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1.
Lancet ; 395(10222): 441-448, 2020 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with Achilles tendon rupture who have non-operative treatment have traditionally been treated with immobilisation of the tendon in plaster casts for several weeks. Functional bracing is an alternative non-operative treatment that allows earlier mobilisation, but evidence on its effectiveness and safety is scarce. The aim of the UKSTAR trial was to compare functional and quality-of-life outcomes and resource use in patients treated non-operatively with plaster cast versus functional brace. METHODS: UKSTAR was a pragmatic, superiority, multicentre, randomised controlled trial done at 39 hospitals in the UK. Patients (aged ≥16 years) who were being treated non-operatively for a primary Achilles tendon rupture at the participating centres were potentially eligible. The exclusion criteria were presenting more than 14 days after injury, previous rupture of the same Achilles tendon, or being unable to complete the questionnaires. Eligible participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive a plaster cast or functional brace using a centralised web-based system. Because the interventions were clearly visible, neither patients nor clinicians could be masked. Participants wore the intervention for 8 weeks. The primary outcome was patient-reported Achilles tendon rupture score (ATRS) at 9 months, analysed in the modified intention-to-treat population (all patients in the groups to which they were allocated, excluding participants who withdrew or died before providing any outcome data). The main safety outcome was the incidence of tendon re-rupture. Resource use was recorded from a health and personal social care perspective. The trial is registered with ISRCTN, ISRCTN62639639. FINDINGS: Between Aug 15, 2016, and May 31, 2018, 1451 patients were screened, of whom 540 participants (mean age 48·7 years, 79% male) were randomly allocated to receive plaster cast (n=266) or functional brace (n=274). 527 (98%) of 540 were included in the modified intention-to-treat population, and 13 (2%) were excluded because they withdrew or died before providing any outcome data. There was no difference in ATRS at 9 months post injury (cast group n=244, mean ATRS 74∙4 [SD 19∙8]; functional brace group n=259, ATRS 72∙8 [20∙4]; adjusted mean difference -1∙38 [95% CI -4∙9 to 2∙1], p=0·44). There was no difference in the rate of re-rupture of the tendon (17 [6%] of 266 in the plaster cast group vs 13 [5%] of 274 in the functional brace group, p=0·40). The mean total health and personal social care cost was £1181 for the plaster cast group and £1078 for the functional bract group (mean between-group difference -£103 [95% CI -289 to 84]). INTERPRETATION: Traditional plaster casting was not found to be superior to early weight-bearing in a functional brace, as measured by ATRS, in the management of patients treated non-surgically for Achilles tendon rupture. Clinicians may consider the use of early weight-bearing in a functional brace as a safe and cost-effective alternative to plaster casting. FUNDING: UK National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment Programme.

2.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 20(1): 19, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are a growing number of studies using mediation analysis to understand the mechanisms of health interventions and exposures. Recent work has shown that the reporting of these studies is heterogenous and incomplete. This problem stifles clinical application, reproducibility, and evidence synthesis. This paper describes the processes and methods that will be used to develop a guideline for reporting studies of mediation analyses (AGReMA). METHODS/DESIGN: AGReMA will be developed over five overlapping stages. Stage one will comprise a systematic review to examine relevant evidence on the quality of reporting in published studies that use mediation analysis. In the second stage we will consult a group of methodologists and applied researchers by using a Delphi process to identify items that should be considered for inclusion in AGReMA. The third stage will involve a consensus meeting to consolidate and prioritise key items to be included in AGReMA. The fourth stage will involve the production of AGReMA and an accompanying explanation and elaboration document. In the final stage we will disseminate the AGReMA statement via journals, conferences, and professional meetings across multiple disciplines. DISCUSSION: The development and implementation of AGReMA will improve the standardization, transparency, and completeness in the reporting of studies that use mediation analysis to understand the mechanisms of health interventions and exposures.

3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD010569, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hip fracture is a major injury that causes significant problems for affected individuals and their family and carers. Over 40% of people with hip fracture have dementia or cognitive impairment. The outcomes of these individuals after surgery are poorer than for those without dementia. It is unclear which care and rehabilitation interventions achieve the best outcomes for these people. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2013. OBJECTIVES: (a) To assess the effectiveness of models of care including enhanced rehabilitation strategies designed specifically for people with dementia following hip fracture surgery compared to usual care. (b) To assess for people with dementia the effectiveness of models of care including enhanced rehabilitation strategies that are designed for all older people, regardless of cognitive status, following hip fracture surgery, compared to usual care. SEARCH METHODS: We searched ALOIS (www.medicine.ox.ac.uk/alois), the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), PsycINFO (OvidSP), CINAHL (EBSCOhost), Web of Science Core Collection (ISI Web of Science), LILACS (BIREME), ClinicalTrials.gov, and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform on 16 October 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of any model of enhanced care and rehabilitation for people with dementia after hip fracture surgery compared to usual care. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion and extracted data. We assessed risk of bias of the included trials. We synthesised data only if we considered the trials to be sufficiently homogeneous in terms of participants, interventions, and outcomes. We used the GRADE approach to rate the overall certainty of evidence for each outcome. MAIN RESULTS: We included seven trials with a total of 555 participants. Three trials compared models of enhanced care in the inpatient setting with conventional care. Two trials compared an enhanced care model provided in inpatient settings and at home after discharge with conventional care. Two trials compared geriatrician-led care in-hospital to conventional care led by the orthopaedic team. None of the interventions were designed specifically for people with dementia, therefore the data included in the review were from subgroups of people with dementia or cognitive impairment participating in randomised controlled trials investigating models of care for all older people following hip fracture. The end of follow-up in the trials ranged from the point of acute hospital discharge to 24 months after discharge. We considered all trials to be at high risk of bias in more than one domain. As subgroups of larger trials, the analyses lacked power to detect differences between the intervention groups. Furthermore, there were some important differences in baseline characteristics of participants between the experimental and control groups. Using the GRADE approach, we downgraded the certainty of the evidence for all outcomes to low or very low. The effect estimates for almost all comparisons were very imprecise, and the overall certainty for most results was very low. There were no data from any study for our primary outcome of health-related quality of life. There was only very low certainty for our other primary outcome, activities of daily living and functional performance, therefore we were unable to draw any conclusions with confidence. There was low-certainty that enhanced care and rehabilitation in-hospital may reduce rates of postoperative delirium (odds ratio 0.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01 to 0.22, 2 trials, n = 141) and very low-certainty associating it with lower rates of some other complications. There was also low-certainty that, compared to orthopaedic-led management, geriatrician-led management may lead to shorter hospital stays (mean difference 4.00 days, 95% CI 3.61 to 4.39, 1 trial, n = 162). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found limited evidence that some of the models of enhanced rehabilitation and care used in the included trials may show benefits over usual care for preventing delirium and reducing length of stay for people with dementia who have been treated for hip fracture. However, the certainty of these results is low. Data were available from only a small number of trials, and the certainty for all other results is very low. Determining the optimal strategies to improve outcomes for this growing population of patients should be a research priority.

4.
Trials ; 21(1): 83, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bayesian adaptive designs can be more efficient than traditional methods for multi-arm randomised controlled trials. The aim of this work was to demonstrate how Bayesian adaptive designs can be constructed for multi-arm phase III clinical trials and assess potential benefits that these designs offer. METHODS: We constructed several alternative Bayesian adaptive designs for the Collaborative Ankle Support Trial (CAST), which was a randomised controlled trial that compared four treatments for severe ankle sprain. These designs incorporated response adaptive randomisation (RAR), arm dropping, and early stopping for efficacy or futility. We studied the operating characteristics of the Bayesian designs via simulation. We then virtually re-executed the trial by implementing the Bayesian adaptive designs using patient data sampled from the CAST study to demonstrate the practical applicability of the designs. RESULTS: We constructed five Bayesian adaptive designs, each of which had high power and recruited fewer patients on average than the original designs target sample size. The virtual executions showed that most of the Bayesian designs would have led to trials that declared superiority of one of the interventions over the control. Bayesian adaptive designs with RAR or arm dropping were more likely to allocate patients to better performing arms at each interim analysis. Similar estimates and conclusions were obtained from the Bayesian adaptive designs as from the original trial. CONCLUSIONS: Using CAST as an example, this case study shows how Bayesian adaptive designs can be constructed for phase III multi-arm trials using clinically relevant decision criteria. These designs demonstrated that they can potentially generate earlier results and allocate more patients to better performing arms. We recommend the wider use of Bayesian adaptive approaches in phase III clinical trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CAST study registration ISRCTN, ISRCTN37807450. Retrospectively registered on 25 April 2003.

5.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(1): 42-47, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31888361

RESUMO

AIMS: Patient engagement in adaptive health behaviours and interactions with their healthcare ecosystem can be measured using self-reported instruments, such as the Patient Activation Measure (PAM-13) and the Effective Consumer Scale (ECS-17). Few studies have investigated the influence of patient engagement on limitations (patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs)) and patient-reported experience measures (PREMs). First, we assessed whether patient engagement (PAM-13, ECS-17) within two to four weeks of an upper limb fracture was associated with limitations (the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (QuickDASH), and Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System Upper Extremity Physical Function computer adaptive test (PROMIS UE PF) scores) measured six to nine months after fracture, accounting for demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors. Secondly, we assessed the association between patient engagement and experience (numerical rating scale for satisfaction with care (NRS-C) and satisfaction with services (NRS-S) six to nine months after fracture. METHODS: A total of 744 adults with an isolated fracture of the proximal humerus, elbow, or distal radius completed PROMs. Due to multicollinearity of patient engagement and psychosocial variables, we generated a single variable combining measures of engagement and psychosocial factors using factor analysis. We then performed multivariable analysis with p < 0.10 on bivariate analysis. RESULTS: Patient engagement and psychosocial factors combined to form a single factor (factor 1) accounting for 20% (QuickDASH, semi-partial R2 = 0.20) and 14% (PROMIS UE PF, semi-partial R2 = 0.14) of the variation in limitations six to nine months after fracture. Factor 1 also accounted for 17% (NRS-C, semi-partial R2 = 0.17) of variation in satisfaction with care, and 21% (NRS-S, semi-partial R2 = 0.21) of variation in satisfaction with services. Demographic factors (age, sex, work status) and measures of greater pathophysiology (type of fracture, high-energy injury, post-surgical complications), accounted for much less variation. CONCLUSION: Patients who actively manage their health and demonstrate effective emotional and social functioning share a common underlying trait. They have fewer limitations and greater satisfaction with care during recovery from upper limb fractures. Future efforts should focus on evaluating initiatives that optimize patient engagement, such as patient education, coaching, and a communication strategy for healthcare professionals. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(1):42-47.


Assuntos
Articulação do Cotovelo/lesões , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Fraturas do Úmero/cirurgia , Fraturas Intra-Articulares/cirurgia , Participação do Paciente , Fraturas do Rádio/cirurgia , Atividades Cotidianas , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Articulação do Cotovelo/cirurgia , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Fraturas do Úmero/psicologia , Fraturas Intra-Articulares/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Satisfação do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Fraturas do Rádio/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Geriatr ; 20(1): 16, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim was to estimate the prevalence of frailty and relative contribution of physical/balance, nutritive, cognitive and sensory frailty to important adverse health states (falls, physical activity levels, outdoor mobility, problems in self-care or usual activities, and lack of energy or accomplishment) in an English cohort by age and sex. METHODS: Analysis of baseline data from a cohort of 9803 community-dwelling participants in a clinical trial. The sample was drawn from a random selection of all people aged 70 or more registered with 63 general practices across England. Data were collected by postal questionnaire. Frailty was measured with the Strawbridge questionnaire. We used cross sectional, multivariate logistic regression to estimate the association between frailty domains and known correlates and adjusted for age. Some models were stratified by sex. RESULTS: Mean age of participants was 78 years (sd 5.7), range 70 to 101 and 47.5% (4653/9803) were men. The prevalence of overall frailty was 20.7% (2005/9671) and there was no difference in prevalence by sex (Odds Ratio 0.98; 95% Confidence Interval 0.89 to 1.08). Sensory frailty was the most common and this was reported by more men (1823/4586) than women (1469/5056; Odds Ratio for sensory frailty 0.62, 95% Confidence Interval 0.57 to 0.68). Men were less likely than women to have physical or nutritive frailty. Physical frailty had the strongest independent associations with adverse health states. However, sensory frailty was independently associated with falls, less frequent walking, problems in self-care and usual activities, lack of energy and accomplishment. CONCLUSIONS: Physical frailty was more strongly associated with adverse health states, but sensory frailty was much more common. The health gain from intervention for sensory frailty in England is likely to be substantial, particularly for older men. Sensory frailty should be explored further as an important target of intervention to improve health outcomes for older people both at clinical and population level. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN71002650.

7.
Br J Sports Med ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792067

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of exercise interventions for preventing falls in older people living in the community. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials evaluating the effects of any form of exercise as a single intervention on falls in people aged 60+years living in the community. RESULTS: Exercise reduces the rate of falls by 23% (rate ratio (RaR) 0.77, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.83; 12 981 participants, 59 studies; high-certainty evidence). Subgroup analyses showed no evidence of a difference in effect on falls on the basis of risk of falling as a trial inclusion criterion, participant age 75 years+ or group versus individual exercise but revealed a larger effect of exercise in trials where interventions were delivered by a health professional (usually a physiotherapist). Different forms of exercise had different impacts on falls. Compared with control, balance and functional exercises reduce the rate of falls by 24% (RaR 0.76, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.81; 7920 participants, 39 studies; high-certainty evidence). Multiple types of exercise (commonly balance and functional exercises plus resistance exercises) probably reduce the rate of falls by 34% (RaR 0.66, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.88; 1374 participants, 11 studies; moderate-certainty evidence). Tai Chi may reduce the rate of falls by 19% (RaR 0.81, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.99; 2655 participants, 7 studies; low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain of the effects of programmes that primarily involve resistance training, dance or walking. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Given the certainty of evidence, effective programmes should now be implemented.

8.
Trials ; 20(1): 732, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optimising the management of peri-operative pain and recovery following knee replacement has been identified as a patient priority. Current pain relief strategies use opiate-based analgesia; however, up to 50% of patients experience significant side effects. Local anaesthetic incisional infiltration is one alternative. The length of the duration of action is a major limiting factor of current local anaesthetic techniques. Liposomal bupivacaine has been reported to be effective for up to 72 h. This randomised controlled trial will evaluate the clinical and cost effectiveness of liposomal bupivacaine. METHODS: SPAARK is a patient-blinded, multi-centre, active comparator, superiority, two-arm, parallel-group randomised controlled trial. Five hundred patients undergoing knee replacement will be recruited and randomised to liposomal bupivacaine plus bupivacaine hydrochloride or bupivacaine hydrochloride alone. The co-primary outcomes are the Quality of Recovery 40 measured at 72 h post-surgery and also cumulative pain measured daily using a 0-10 visual analogue scale for the first 3 days following surgery. Secondary outcomes include cumulative opioid consumption, fitness for discharge, functional outcomes assessed using the Oxford Knee Score and American Knee Society Score, the EuroQol five dimensions instrument and complications. A cost utility analysis is also planned. DISCUSSION: The clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of liposomal bupivacaine have yet to be evaluated in the National Health Service, making this trial appropriate and timely. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN registry, ISRCTN54191675. Registered on 14 November 2017.

9.
BMJ ; 367: l6132, 2019 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748208

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether an injection of platelet rich plasma improves outcomes after acute Achilles tendon rupture. DESIGN: Randomised, placebo controlled, two arm, parallel group, participant and assessor masked, superiority trial. SETTING: Secondary care trauma units across 19 hospitals in the United Kingdom's health service. PARTICIPANTS: Recruitment commenced in July 2015 and follow-up was completed in March 2018. 230 adults aged 18 years and over were included, with acute Achilles tendon rupture presenting within 12 days of injury and managed with non-surgical treatment. Exclusions were injury at the insertion or musculotendinous junction, major leg injury or deformity, diabetes mellitus, platelet or haematological disorder, systemic corticosteroids, anticoagulation treatment, and other contraindicating conditions. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomised 1:1 to platelet rich plasma (n=114) or placebo (dry needle; n=116) injection. All participants received standard rehabilitation care (ankle immobilisation followed by physiotherapy). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Primary outcome was muscle tendon function at 24 weeks, measured objectively with the limb symmetry index (injured/uninjured×100) in maximal work done during the heel rise endurance test (an instrumented measure of repeated single leg heel rises until fatigue). Secondary outcomes included patient reported function (Achilles tendon rupture score), quality of life (short form 12 version 2®), pain (visual analogue scale), goal attainment (patient specific functional scale), and adverse events. A central laboratory analysed the quality and content of platelet rich plasma. Analyses were by modified intention to treat. RESULTS: Participants were 46 years old on average, and 57 (25%) of 230 were female. At 24 weeks, 202 (88%) participants completed the heel rise endurance test and 216 (94%) the patient reported outcomes. The platelet rich plasma was of good quality, with expected growth factor content. No difference was detected in muscle tendon function between participants receiving platelet rich plasma injections and those receiving placebo injections (limb symmetry index, mean 34.7% (standard deviation 17.7%) v 38.5% (22.8%); adjusted mean difference -3.9% (95% confidence interval -10.5% to 2.7%)) or in any secondary outcomes or adverse event rates. Complier average causal effect analyses gave similar findings. CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence to indicate that injections of platelet rich plasma can improve objective muscle tendon function, patient reported function, or quality of life after acute Achilles tendon rupture compared with placebo, or that they offer any patient benefit. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN54992179.


Assuntos
Tendão do Calcâneo/lesões , Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Plasma Rico em Plaquetas , Qualidade de Vida , Traumatismos dos Tendões/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Traumatismos dos Tendões/diagnóstico , Traumatismos dos Tendões/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos dos Tendões/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido
10.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e030877, 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678945

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ankle fractures result in significant morbidity in adults, with prognosis worsening with increasing age. Previous trials have not found evidence supporting supervised physiotherapy sessions, but these studies have not focused on older adults or tailored the exercise interventions to the complex needs of this patient group. The Ankle Fracture Treatment: Enhancing Rehabilitation study is a pilot randomised controlled trial to assess feasibility of a later definitive trial comparing best-practice advice with progressive functional exercise for adults aged 50 years and over after ankle fracture.The main objectives are to assess: (i) patient engagement with the trial, measured by the participation rate of those eligible; (ii) establish whether the interventions are acceptable to participants and therapists, assessed by intervention adherence levels, participant interviews and a therapist focus group; (iii) participant retention in the trial, measured by the proportion of participants providing outcome data at 6 months; (iv) acceptability of measuring outcomes at 3 and 6 month follow-up. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A multicentre pilot randomised controlled trial with an embedded qualitative study. At least 48 patients aged 50 years and over with an ankle fracture requiring surgical management, or non-operative management by immobilisation for at least 4 weeks, will be recruited from a minimum of three National Health Service hospitals in the UK. Participants will be allocated 1:1 via a central web-based randomisation system to: (i) best-practice advice (one session of face-to-face self-management advice delivered by a physiotherapist and up to two optional additional sessions) or (ii) progressive functional exercise (up to six sessions of individual face-to-face physiotherapy). An embedded qualitative study will include one-to-one interviews with up to 20 participants and a therapist focus group. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Hampshire B Research Ethics Committee (18/SC/0281) gave approval on 2nd July 2018. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN16612336.

11.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224971, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738792

RESUMO

The aim of this trial was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a home-based exercise program delivered four months following hip-fracture surgery. In the two-armed randomized, single blinded clinical trial we included persons who lived in the catchment area, were 70 years or older, and community-dwelling at time of the fracture. We excluded persons who were unable to walk ten meters prior to the fracture, and those who were bedridden or had medical contraindications for exercise at baseline (ie. four months after the fracture). All participants underwent routine treatment and rehabilitation. The intervention group received additional 20 sessions (10 weeks) structured, home exercise targeting gait and balance, delivered by physiotherapists in primary health care. Gait speed was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included physical activity, gait characteristics, cognitive function, activities of daily living, health-related quality of life, and health care costs extracted from hospital and municipality records. In total, 223 participants were included. Four months post surgery 143 were randomized for the exercise trial (70% women, mean age 83.4 (SD 6.1) years, mean gait speed 0.6 (SD 0.2) m/sec). Estimated between group difference in gait speed was 0.09 m/sec (95% CI: 0.04 to 0.14, p<0.001) at posttest and 0.07 m/sec (95% CI: 0.02 to 0.12, p = 0.009) 12 months post surgery. The mean between-group QALY difference was -0.009 (95% CI: -0.061 to 0.038). The mean between-group total cost difference was +242.9 EUR (95% CI: -8397 to 8584). Our findings suggest that gait recovery after hip fracture can be improved by introducing a home-based balance and gait exercise program four months post surgery, without increasing total health care costs. Future research should focus on how to implement gait and balance exercise in comprehensive interventions that increase adherence among the most vulnerable persons and have an effect on daily life activities and patient-centred outcomes. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01379456.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592059

RESUMO

The relationship between the magnitude of limitations (measured by patient-reported outcome measures, or PROMs) and satisfaction with care providers and hospital services (measured by patient-reported experience measures, or PREMs) over the course of recovery after injury is unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between a range of PROMs and 2 PREMs at 3 time points (initial office visit within a week, 2 to 4 weeks, and 6 to 9 months) after shoulder, elbow, and wrist fractures. Methods: We enrolled 744 adult patients with an isolated shoulder, elbow, or wrist fracture and invited them to complete PROMs (the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Upper Extremity Physical Function computer adaptive test [PROMIS UE], PROMIS Physical Function (PROMIS PF) scale, Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand [QuickDASH] questionnaire, EuroQol 5-Dimensions 3-Level Index [EQ-5D-3L], and Oxford Shoulder Score [OSS], Oxford Elbow Score [OES], or Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation [PRWE]) and PREMs (Numerical Rating Scale [NRS] for satisfaction with care providers [NRS-C] and for satisfaction with hospital services [NRS-S]) at their initial visit at the outpatient surgical practice (maximum, 1 week after the fracture), between 2 and 4 weeks after the injury, and between 6 and 9 months after the injury. Correlational analysis was performed at each time point. Results: There was moderate correlation between the PROMIS UE and the NRS-C (r = 0.56) and NRS-S (r = 0.59) at 6 to 9 months after injury, which was stronger than the correlation at the 2 to 4-week mark (NRS-C, r = 0.34; NRS-S, r = 0.36) and at the evaluation that took place within a week after the injury (NRS-C, r = 0.18; NRS-S, r = 0.16). These correlational trends were observed with all forms of PROMs. Patients reporting greater limitations after injury were also less satisfied with their care and services. Conclusions: The increasing alignment of PROMs and PREMs over the course of recovery after an upper-extremity fracture suggests that restored physical function may improve perceptions of satisfaction with care providers and hospital services over time. Future studies should assess factors that could be addressed to improve patient satisfaction and their limitations during recovery after fracture in order to maximize patient outcomes. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

13.
Health Technol Assess ; 23(48): 1-114, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) is a life-saving intervention. Following resolution of the condition that necessitated IMV, a spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) is used to determine patient readiness for IMV discontinuation. In patients who fail one or more SBTs, there is uncertainty as to the optimum management strategy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of using non-invasive ventilation (NIV) as an intermediate step in the protocolised weaning of patients from IMV. DESIGN: Pragmatic, open-label, parallel-group randomised controlled trial, with cost-effectiveness analysis. SETTING: A total of 51 critical care units across the UK. PARTICIPANTS: Adult intensive care patients who had received IMV for at least 48 hours, who were categorised as ready to wean from ventilation, and who failed a SBT. INTERVENTIONS: Control group (invasive weaning): patients continued to receive IMV with daily SBTs. A weaning protocol was used to wean pressure support based on the patient's condition. Intervention group (non-invasive weaning): patients were extubated to NIV. A weaning protocol was used to wean inspiratory positive airway pressure, based on the patient's condition. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was time to liberation from ventilation. Secondary outcome measures included mortality, duration of IMV, proportion of patients receiving antibiotics for a presumed respiratory infection and health-related quality of life. RESULTS: A total of 364 patients (invasive weaning, n = 182; non-invasive weaning, n = 182) were randomised. Groups were well matched at baseline. There was no difference between the invasive weaning and non-invasive weaning groups in median time to liberation from ventilation {invasive weaning 108 hours [interquartile range (IQR) 57-351 hours] vs. non-invasive weaning 104.3 hours [IQR 34.5-297 hours]; hazard ratio 1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89 to 1.39; p = 0.352}. There was also no difference in mortality between groups at any time point. Patients in the non-invasive weaning group had fewer IMV days [invasive weaning 4 days (IQR 2-11 days) vs. non-invasive weaning 1 day (IQR 0-7 days); adjusted mean difference -3.1 days, 95% CI -5.75 to -0.51 days]. In addition, fewer non-invasive weaning patients required antibiotics for a respiratory infection [odds ratio (OR) 0.60, 95% CI 0.41 to 1.00; p = 0.048]. A higher proportion of non-invasive weaning patients required reintubation than those in the invasive weaning group (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.27 to 3.24). The within-trial economic evaluation showed that NIV was associated with a lower net cost and a higher net effect, and was dominant in health economic terms. The probability that NIV was cost-effective was estimated at 0.58 at a cost-effectiveness threshold of £20,000 per quality-adjusted life-year. CONCLUSIONS: A protocolised non-invasive weaning strategy did not reduce time to liberation from ventilation. However, patients who underwent non-invasive weaning had fewer days requiring IMV and required fewer antibiotics for respiratory infections. FUTURE WORK: In patients who fail a SBT, which factors predict an adverse outcome (reintubation, tracheostomy, death) if extubated and weaned using NIV? TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN15635197. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 23, No. 48. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.

14.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 49(11): e13169, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poorly described placebo/sham controls make it difficult to appraise active intervention benefits and harms. The 12-item Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) checklist was developed to improve the reporting of active interventions. The extent to which TIDieR has been used to improve description of placebo or sham control is not known. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We systematically identified and examined all placebo/sham-controlled randomised trials published in 2018 in the top six general medical journals. We reported how many of the TIDieR checklist items were used to describe the placebo/sham control(s). We supplemented this with a sample of 100 placebo/sham-controlled trials from any journal and searched Google Scholar to identify placebo/sham-controlled trials citing TIDieR. RESULTS: We identified 94 placebo/sham-controlled trials published in the top journals in 2018. None reported using TIDieR, and none reported placebo or sham components completely. On average eight TIDieR items were addressed, with placebo/sham control name (100%) and when and how much was administered (97.9%) most commonly reported. Some items (rationale, 8.5%, whether there were modifications, 25.5%) were less often reported. In our sample of less well-cited journals, reporting was poorer (average of six items) and followed a similar pattern. Since TIDieR's first publication, six placebo-controlled trials have cited it according to Google Scholar. Two of these used the checklist to describe placebo controls; neither one completely desribed the placebo intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Placebo and sham controls are poorly described within randomised trials, and TIDieR is rarely used to guide these descriptions. We recommend developing guidelines to promote better descriptions of placebo/sham control components within clinical trials.

15.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 477(11): 2521-2530, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient perceptions of their limitations after illness and injury can be quantified using patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). Few studies have assessed construct validity (using correlations and factor analysis) and precision (floor and ceiling effects) of a range of frequently used PROMs longitudinally in a population of patients recovering from common upper extremity fractures according to area (general health, region-specific, or joint-specific measures) and mode of administration (fixed-scale or computer adaptive test). QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) What is the strength of the correlation between different PROMs within 1 week, 2 to 4 weeks and 6 to 9 months after shoulder, elbow, and wrist fractures? (2) Using a factor analysis, what underlying constructs are being measured by these PROMs? (3) Are there strong floor and ceiling effects with these instruments? METHODS: Between January 2016 and August 2016, 734 patients recovering from an isolated shoulder, elbow, or wrist fracture completed physical-limitation PROMs at baseline (the initial office visit after diagnosis in the emergency department), 2 to 4 weeks after injury, and at the final assessment 6 to 9 months after injury. In all, 775 patients were originally approached; 31 patients (4%) declined to participate due to time constraints, four patients died of unrelated illness, and six patients were lost to follow-up. The PROMs included the PROMIS Physical Function (PF, a computer adaptive, general measure of physical function), the PROMIS Upper Extremity (UE, a computer adaptive measure of upper extremity physical function), the QuickDASH (a fixed-scale, region-specific measure), the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS), the Oxford Elbow Score (OES) and the Patient-rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE) (a fixed-scale, joint-specific measure), and the EQ-5D-3L (a fixed-scale measure of general health). PROMs were evaluated during recovery for construct validity (using correlations and factor analysis) and precision (using floor and ceiling effects). RESULTS: Physical-limitation PROMs were intercorrelated at all time points, and the correlation strengthened over time (for example, PROMIS UE and QuickDASH at 1 week, r = -0.4665; at 2 to 4 weeks, r = -0.7763; at 6 to 9 months, r = -0.8326; p < 0.001). Factor analysis generated two factors or groupings of PROMs that could be described as capability (perceived ability to perform or engage in activities), and quality of life (an overall sense of health and wellbeing) that varied by time point and fracture type, Joint-specific and general-health PROMs demonstrated high ceiling effects 6 to 9 months after injury and PROMIS PF, PROMIS UE and QuickDASH had no floor or ceiling effects at any time points. CONCLUSIONS: There is a substantial correlation between PROMs that assess physical limitations (based on anatomic region) and general health after upper extremity fractures, and these relationships strengthen during recovery. Regardless of the delivery mode or area of focus, PROMs largely appear to represent two underlying constructs: capability and quality of life. Computer adaptive tests may be favored over fixed-scale measures for their efficiency and limited censoring. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II, therapeutic study.

16.
Health Technol Assess ; 23(44): 1-318, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A total of 25,000 people in the UK have osteoporotic vertebral fracture (OVF). Evidence suggests that physiotherapy may have an important treatment role. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of two different physiotherapy programmes for people with OVF compared with a single physiotherapy session. DESIGN: This was a prospective, adaptive, multicentre, assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial (RCT) with nested qualitative and health economic studies. SETTING: This trial was based in 21 NHS physiotherapy departments. PARTICIPANTS: The participants were people with symptomatic OVF. INTERVENTIONS: Seven sessions of either manual outpatient physiotherapy or exercise outpatient physiotherapy compared with the best practice of a 1-hour single session of physiotherapy (SSPT). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcomes were measured at 4 and 12 months. The primary outcomes were quality of life and muscle endurance, which were measured by the disease-specific QUALEFFO-41 (Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis - 41 items) and timed loaded standing (TLS) test, respectively. Secondary outcomes were (1) thoracic kyphosis angle, (2) balance, evaluated via the functional reach test (FRT), and (3) physical function, assessed via the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), 6-minute walk test (6MWT), Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly, a health resource use and falls diary, and the EuroQol-5 Dimensions, five-level version. RESULTS: A total of 615 participants were enrolled, with 216, 203 and 196 randomised by a computer-generated program to exercise therapy, manual therapy and a SSPT, respectively. Baseline data were available for 613 participants, 531 (86.6%) of whom were women; the mean age of these participants was 72.14 years (standard deviation 9.09 years). Primary outcome data were obtained for 69% of participants (429/615) at 12 months: 175 in the exercise therapy arm, 181 in the manual therapy arm and 173 in the SSPT arm. Interim analysis met the criteria for all arms to remain in the study. For the primary outcomes at 12 months, there were no significant benefits over SSPT of exercise [QUALEFFO-41, difference -0.23 points, 95% confidence interval (CI) -3.20 to 1.59 points; p = 1.000; and TLS test, difference 5.77 seconds, 95% CI -4.85 to 20.46 seconds; p = 0.437] or of manual therapy (QUALEFFO-41, difference 1.35 points, 95% CI -1.76 to 2.93 points; p = 0.744; TLS test, difference 9.69 seconds (95% CI 0.09 to 24.86 seconds; p = 0.335). At 4 months, there were significant gains for both manual therapy and exercise therapy over SSPT in the TLS test in participants aged < 70 years. Exercise therapy was superior to a SSPT at 4 months in the SPPB, FRT and 6MWT and manual therapy was superior to a SSPT at 4 months in the TLS test and FRT. Neither manual therapy nor exercise therapy was cost-effective relative to a SSPT using the threshold of £20,000 per quality-adjusted life-year. There were no treatment-related serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest RCT to date assessing physiotherapy in participants with OVFs. At 1 year, neither treatment intervention conferred more benefit than a single 1-hour physiotherapy advice session. The focus of future work should be on the intensity and duration of interventions to determine if changes to these would demonstrate more sustained effects. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN49117867. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 23, No. 44. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.

17.
Br J Sports Med ; 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434659

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the longer term effects of multifactorial interventions for preventing falls in older people living in the community, and to explore whether prespecific trial-level characteristics are associated with greater fall prevention effects. DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis and meta-regression. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL, CENTRAL and trial registries were searched up to 25 July 2018. STUDY SELECTION: We included randomised controlled trials (≥12 months' follow-up) evaluating the effects of multifactorial interventions on falls in older people aged 65 years and over, living in the community, compared with either usual care or usual care plus advice. REVIEW METHODS: Two authors independently verified studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. Rate ratios (RaR) with 95% CIs were calculated for rate of falls, risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous outcomes and standardised mean difference for continuous outcomes. Data were pooled using a random effects model. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation was used to assess the quality of the evidence. RESULTS: We included 41 trials totalling 19 369 participants; mean age 72-85 years. Exercise was the most common prespecified component of the multifactorial interventions (85%; n=35/41). Most trials were judged at unclear or high risk of bias in ≥1 domain. Twenty trials provided data on rate of falls and showed multifactorial interventions may reduce the rate at which people fall compared with the comparator (RaR 0.79, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.88; 20 trials; 10 116 participants; I2=90%; low-quality evidence). Multifactorial interventions may also slightly lower the risk of people sustaining one or more falls (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.00; 30 trials; 13 817 participants; I2=56%; moderate-quality evidence) and recurrent falls (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.00; 15 trials; 7277 participants; I2=46%; moderate-quality evidence). However, there may be little or no difference in other fall-related outcomes, such as fall-related fractures, falls requiring hospital admission or medical attention and health-related quality of life. Very few trials (n=3) reported on adverse events related to the intervention. Prespecified subgroup analyses showed that the effect on rate of falls may be smaller when compared with usual care plus advice as opposed to usual care only. Overall, heterogeneity remained high and was not explained by the prespecified characteristics included in the meta-regression. CONCLUSION: Multifactorial interventions (most of which include exercise prescription) may reduce the rate of falls and slightly reduce risk of older people sustaining one or more falls and recurrent falls (defined as two or more falls within a specified time period). TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018102549.

18.
Trials ; 20(1): 524, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443729

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In some randomised trials, the primary interest is in the mechanisms by which an intervention exerts its effects on health outcomes. That is, clinicians and policy-makers may be interested in how the intervention works (or why it does not work) through hypothesised causal mechanisms. In this article, we highlight the value of understanding causal mechanisms in randomised trials by applying causal mediation analysis to two randomised trials of complex interventions. MAIN BODY: In the first example, we examine a potential mechanism by which an exercise programme for rheumatoid arthritis of the hand could improve hand function. In the second example, we explore why a rehabilitation programme for ankle fractures failed to improve lower-limb function through hypothesised mechanisms. We outline critical assumptions that are required for making valid causal inferences from these analyses, and provide results of sensitivity analyses that are used to assess the degree to which the estimated causal mediation effects could have been biased by residual confounding. CONCLUSION: This paper demonstrates how the application of causal mediation analyses to randomised trials can identify the mechanisms by which complex interventions exert their effects. We discuss methodological issues and assumptions that should be considered when mediation analyses of randomised trials are used to inform clinical practice and policy decisions.

19.
Health Technol Assess ; 23(36): 1-150, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with Parkinson's disease are twice as likely to experience a fall as a healthy older person, often leading to debilitating effects on confidence, activity levels and quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of a physiotherapy programme for fall prevention among people with Parkinson's disease. DESIGN: A multicentre, pragmatic, investigator-masked, individually randomised controlled trial (RCT) with prespecified subgroup analyses. SETTING: Recruitment from NHS hospitals and clinics and community and social services in eight English regions with home-based interventions. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 474 people with Parkinson's disease (i.e. Hoehn and Yahr scale stages 1-4) were recruited: 238 were assigned to a physiotherapy programme and 236 were assigned to usual care. Random allocation was 50 : 50. INTERVENTIONS: All participants received routine care; the usual-care group received an information digital versatile disc (DVD) and a single advice session at trial completion. The intervention group had an individually tailored, progressive, home-based fall avoidance strategy training programme with balance and strengthening exercises: PDSAFE. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the risk of repeat falling, collected by self-report monthly diaries between 0 and 6 months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes included near-falls, falls efficacy, freezing of gait (FoG), health-related quality of life, and measurements taken using the Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Mini-BESTest), the Chair Stand Test (CST), the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly and the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire. RESULTS: PDSAFE is the largest RCT of falls management among people with Parkinson's disease: 541 patients were screened for eligibility. The average age was 72 years, and 266 out of 474 (56%) participants were men. Of the 474 randomised participants, 238 were randomised to the intervention group and 236 were randomised to the control group. No difference in repeat falling within 6 months of randomisation was found [PDSAFE group to control group odds ratio (OR) 1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74 to 1.98; p = 0.447]. An analysis of secondary outcomes demonstrated better balance (Mini-BESTest: mean difference 0.95, 95% CI 0.24 to 1.67; p = 0.009), functional strength (CST: p = 0.041) and falls efficacy (Falls Efficacy Scale - International: mean difference 1.6, 95% CI -3.0 to -0.19; p = 0.026) with near-falling significantly reduced with PDSAFE (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.86; p = 0.001) at 6 months. Prespecified subgroup analysis (i.e. disease severity and FoG) revealed a PDSAFE differing effect; the intervention may be of benefit for people with moderate disease but may increase falling for those in the more severe category, especially those with FoG. LIMITATIONS: All participants were assessed at primary outcome; only 73% were assessed at 12 months owing to restricted funding. CONCLUSIONS: PDSAFE was not effective in reducing repeat falling across the range of people with Parkinson's disease in the trial. Secondary analysis demonstrated that other functional tasks and self-efficacy improved and demonstrated differential patterns of intervention impact in accordance with disease severity and FoG, which supports previous secondary research findings and merits further primary evaluation. FUTURE WORK: Further trials of falls prevention on targeted groups of people with Parkinson's disease are recommended. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN48152791. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 23, No. 36. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information. Sarah E Lamb is funded by the NIHR Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) at Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust, the NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre at the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and CLAHRC Oxford. Victoria A Goodwin is supported by the NIHR Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care in the South West Peninsula (PenCLAHRC). Lynn Rochester is supported by the NIHR Newcastle Biomedical Research Centre based at Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and Newcastle University. The research was also supported by the NIHR Newcastle Clinical Research Facility Infrastructure funding. Helen C Roberts is supported by CLAHRC Wessex and the NIHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre.

20.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg ; 28(8): 1431-1440, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with limitations in function measured by patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) 6-9 months after elbow fractures in adults from a range of demographic, injury, psychological, and social variables measured within a week and 2-4 weeks after injury. METHODS: We enrolled 191 adult patients sustaining an isolated elbow fracture and invited them to complete PROMs at their initial visit to the orthopedic outpatient clinic (within a maximum of 1 week after fracture), between 2 and 4 weeks, and between 6 and 9 months after injury; 183 patients completed the final assessment. Bivariate analysis was performed, followed by multivariable regression analysis accounting for multicollinearity. This was evaluated using partial R2, correlation matrices, and variable inflation factor assessment. RESULTS: There was a correlation between multiple variables within a week of injury and 2-4 weeks after injury with PROMs 6-9 months after injury in bivariate analysis. Kinesiophobia measured within a week of injury and self-efficacy measured at 2-4 weeks were the strongest predictors of limitations 6-9 months after injury in multivariable regression. Regression models accounted for substantial variance in all PROMs at both time points. CONCLUSIONS: Developing effective coping strategies to overcome fears related to movement and reinjury and finding ways of persevering with activity despite pain within a month of injury may enhance recovery after elbow fractures. Heightened fears around movement and suboptimal coping ability are modifiable using evidence-based behavioral treatments.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Artralgia/psicologia , Articulação do Cotovelo/lesões , Fraturas Ósseas/psicologia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artralgia/diagnóstico , Artralgia/etiologia , Articulação do Cotovelo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/complicações , Fraturas Ósseas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Adulto Jovem
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