Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 119
Filtrar
1.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480172

RESUMO

The concept of vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) derives from more than two decades of research indicating that (1) most older individuals with cognitive impairment have post mortem evidence of multiple contributing pathologies and (2) along with the preeminent role of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, cerebrovascular disease accounts for a substantial proportion of this contribution. Contributing cerebrovascular processes include both overt strokes caused by etiologies such as large vessel occlusion, cardioembolism, and embolic infarcts of unknown source, and frequently asymptomatic brain injuries caused by diseases of the small cerebral vessels. Cerebral small vessel diseases such as arteriolosclerosis and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, when present at moderate or greater pathologic severity, are independently associated with worse cognitive performance and greater likelihood of dementia, particularly in combination with AD and other neurodegenerative pathologies. Based on this evidence, the US National Alzheimer's Project Act explicitly authorized accelerated research in vascular and mixed dementia along with frontotemporal and Lewy body dementia and AD itself. Biomarker development has been consistently identified as a key step toward translating scientific advances in VCID into effective prevention and treatment strategies. Validated biomarkers can serve a range of purposes in trials of candidate interventions, including (1) identifying individuals at increased VCID risk, (2) diagnosing the presence of cerebral small vessel disease or specific small vessel pathologies, (3) stratifying study participants according to their prognosis for VCID progression or treatment response, (4) demonstrating an intervention's target engagement or pharmacodynamic mechanism of action, and (5) monitoring disease progression during treatment. Effective biomarkers allow academic and industry investigators to advance promising interventions at early stages of development and discard interventions with low success likelihood. The MarkVCID consortium was formed in 2016 with the goal of developing and validating fluid- and imaging-based biomarkers for the cerebral small vessel diseases associated with VCID. MarkVCID consists of seven project sites and a central coordinating center, working with the National Institute of Neurologic Diseases and Stroke and National Institute on Aging under cooperative agreements. Through an internal selection process, MarkVCID has identified a panel of 11 candidate biomarker "kits" (consisting of the biomarker measure and the clinical and cognitive data used to validate it) and established a range of harmonized procedures and protocols for participant enrollment, clinical and cognitive evaluation, collection and handling of fluid samples, acquisition of neuroimaging studies, and biomarker validation. The overarching goal of these protocols is to generate rigorous validating data that could be used by investigators throughout the research community in selecting and applying biomarkers to multi-site VCID trials. Key features of MarkVCID participant enrollment, clinical/cognitive testing, and fluid biomarker procedures are summarized here, with full details in the following text, tables, and supplemental material, and a description of the MarkVCID imaging biomarker procedures in a companion paper, "MarkVCID Cerebral small vessel consortium: II. Neuroimaging protocols." The procedures described here address a range of challenges in MarkVCID's design, notably: (1) acquiring all data under informed consent and enrollment procedures that allow unlimited sharing and open-ended analyses without compromising participant privacy rights; (2) acquiring the data in a sufficiently wide range of study participants to allow assessment of candidate biomarkers across the various patient groups who might ultimately be targeted in VCID clinical trials; (3) defining a common dataset of clinical and cognitive elements that contains all the key outcome markers and covariates for VCID studies and is realistically obtainable during a practical study visit; (4) instituting best fluid-handling practices for minimizing avoidable sources of variability; and (5) establishing rigorous procedures for testing the reliability of candidate fluid-based biomarkers across replicates, assay runs, sites, and time intervals (collectively defined as the biomarker's instrumental validity). Participant Enrollment Project sites enroll diverse study cohorts using site-specific inclusion and exclusion criteria so as to provide generalizable validation data across a range of cognitive statuses, risk factor profiles, small vessel disease severities, and racial/ethnic characteristics representative of the diverse patient groups that might be enrolled in a future VCID trial. MarkVCID project sites include both prospectively enrolling centers and centers providing extant data and samples from preexisting community- and population-based studies. With approval of local institutional review boards, all sites incorporate MarkVCID consensus language into their study documents and informed consent agreements. The consensus language asks prospectively enrolled participants to consent to unrestricted access to their data and samples for research analysis within and outside MarkVCID. The data are transferred and stored as a de-identified dataset as defined by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act Privacy Rule. Similar human subject protection and informed consent language serve as the basis for MarkVCID Research Agreements that act as contracts and data/biospecimen sharing agreements across the consortium. Clinical and Cognitive Data Clinical and cognitive data are collected across prospectively enrolling project sites using common MarkVCID instruments. The clinical data elements are modified from study protocols already in use such as the Alzheimer's Disease Center program Uniform Data Set Version 3 (UDS3), with additional focus on VCID-related items such as prior stroke and cardiovascular disease, vascular risk factors, focal neurologic findings, and blood testing for vascular risk markers and kidney function including hemoglobin A1c, cholesterol subtypes, triglycerides, and creatinine. Cognitive assessments and rating instruments include the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, and most of the UDS3 neuropsychological battery. The cognitive testing requires ≈60 to 90 minutes. Study staff at the prospectively recruiting sites undergo formalized training in all measures and review of their first three UDS3 administrations by the coordinating center. Collection and Handling of Fluid Samples Fluid sample types collected for MarkVCID biomarker kits are serum, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-plasma, platelet-poor plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with additional collection of packed cells to allow future DNA extraction and analyses. MarkVCID fluid guidelines to minimize variability include fasting morning fluid collections, rapid processing, standardized handling and storage, and avoidance of CSF contact with polystyrene. Instrumental Validation for Fluid-Based Biomarkers Instrumental validation of MarkVCID fluid-based biomarkers is operationally defined as determination of intra-plate and inter-plate repeatability, inter-site reproducibility, and test-retest repeatability. MarkVCID study participants both with and without advanced small vessel disease are selected for these determinations to assess instrumental validity across the full biomarker assay range. Intra- and inter-plate repeatability is determined by repeat assays of single split fluid samples performed at individual sites. Inter-site reproducibility is determined by assays of split samples distributed to multiple sites. Test-retest repeatability is determined by assay of three samples acquired from the same individual, collected at least 5 days apart over a 30-day period and assayed on a single plate. The MarkVCID protocols are designed to allow direct translation of the biomarker validation results to multicenter trials. They also provide a template for outside groups to perform analyses using identical methods and therefore allow direct comparison of results across studies and centers. All MarkVCID protocols are available to the biomedical community and intended to be shared. In addition to the instrumental validation procedures described here, each of the MarkVCID kits will undergo biological validation to determine whether the candidate biomarker measures important aspects of VCID such as cognitive function. Analytic methods and results of these validation studies for the 11 MarkVCID biomarker kits will be published separately. The results of this rigorous validation process will ultimately determine each kit's potential usefulness for multicenter interventional trials aimed at preventing or treating small vessel disease related VCID.

2.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33285630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that psychosocial factors are associated with cognitive health in older adults; however, associations of psychosocial factors with cognition remain largely unexamined in middle-aged and older Hispanics/Latinos. OBJECTIVE: To examine the cross-sectional associations of psychosocial factors with cognitive function among middle-aged and older Hispanics/Latinos living in the US. METHODS: Baseline (2008-2011) data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study (n = 2,818; ages 45-74) were used to examine the associations of each psychosocial factor with global cognition (GC), verbal learning, verbal memory, verbal fluency, and processing speed independent of age, sex, education, Hispanic/Latino background, income, language, and depressive symptoms. Psychosocial variables included: intrapersonal factors (ethnic identity, optimism, and purpose in life), interpersonal factors (family cohesion, familism, social network embeddedness, and social support), and social stressors (perceived ethnic discrimination, loneliness, and subjective social status). RESULTS: In fully-adjusted models, purpose in life and social support were each positively associated with all five cognitive variables. Loneliness was negatively associated with GC, verbal learning, memory, and processing speed. Ethnic identity was positively and familism negatively associated with GC, verbal fluency, and processing speed. Family cohesion was positively associated with verbal learning. CONCLUSION: These findings extend previous evidence from older, largely non-Hispanic White cohorts to show that higher purpose in life and social support are also strongly associated with cognitive health among middle-aged and older Hispanics/Latinos. We also highlight that intrapersonal factors, interpersonal factors, and social stressors have differential relationships with individual cognitive tests.

3.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 12: 553998, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33192454

RESUMO

Objectives: Non-Latino Black adults have greater risk for Alzheimer's dementia compared to non-Latino White adults, possibly due to factors disproportionally affecting Black adults including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Chronic peripheral inflammation is implicated in both Alzheimer's dementia and CVD and is known to impact cognition and cerebral white matter, yet little work has examined these associations by race. This study examined associations between inflammation, cognition, and cerebral white matter generally, and by race. Methods: Eighty-six non-demented older Black and White participants (age = 69.03; 50% female; 45% Black participants) underwent fasting venipuncture, cognitive testing, and MRI. Serum was assayed for interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin 1-beta. Cognitive domains included memory, executive function, and attention/information processing. MRI measures included white matter hyperintensity volumes (WMH) and quantification of white matter integrity in areas outside WMHs via DTI-derived fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity, as well as multi-component relaxometry derived myelin water fraction (MWF). Results: Black and White participants did not differ on age, sex, or CVD risk. Separate linear regression models adjusting for relevant confounders revealed that higher IL-6 associated with lower executive function and higher CRP levels associated with lower FA and MWF. Stratified analyses revealed that these association were significant for Black participants only. Discussion: These findings suggest that peripheral inflammation is inversely associated with select cognitive domains and white matter integrity (but not WMHs), particularly in older Black adults. It is important to consider race when investigating inflammatory associates of brain and behavior.

4.
Proc IEEE Int Symp Biomed Imaging ; 2020: 288-291, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173559

RESUMO

Diffusion MRI-derived brain structural network has been widely used in brain research and community or modular structure is one of popular network features, which can be extracted from network edge-derived pathlengths. Conceptually, brain structural network edges represent the connecting strength between pair of nodes, thus non-negative. The pathlength. Many studies have demonstrated that each brain network edge can be affected by many confounding factors (e.g. age, sex, etc.) and this influence varies on each edge. However, after applying generalized linear regression to remove those confounding's effects, some network edges may become negative, which leads to barriers in extracting the community structure. In this study, we propose a novel generalized framework to solve this negative edge issue in extracting the modular structure from brain structural network. We have compared our framework with traditional Q method. The results clearly demonstrated that our framework has significant advantages in both stability and sensitivity.

5.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155766

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) alleles are associated with cognitive decline, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease in Whites, but have weaker and inconsistent effects reported in Latinos. We hypothesized that this heterogeneity is due to ancestry-specific genetic effects. METHODS: We investigated the associations of the APOE alleles with significant cognitive decline and MCI in 4183 Latinos, stratified by six Latino backgrounds, and explored whether the proportion of continental genetic ancestry (European, African, and Amerindian) modifies these associations. RESULTS: APOE ε4 was associated with an increased risk of significant cognitive decline (odds ratio [OR] = 1.15, P-value = 0.03), with the strongest association in Cubans (OR = 1.46, P-value = 0.007). APOE-ε2 was associated with decreased risk of MCI (OR = 0.37, P-value = 0.04) in Puerto Ricans. Amerindian genetic ancestry was found to protect from the risk conferred by APOE ε4 on significant cognitive decline. DISCUSSION: Results suggest that APOE alleles' effects on cognitive outcomes differ across six Latino backgrounds and are modified by continental genetic ancestry.

6.
Neuropsychol Rev ; 30(4): 546-557, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011894

RESUMO

Recent reports suggest declines in the age-specific risk of Alzheimer's dementia in higher income Western countries. At the same time, investigators believe that worldwide trends of increasing mid-life modifiable risk factors [e.g., cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors] coupled with the growth of the world's oldest age groups may nonetheless lead to an increase in Alzheimer's dementia. Thus, understanding the overlap in neuroanatomical profiles associated with CVD risk factors and AD may offer more relevant targets for investigating ways to reduce the growing dementia epidemic than current targets specific to isolated AD-related neuropathology. We hypothesized that a core group of common brain structural alterations exist between CVD risk factors and Alzheimer's dementia. Two co-authors conducted independent literature reviews in PubMed using search terms for CVD risk factor burden (separate searches for 'cardiovascular disease risk factors', 'hypertension', and 'Type 2 diabetes') and 'aging' or 'Alzheimer's dementia' with either 'grey matter volumes' or 'white matter'. Of studies that reported regionally localized results, we found support for our hypothesis, determining 23 regions commonly associated with both CVD risk factors and Alzheimer's dementia. Within this context, we outline future directions for research as well as larger cerebrovascular implications for these commonalities. Overall, this review supports previous as well as more recent calls for the consideration that both vascular and neurodegenerative factors contribute to the pathogenesis of dementia.

7.
Prev Med Rep ; 20: 101190, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32995142

RESUMO

We assess whether the cross-sectional associations between moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and CVD risk factors are modified by various stress types. Complete baseline data from 4,000 participants, ages 18-74 years, of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study (HCHS/SOL SCAS) were analyzed using complex survey design methods. Accelerometer-measured MVPA was assessed continuously (average minutes per day). CVD risk factors assessed were diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and obesity. Stress was assessed using the Chronic Burden Scale for chronic stress, Traumatic Stress Schedule for traumatic stress, and the Perceived Stress Scale for perceived stress. Poisson regression models estimated prevalence ratios of CVD risk factors. The interaction was evaluated by cross-product terms with p <0.10. There was a significant interaction between chronic stress and MVPA among those with prevalent diabetes (pinteraction = 0.09). Among those reporting low chronic stress, higher MVPA was associated with a low prevalence of diabetes, however among those reporting high chronic stress, the prevalence of diabetes remained high even with higher MVPA. We did not observe interactions between chronic stress and MVPA for the remaining CVD risk factors, or interactions between traumatic stress or perceived stress and MVPA. This study provides initial evidence on the role of chronic stress on the association between MVPA and diabetes for Hispanic/Latino adults. Mostly, however, chronic stress, traumatic stress, and perceived stress did not modify the associations between MVPA and CVD risk factors for Hispanic/Latino adults.

8.
Neuroepidemiology ; 54(5): 404-418, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32906123

RESUMO

The Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center (RADC) conducts 5 harmonized prospective clinical-pathologic cohort studies of aging - with 1 study, the Latino Core, focused exclusively on Latinxs, 2 studies consisting of mostly non-Latinx whites, and 2 studies of mostly non-Latinx blacks. This paper contextualizes the Latino Core within the other 4 harmonized RADC cohort studies. The overall aim of the paper is to provide information from the RADC, so that researchers can learn from our participants and procedures to better advance the science of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias in Latinxs. We describe an annual clinical evaluation that assesses risk factors for Alzheimer's dementia among older adults without known dementia at enrollment. As all RADC cohort studies offer brain donation as a part of research participation, we discuss our approach to brain donation and subsequent participant decision-making among older Latinxs. We also summarize baseline characteristics of older Latinxs across the 5 RADC cohort studies in relation to the baseline characteristics of non-Latinx blacks and non-Latinx whites. Finally, we outline challenges and considerations as well as potential next steps in cognitive aging research with older Latinxs.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918471

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Latinos are 1.5 times as likely to develop Alzheimer's dementia as non-Latino Whites. This health disparity may arise from multiple influences with culturally-relevant factors receiving increasing attention. Models of acculturation stress the importance of considering acculturation-related factors within the context of socioenvironmental factors to better capture the Latino experience in the US. METHODS: We measured 10 acculturation and contextually-related variables in 199 Latinos (age~69.7yrs) without dementia participating in Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center studies. We tested the relationship between these variables via Principal Component Analysis (PCA); then investigated how resulting components associated with level of and longitudinal change in global and domain-specific cognition using separate linear mixed effects models adjusted for relevant confounders and their interactions with time. RESULTS: The PCA revealed a three factor unrotated solution (variance explained ~70%). Factor 1, representing acculturation-related aspects of nativity, language- and social-based acculturation, was positively associated with level, but not change, in global cognition, semantic memory, and perceptual speed. Factor 2, representing contextually-related socioenvironmental experiences of discrimination, social isolation, and social networks, was negatively associated with level of global cognition, episodic and working memory and faster longitudinal decline in visuospatial ability. Factor 3 (familism only) did not associate with level or change in any cognitive outcome. DISCUSSION: Acculturation- and contextually-related factors differentiated from each other and differentially contributed to cognition and cognitive decline in older Latinos. Providers should query acculturation and lived experiences when evaluating cognition in older Latinos.

10.
Alzheimers Dement (Amst) ; 12(1): e12055, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671181

RESUMO

Background: Practice effects (PEs) are improvements in performance after repeated exposure to test materials, and typically viewed as a source of bias in repeated cognitive assessments. We aimed to determine whether characterizing PEs could also provide a useful marker of early cognitive decline. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the literature, searching PsycInfo (Ebsco) and PubMed databases for articles studying PEs in aging and dementia populations. Articles published between 1920 and 2019 were included. Result: We identified 259 articles, of which 27 studied PEs as markers of cognitive performance. These studies consistently showed that smaller, less-robust PEs were associated with current diagnostic status and/or future cognitive decline. In addition, lower PEs were associated with Alzheimer's disease risk factors and neurodegeneration biomarkers. Conclusion: PEs provide a potentially useful marker of cognitive decline, and could prove valuable as part of a cost-effective strategy to select individuals who are at-risk for dementia for future interventions.

11.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720182

RESUMO

Self-reported experiences of discrimination are associated with a number of negative health outcomes. However, the neurobiological correlates of discrimination remain elusive. Recent neuroimaging work suggests that the amygdala is sensitive to forms of social adversity and the insula is involved in assessments of trust. We hypothesized that functional connectivity (FC) of these brain regions may be associated with discrimination in older Black adults. One-hundred and twenty-four nondemented older Black adults participating in the Minority Aging Research Study or the Clinical Core study of the Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center completed a measure of self-reported experiences of discrimination and a 3T MRI brain scan including structural T1 and resting-state fMRI EPIBOLD sequences. The right and left amygdala and insula regions were anatomically delineated as ROIs according to the Harvard-Oxford Brain Atlas and whole-brain voxelwise FC analyses were conducted using default parameters in the CONN toolbox. In regression analyses controlling for demographics and global cognition, self-reported experiences of discrimination were associated with greater FC between the left insula and the bilateral intracalcarine cortex, weaker FC between the left insula and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and weaker FC between the right insula and the left supplementary motor area. Amygdala analyses yielded no significant findings. Greater self-reported experiences of discrimination are associated with differential insula functional connectivity in older adults. More specifically, results suggest that discrimination is associated with differential connectivity of a key region (the insula) involved in trust perception.

12.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 245, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699239

RESUMO

Cognitive function such as reasoning, attention, memory, and language is strongly correlated with brain aging. Compared to non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics/Latinos have a higher risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. The genetic determinants of cognitive function have not been widely explored in this diverse and admixed population. We conducted a genome-wide association analysis of cognitive function in up to 7600 middle aged and older Hispanics/Latinos (mean = 55 years) from the Hispanic Community Health Study / Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). Four cognitive measures were examined: the Brief Spanish English Verbal Learning Test (B-SEVLT), the Word Fluency Test (WFT), the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), the Six-Item Screener (SIS). Four novel loci were identified: one for B-SEVLT at 4p14, two for WFT at 3p14.1 and 6p21.32, and one for DSST at 10p13. These loci implicate genes highly expressed in brain and previously connected to neurological diseases (UBE2K, FRMD4B, the HLA gene complex). By applying tissue-specific gene expression prediction models to our genotype data, additional genes highly expressed in brain showed suggestive associations with cognitive measures possibly indicating novel biological mechanisms, including IFT122 in the hippocampus for SIS, SNX31 in the basal ganglia for B-SEVLT, RPS6KB2 in the frontal cortex for WFT, and CSPG5 in the hypothalamus for DSST. These findings provide new information about the genetic determinants of cognitive function in this unique population. In addition, we derived a measure of general cognitive function based on these cognitive tests and generated genome-wide association summary results, providing a resource to the research community for comparison, replication, and meta-analysis in future genetic studies in Hispanics/Latinos.

13.
J Neuropsychol ; 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394540

RESUMO

We sought to determine if Parkinson's disease (PD) with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with a greater SERIAL-ORDER (mental manipulation) than ANY-ORDER (auditory span, storage) deficit in working memory (WM). We investigated WM combining neuropsychological measures with the study of brain functional connectivity. A cohort of 160 patients with idiopathic PD, classified as PD-MCI (n = 87) or PD with normal cognition (PD-NC; n = 73), and 70 matched healthy controls were studied. Verbal WM was assessed with the Backward Digit Span Task (BDT; Lamar et al., 2007, Neuropsychologia, 45, 245), measuring SERIAL-ORDER and ANY-ORDER recall. Resting-state MRI data were collected for 15 PD-MCI, 15 PD-NC and 30 controls. Hypothesis-driven seed-based functional connectivity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was compared between the three groups and correlated with BDT performance. We found the main effect of the test (impairment in SERIAL ORDER > ANY ORDER) and group ((NC = PD-NC) > PD-MCI) in BDT performance that was even more pronounced in SERIAL ORDER when controlling for ANY ORDER variability but not vice versa. Furthermore, PD-MCI compared to other groups were characterized by the functional disconnection between the bilateral DLPFC and the cerebellum. In functional correlations, DLPFC connectivity was positively related to both SERIAL- and ANY-ORDER performance. In conclusion, PD-MCI patients evidenced greater SERIAL-ORDER (manipulation and cognitive control) than ANY-ORDER (storage) working memory impairment than PD-NC and controls with a disrupted DLPFC resting-state connectivity that was also related to the verbal WM performance.

14.
Front Psychol ; 11: 361, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210882

RESUMO

A cognitive assessment strategy that is not limited to examining a set of summary test scores may be more helpful for early detection of emergent illness such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may permit a better understanding of cognitive functions and dysfunctions in those with AD and other dementia disorders. A revisit of the work already undertaken by Kaplan and colleagues using the Boston Process-Approach provides a solid basis for identifying new opportunities to capture data on neurocognitive processes, test-taking strategies and response styles. Thus, this critical review will combine traditional process-based assessment strategies with support provided or offered by newer technologies that have the potential to add value to data collection and interpretation. There is now considerable interest in neuropsychological test administration using computer/digital technology, both in research and in clinical settings. To add value, any computerized version of an existing cognitive test should respect the administration procedure for which normative data were obtained, should be time-saving in terms of scoring and interpretation, and should, we argue, facilitate gathering information about the processes and strategies followed in test completion. This article will offer an overview of the steps needed when implementing computerization of neuropsychological tests using a Process-Based Approach (PBA) to these technology-based adaptations and will discuss further developments in this area by linking it to future technological developments that may be possible in the area of neuropsychological assessment. Additionally, an overview of neuropsychological tests that may benefit from computerization will be presented, together with suggestions on the specific processes, strategies and features that may be captured with the aid of such computerization. Finally, hypotheses on how virtual reality could be an asset for the future of the PBA to neuropsychological assessment will also be discussed.

15.
Diabetes Care ; 43(5): 1111-1117, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139382

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hispanics/Latinos are the largest ethnic/racial group in the U.S., have the highest prevalence of diabetes, and are at increased risk for neurodegenerative disorders. Currently, little is known about the relationship between diabetes and cognitive decline and disorders among diverse Hispanics/Latinos. The purpose of this study is to clarify these relationships in diverse middle-aged and older Hispanics/Latinos. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The Study of Latinos-Investigation of Neurocognitive Aging (SOL-INCA) is an ancillary study of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). HCHS/SOL is a multisite (Bronx, NY; Chicago, IL; Miami, FL; and San Diego, CA), probability-sampled (i.e., representative of targeted populations), and prospective cohort study. Between 2016 and 2018, SOL-INCA enrolled diverse Hispanics/Latinos aged ≥50 years (n = 6,377). Global cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were the primary outcomes. RESULTS: Prevalent diabetes at visit 1, but not incident diabetes at visit 2, was associated with significantly steeper global cognitive decline (ßGC = -0.16 [95% CI -0.25; -0.07]; P < 0.001), domain-specific cognitive decline, and higher odds of MCI (odds ratio 1.74 [95% CI 1.34; 2.26]; P < 0.001) compared with no diabetes in age- and sex-adjusted models. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes was associated with cognitive decline and increased MCI prevalence among diverse Hispanics/Latinos, primarily among those with prevalent diabetes at visit 1. Our findings suggest that significant cognitive decline and MCI may be considered additional disease complications of diabetes among diverse middle-aged and older Hispanics/Latinos.

16.
J Nutr ; 150(6): 1478-1487, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32091597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diet quality may be an important area of focus for promoting cognitive health; however, the association between diet quality and cognitive function among Hispanics/Latinos remains largely unexamined. We hypothesized that a healthier diet quality will be associated with better cognitive function in middle-aged and older Hispanics/Latinos. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine associations between the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI-2010), a measure of diet quality, and cognitive function in middle-aged and older Hispanics/Latinos. METHODS: Data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) Visit 1 (2008-2011) were used (n = 8461; ages 45-74 y). Cognitive function was assessed with tests of verbal learning and memory, verbal fluency, and processing speed; a global cognition score was derived by summing the z scores of individual tests. Dietary intake was assessed via two 24-h recalls. Total AHEI-2010 score was categorized into quintiles (higher quintiles indicating healthier diet). Linear regression models were used to examine associations between AHEI-2010 quintiles and cognitive function adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, daily energy intake, type 2 diabetes, smoking, and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Compared with the lowest quintile, in the second to fourth AHEI-2010 quintiles, global cognition scores were significantly higher by 0.28, 0.52, and 0.48 units (P-trend = 0.042). In the second to fifth AHEI-2010 quintiles, verbal learning scores were significantly higher by 0.60, 0.62, 0.92, and 0.88 units, and verbal memory scores were higher by 0.33, 0.40, 0.52, and 0.46 units (P-trend = 0.020 and 0.007, respectively). No associations were observed between the AHEI-2010 and verbal fluency or processing speed (P-trend = 0.49 and 0.84, respectively). Among AHEI-2010 components, adequate consumption of vegetables, alcohol, and whole fruits were each associated with better cognitive function. CONCLUSIONS: An overall healthier diet quality was associated with better global cognition, verbal learning, and verbal memory in middle-aged and older Hispanics/Latinos.


Assuntos
Cognição , Dieta Saudável , Hispano-Americanos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
17.
J Clin Exp Neuropsychol ; 42(3): 319-328, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31973657

RESUMO

Introduction: The Oblique Effect denotes superior performance for perceiving horizontal or vertical rather than diagonal or oblique stimuli. The current research investigated responding to oblique test stimuli in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).Method: Four statistically-determined groups (n = 112) were studied; patients with little to no cognitive impairment (non-MCI, n = 39); subtle cognitive impairment (SCI, n = 15); amnestic MCI (aMCI, n = 28); and a combined mixed/dysexecutive MCI (mixed/dys MCI, n = 30). The ability to respond to oblique versus non-oblique test stimuli was assessed using the Judgment of Line Orientation Test (JOLO). Comprehensive neuropsychological assessment was also obtained. Between-group differences for JOLO oblique and non-oblique test stimuli were analyzed. Hierarchical linear regression models were constructed to identify relations between accuracy for oblique and non-oblique test items and neurocognitive domains.Results: The mixed/dys MCI group demonstrated lower accuracy for oblique test items compared to non-MCI patients. Accurate responding to oblique test items was associated with better performance on tests measuring executive control, processing speed, naming/lexical retrieval, and verbal concept formation. No between-group differences were seen for non-oblique items and these items were not associated with cognition.Conclusions:Significant impairment on oblique test items distinguished patients with multi-domain/dysexecutive MCI from non-MCI patients. Accurate responding to oblique test items was associated with a complex array of neuropsychological tests suggesting that multidimensional neuropsychological skills underlie the visuospatial reasoning abilities necessary for successful oblique line identification. Research associating responding to oblique versus non-oblique test stimuli using additional neuropsychological test paradigms, and MRI-defined neuroanatomical regions of interest may provide additional information about the brain-behavior relations that underlie MCI subtypes.

18.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 55(6): 685-696, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974810

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine cross-sectional associations between perceived neighborhood environment and cognitive function among middle-aged and older Hispanic/Latino women and men. METHODS: Data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (2008-2011) and its Sociocultural Ancillary Study (2009-2010) were used. Participants were Hispanic/Latino women (n = 1812) and men (n = 1034) aged 45-74 years. Survey-weighted linear regression models were used to examine associations between self-reported perceived neighborhood environment (i.e., neighborhood social cohesion and problems categorized as quintiles, and neighborhood safety from crime categorized as low, medium, or high) with cognitive function (i.e., global cognition, verbal learning, memory, verbal fluency, and processing speed scores) in women and men. Final model adjusted for age, Hispanic/Latino background, language, field site, household income, education, years lived in neighborhood, and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Women in the lowest quintile of perceived neighborhood problems (vs. highest quintile) had higher global cognition (ß 0.48, 95% CI 0.03, 0.94, p trend 0.229) and memory scores (0.60, 95% CI 0.11, 1.09, p trend: 0.060). Women in the highest quintile of perceived neighborhood social cohesion (vs. lowest quintile) had lower global cognition (ß - 0.56, 95% CI - 1.02, - 0.09, p trend 0.004), verbal learning (B - 1.01, 95% CI - 2.00, - 0.03, p trend 0.015), verbal fluency (B - 2.00, 95% CI - 3.83, - 0.16, p trend 0.006), and processing speed (B - 2.11, 95% CI - 3.87, - 0.36, p trend 0.009). There was no association between perceived neighborhood safety from crime and cognition among women, or between any perceived neighborhood environment measure and cognition among men. CONCLUSIONS: Middle-aged and older Hispanic/Latina women living in neighborhoods with the lowest perceived problems had higher global cognition and memory. Women living in neighborhoods with the highest perceived social cohesion had lower global cognition, verbal learning, verbal fluency, and processing speed.


Assuntos
Cognição , Depressão/epidemiologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Características de Residência , Capital Social , Idoso , Crime/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 75(7): e81-e92, 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882155

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Investigate associations of early-life residence and school segregation with cognitive change in the Minority Aging Research Study. METHODS: Four hundred ninety-eight blacks (age ~ 73.5; 75% = women) without dementia at baseline self-reported State of birth, residence at age 12, and school segregation status. Census Bureau definitions of South and Northeast/Midwest were used to categorize early-life residence. We evaluated global cognition and five cognitive domains at baseline and annually for ~7.5 years. Linear mixed effects models examined the associations of region of birth and residence at age 12 with baseline level and longitudinal change in cognition. Additional models examined school segregation experience. RESULTS: ~65% of Southern-born participants still lived in the South at age 12. Southern birth was associated with lower baseline global cognition and all cognitive domains (p-values ≤ .02) compared to Northern birth, but not cognitive change. A similar profile was seen for Southern residence at age 12. Segregation experience significantly modified associations of residence at age 12 on levels of cognition. Participants residing in the South attending a legally desegregated school demonstrated lower baseline levels of cognition (global, semantic, and working memory) than their Northeast/Midwest counterparts attending a legally desegregated or segregated school as well as their Southern counterparts attending a legally segregated school. This profile for participants attending a desegregated school in the South held for processing speed and visuospatial ability in comparisons to Northeast/Midwest counterparts, particularly those attending a legally desegregated school. CONCLUSION: Baseline cognition was poorer in individuals born and residing in the South, particularly those attending desegregated schools at age 12.

20.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 73(1): 103-116, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is linked to cognitive decline and disorders (e.g., dementia). The evidence is based largely on older non-Latino White cohorts. OBJECTIVE: Examine the association between global vascular risk and cognitive function among Hispanics/Latinos in the United States. METHODS: We used data from a large sample of stroke- and cardiovascular disease-free, middle-aged and older Hispanics/Latinos with diverse backgrounds (n=7,650) from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). We compared associations between two measures of cardiovascular risk (CVR), the Framingham Cardiovascular Risk Score (FCRS) and the multiethnic Global Vascular Risk Score (GVRS), and cognitive performance using measures of global and domain specific cognitive function, and tested for modification by sex and age. RESULTS: Higher FCRS and GVRS were associated with lower global cognition and higher probability of low mental status, after covariates adjustment. Both CVR indices were associated with lower performances in learning and memory, verbal fluency, and psychomotor speed. Higher GVRS presented stronger associations with lower cognitive function compared to the FCRS. Women and younger age (45-64 years) exhibited more pronounced associations between higher CVR and worse cognition, particularly so with the GVRS. DISCUSSION: CVR is also a risk for compromised cognitive function and evident in middle-age among Hispanics/Latinos. The multiethnic GVRS, tailored to specific risks based on racial/ethnic background, is feasible to use in primary care settings and can provide important insight on cognitive risk. Even modest shifts in population toward cardiovascular health in the high-risk Hispanic/Latino population can have important positive impacts on healthy cognitive aging.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA