungos , Genoma de Planta , Genômica/métodos , Gentianaceae/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Orchidaceae/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
New Phytol ; 214(1): 48-55, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28067952


Contents 48 I. 48 II. 50 III. 53 54 References 54 SUMMARY: We examine recent evidence for ratchet-like genome degradation in mycoheterotrophs, plants that obtain nutrition from fungi. Initial loss of the NADH dehydrogenase-like (NDH) complex may often set off an irreversible evolutionary cascade of photosynthetic gene losses. Genes for plastid-encoded subunits of RNA polymerase and photosynthetic enzymes with secondary functions (Rubisco and ATP synthase) can persist initially, with nonsynchronous and quite broad windows in the relative timing of their loss. Delayed losses of five core nonbioenergetic genes (especially trnE and accD, which respectively code for glutamyl tRNA and a subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase) probably explain long-term persistence of heterotrophic plastomes. The observed range of changes of mycoheterotroph plastomes is similar to that of holoparasites, although greater diversity of both probably remains to be discovered. These patterns of gene loss/retention can inform research programs on plastome function.

Evolução Molecular , Fungos/fisiologia , Genomas de Plastídeos , Processos Heterotróficos/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Fotossíntese/genética
Am J Bot ; 103(4): 692-708, 2016 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27056932


PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Few-gene studies with broad taxon sampling have provided major insights into phylogeny and underpin plant classification. However, they have typically excluded heterotrophic plants because of loss, pseudogenization, or rapid evolution of plastid genes. Here we performed a phylogenetic survey of three commonly retained plastid genes to assess their utility in placing mycoheterotrophs. METHODS: We surveyed accD, clpP, and matK for 34 taxa from seven monocot families that include full mycoheterotrophs and a broad sampling of photosynthetic taxa. After screening for weak contaminants, we conducted phylogenetic analyses and characterized among-lineage rate variation. KEY RESULTS: Likelihood analyses strongly supported local placements of fully mycoheterotrophic taxa for Corsiaceae, Iridaceae, Orchidaceae, and Petrosaviaceae, in positions consistent with other studies. Depression of likelihood bootstrap support values near mycoheterotrophic clades was alleviated when each mycoheterotrophic family was considered separately. Triuridaceae (Sciaphila) monophyly was recovered in a partitioned likelihood analysis, and the family then placed as sister to Cyclanthaceae-Pandanaceae. Burmanniaceae placed in Dioscoreales with weak to strong support depending on analysis details, and we inferred a plastid-based phylogeny for the family. Thismiaceae species may retain a plastid genome, based on accD retention. The inferred position of Thismiaceae is unstable, but was close to Taccaceae (Dioscoreales) in some analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Long branches/elevated substitution rates, missing genes, and occasional contaminants are challenges for plastid-based phylogenetic inference with full mycoheterotrophs. However, most mycoheterotrophs can be readily integrated into the broad picture of plant phylogeny using several plastid genes and broad taxonomic sampling.

Genes de Plantas , Orchidaceae/genética , Filogenia , Plastídeos/genética , Fotossíntese/genética
Genome Biol Evol ; 7(8): 2220-36, 2015 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26170229


The enigmatic monocot family Triuridaceae provides a potentially useful model system for studying the effects of an ancient loss of photosynthesis on the plant plastid genome, as all of its members are mycoheterotrophic and achlorophyllous. However, few studies have placed the family in a comparative context, and its phylogenetic placement is only partly resolved. It was also unclear whether any taxa in this family have retained a plastid genome. Here, we used genome survey sequencing to retrieve plastid genome data for Sciaphila densiflora (Triuridaceae) and ten autotrophic relatives in the orders Dioscoreales and Pandanales. We recovered a highly reduced plastome for Sciaphila that is nearly colinear with Carludovica palmata, a photosynthetic relative that belongs to its sister group in Pandanales, Cyclanthaceae-Pandanaceae. This phylogenetic placement is well supported and robust to a broad range of analytical assumptions in maximum-likelihood inference, and is congruent with recent findings based on nuclear and mitochondrial evidence. The 28 genes retained in the S. densiflora plastid genome are involved in translation and other nonphotosynthetic functions, and we demonstrate that nearly all of the 18 protein-coding genes are under strong purifying selection. Our study confirms the utility of whole plastid genome data in phylogenetic studies of highly modified heterotrophic plants, even when they have substantially elevated rates of substitution.

Evolução Molecular , Genomas de Plastídeos , Magnoliopsida/genética , Seleção Genética , Tamanho do Genoma , Magnoliopsida/classificação , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia