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1.
Eur J Public Health ; 2018 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380045

RESUMO

Background: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans and intersex (LGBTI) people experience significant health inequalities. Located within a European Commission funded pilot project, this paper presents a review of the health inequalities faced by LGBTI people and the barriers health professionals encounter when providing care. Methods: A narrative synthesis of 57 papers including systematic reviews, narrative reviews, meta-analyses and primary research. Literature was searched in Cochrane, Campbell Collaboration, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsychINFO and Medline. The review was undertaken to promote understanding of the causes and range of inequalities, as well as how to reduce inequalities. Results: LGBTI people are more likely to experience health inequalities due to heteronormativity or heterosexism, minority stress, experiences of victimization and discrimination, compounded by stigma. Inequalities pertaining to LGBTI health(care) vary depending on gender, age, income and disability as well as between LGBTI groupings. Gaps in the literature remain around how these factors intersect to influence health, with further large-scale research needed particularly regarding trans and intersex people. Conclusion: Health inequalities can be addressed via changes in policy, research and in practice through health services that accommodate the needs of LGBTI people. With improved training to address gaps in their knowledge of LGBTI health and healthcare, health professionals should work in collaboration with LGBTI people to address a range of barriers that prevent access to care. Through structural change combined with increased knowledge and understanding, services can potentially become more inclusive and equally accessible to all.

2.
Haematologica ; 2018 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30076173

RESUMO

The randomized, phase 3 ALFA-0701 trial showed that a reduced and fractionated dose of gemtuzumab ozogamicin added to standard front-line chemotherapy significantly improves event-free survival in adults with de novo acute myeloid leukemia. Here we report an independent review of event-free survival, final overall survival, and additional safety results from ALFA-0701. Patients (N=271) aged 50-70 years with de novo acute myeloid leukemia were randomized to receive conventional front-line induction chemotherapy (3+7 daunorubicin+cytarabine) with/without gemtuzumab ozogamicin 3 mg/m2 on days 1, 4, and 7 during induction. Patients in remission following induction therapy received 2 courses of consolidation therapy (daunorubicin+cytarabine) with/without gemtuzumab ozogamicin (3 mg/2;/day on day 1) according to their initial randomization. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed event-free survival. Secondary endpoints included overall survival and safety. A blinded independent review confirmed the investigator-assessed event-free survival results (August 1, 2011; hazard ratio, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.49-0.89]; 2-sided p=0.006), corresponding to a 34% reduction in risk of events in the gemtuzumab ozogamicin versus control arm. Final overall survival (April 30, 2013) favored gemtuzumab ozogamicin but was not significant. No differences were observed between arms in early death rate. The main toxicity associated with gemtuzumab ozogamicin was prolonged thrombocytopenia. Veno-occlusive disease (including after transplant) was observed in 6 patients in the gemtuzumab ozogamicin arm and 2 in the control arm. In conclusion, gemtuzumab ozogamicin added to standard intensive chemotherapy has a favorable benefit/risk ratio. These results expand front-line treatment options for adult patients with previously untreated acute myeloid leukemia. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00927498).

3.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 18(4): 392-401, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28064155

RESUMO

Aims: We sought to assess whether global longitudinal strain (GLS) measured early during treatment with anthracyclines (at a cumulative dose of 150 mg/m2) can predict subsequent alterations in left ventricular ejection fraction. Methods and results: Eighty-six patients with Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, or acute leukaemia and receiving anthracyclines were prospectively included. Patients underwent complete echocardiography on four occasions: baseline (V1); after reaching a cumulative dose of 150 mg/m2 (V2); end of treatment (V3); and 1 year follow-up (V4). Six patients developed cardiotoxicity, defined as a decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction of >10 percentage points, to a value <53%, at V4. GLS measured at V1 and V2 was significantly lower in the cardiotoxicity group vs. the controls (P = 0.042 and P = 0.01, respectively). Compared with GLS at V1, GLS obtained at V2 provided incremental predictive information and appeared to be the strongest predictor of cardiotoxicity (area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve, 0.82). At a threshold of -17.45% for GLS measured at V2, the sensitivity and specificity of detecting cardiotoxicity were 67% (95% confidence interval 33-100) and 97% (95% confidence interval 94-100), respectively. Conclusion: GLS greater than -17.45%, obtained after 150 mg/m2 of anthracycline therapy, is an independent predictor of future anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity. These findings should encourage physicians to perform echocardiography earlier during treatment with anthracyclines.


Assuntos
Antraciclinas/efeitos adversos , Cardiotoxicidade/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Antraciclinas/uso terapêutico , Cardiotoxicidade/etiologia , Cardiotoxicidade/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Seleção de Pacientes , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 74(5): 613-615, 2016 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27707676

RESUMO

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, a Gram-positive bacillus, is reported to cause for cutaneous infections and endocarditis. We report a case of E. rhusiopathiae bacteremia without severe clinical illness. The patient, a 74-year-old man, is suffering from a chronic lymphoid leukemia (LLC). Following a trauma, the patient developed a bruise on the left inch. Because the site of shock seemed clinically infected, oral amoxicilline-acid clavulanic (AAC) treatment was started after withdrawn 1 set of blood cultures. These blood culture specimens yielded a Gram-positive bacillus identified as E. rhusiopathiae by mass spectrometry MALDI-TOF (Microflex Brüker). The strain was sensitive to beta-lactam, fluoroquinolones and macrolides, resistant to vancomycin (natural resistance), and amikacin but sensitive to gentamicin. After 5 days of treatment by AAC, the patient became apyretic. One year after this episode, we reported no further symptoms of infection, or endocarditis. The natural resistance of E. rhusiopathiae in glycopeptides underlines the importance of a microbiological diagnosis. Indeed, vancomycine can be the treatment of first intention in Gram-positive bacillus bacteremia. The identification of bacteria using mass spectrometry is available the same day of the blood culture positivity and allows to prescribe the most adapted antibiotic treatment for the patient.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Endocardite Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Infecções por Erysipelothrix/diagnóstico , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Idoso , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Erysipelothrix/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 37(7): 845-51, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27340735

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a rare but severe infection caused by Aspergillus spp. that often develops in immunocompromised patients. Lethality remains high in this population. Therefore, preventive strategies are of key importance. The impact of a mobile air decontamination system (Plasmair, AirInSpace, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France) on the incidence of IA in neutropenic patients was evaluated in this study. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study METHODS Patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia lasting 7 days or more were included over a 2-year period. Cases of IA were confirmed using the revised European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) criteria. We took advantage of a partial installation of Plasmair systems in the hematology intensive care unit during this period to compare patients treated in Plasmair-equipped versus non-equipped rooms. Patients were assigned to Plasmair-equipped or non-equipped rooms depending only on bed availability. Differences in IA incidence in both groups were compared using Fisher's exact test, and a multivariate analysis was performed to take into account potential confounding factors. RESULTS Data from 156 evaluable patients were available. Both groups were homogenous in terms of age, gender, hematological diagnosis, duration of neutropenia, and prophylaxis. A total of 11 cases of probable IA were diagnosed: 10 in patients in non-equipped rooms and only 1 patient in a Plasmair-equipped room. The odds of developing IA were much lower for patients hospitalized in Plasmair-equipped rooms than for patients in non-equipped rooms (P=.02; odds ratio [OR] =0.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.00-0.84). CONCLUSION In this study, Plasmair demonstrated a major impact in reducing the incidence of IA in neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancies. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:845-851.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Descontaminação/métodos , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva/prevenção & controle , Neutropenia/complicações , Idoso , Microbiologia do Ar , Feminino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/complicações , Neoplasias Hematológicas/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutropenia/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Oncotarget ; 5(15): 6280-8, 2014 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25026287

RESUMO

We analysed the prognostic significance of minimal residual disease (MRD) level in adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treated in the randomized gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) ALFA-0701 trial. Levels of WT1 and NPM1 gene transcripts were assessed using cDNA-based real-time quantitative PCR in 183 patients with WT1 overexpression and in 77 patients with NMP1 mutation (NPM1mut) at diagnosis. Positive WT1 MRD (defined as > 0.5% in the peripheral blood) after induction and at the end of treatment were both significantly associated with a higher risk of relapse and a shorter overall survival (OS). Positive NPM1mut MRD (defined as > 0.1% in the bone marrow) after induction and at the end of treatment also predicted a higher risk of relapse, but did not influence OS. Interestingly, the achievement of a negative NPM1mut MRD was significantly more frequent in patients treated in the GO arm compared to those treated in control arm (39 % versus 7% (p=0.006) after induction and 91% versus 61% (p=0.028) at the end of treatment). However, GO did not influence WT1 MRD levels. Our study supports the prognostic significance of MRD assessed by WT1 and NPM1mut transcript levels and show that NPM1 MRD is decreased by GO treatment.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas WT1/genética , Idoso , Aminoglicosídeos/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Citarabina/administração & dosagem , Daunorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Genes do Tumor de Wilms , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasia Residual , Proteínas Nucleares/biossíntese , Prognóstico , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento , Proteínas WT1/biossíntese
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