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1.
Immunotherapy ; 13(6): 465-475, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641345

RESUMO

Aim: To evaluate adverse events in cancer patients with pre-existing sarcoidosis receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Patients & methods: We retrospectively reviewed cancer patients with sarcoidosis who underwent treatment with ICI to determine frequency of sarcoidosis flares. Results: 32 patients with sarcoidosis received ICIs The median time to ICI initiation was 7 years (range: 1 month to 51 years). One patient (3%) with a 20-year remote history of sarcoidosis developed a clinically symptomatic exacerbation after three doses of atezolizumab, with hilar lymphadenopathy, subcutaneous nodules, arthritis and uveitis. Atezolizumab was discontinued and prednisone initiated. She had a fluctuating course with two additional flares. Conclusion: Frequency of flares in patients with a remote history of sarcoidosis who receive ICIs is low.

4.
Haematologica ; 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626866

RESUMO

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) are associated with systemic inflammatory or autoimmune diseases in 10-20 % of cases. Among them, immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) has been reported but large studies assessing this association are missing. Whether such patients have a particular phenotype and require particular management is unclear. This study analyzes the clinical spectrum, outcome and therapeutic management of patients with ITP associated with MDS or CMML, in comparison (i) to patients with primary ITP without MDS/CMML and (ii) to patients with MDS/CMML without ITP. Forty-one MDS/CMML-associated ITP patients were included, with chronic ITP in 26 (63%) patients, low-risk myelodysplasia in 30 (73%) patients and CMML in 24 (59%) patients. An associated autoimmune disease was noted in 10 (24%) patients. In comparison to primary ITP patients, MDS/CMML-associated ITP patients had a higher occurrence of severe bleeding despite similar platelet counts at diagnosis. First-line treatment consisted of glucocorticoids (98%) and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) (56%). Response achievement with IVIg was more frequent in primary ITP than in MDS/CMML-associated ITP patients. Response rates to second-line therapies were not statistically different between primary ITP and MDS/CMMLassociated ITP patients. Ten percent (n=4) of patients with MDS/CMML-associated ITP had multirefractory ITP versus none in primary ITP controls. After a median follow-up of 60 months, there was no difference in overall survival between MDS/CMML-associated ITP and primary ITP patients. Leukemia-free-survival was significantly better in MDS/CMMLassociated ITP patients than in MDS/CMML without ITP MDS/CMML-associated ITP have a particular outcome with more severe bleeding and multirefractory profile than primary ITP, similar response profile to primary ITP therapy except for IVIg, and less progression toward acute myeloid leukemia than MDS/CMML without ITP.

7.
Eur J Cancer ; 141: 239-251, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212339

RESUMO

Corticosteroids are among the most prescribed drugs in oncology. The indications range from cancer-related indications for refractory symptoms, anti-cancer effects mainly in hematology, supportive measures for cancer-specific treatments and more recently immune-related adverse events induced by modern immunotherapies. In oncological emergencies, corticosteroids are common first-line treatments because of their rapid effect and wide variety of actions. In the last 5 years, with the advance of immune checkpoint inhibitors, corticosteroids are becoming routinely used to manage immune-related adverse effects. Preclinical studies suggested that corticosteroid-induced immunosuppression might dampen the activity of immunotherapies. Prospective clinical studies show that corticosteroid use is a prognostic marker for the cancer outcome in metastatic setting but does not significantly alter the patient's response to immunotherapies per se. Here, we review the state of the art on corticosteroid use in oncology, with a focus on the drugs' potential impact on immunotherapy activity. The comprehensive pharmacological characteristics of corticosteroid drugs, clinical indications, modality of administration and associated precautions for use are discussed in this article.

9.
Eur J Cancer ; 141: 137-142, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137589

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) antibodies constitute a new generation of cancer treatments, associated with immune-related adverse events (irAEs). A previous retrospective study of patients with metastatic melanoma (treated mostly with anti-CTLA4 antibodies) reported a serious infection rate of 7.3%. The main risk factors were corticoids and infliximab use. We sought to describe infections and risk factors among patients receiving anti-PD-1/PD-L1 ICIs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed 200 medical records sampled randomly from a French prospective registry, which collates patients treated with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 ICIs. We recorded demographic data, the occurrence of irAEs, immunosuppressant use, and the outcome. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients (18%) experienced an infection by a median (interquartile range) of 47 (19.2-132) days after initiation of the ICI. Twenty-one patients (58.3%) had a lung infection, seven (19.4%) had a skin infection, seven (19.4%) had a urinary tract infection, and all of them received antibiotics. The infection was generally mild, and the patients were treated as outpatient. There were no infection-related deaths and no opportunistic infection. Sixty percent of the patients were being treated for metastatic melanoma and 35.5% for non-small cell lung cancer, and 106 irAEs (mostly grade II) were reported. Forty-seven patients received steroids for cancer symptoms or irAEs, and five received immunosuppressants during the immunotherapy. We did not observe any association between corticosteroid or immunosuppressant use and the occurrence of an infection. CONCLUSION: The infection rate in patients treated with an anti-PD-1/PD-L1 ICI was 18%, without any severe or opportunistic infection. The occurrence of an infection was not associated with corticosteroid or immunosuppressant use.

10.
Front Immunol ; 11: 2096, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013882

RESUMO

Viral vectors are increasingly used as delivery means to induce a specific immunity in humans and animals. However, they also impact the immune system, and it depends on the given context whether this is beneficial or not. The attenuated vaccinia virus strain modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) has been used as a viral vector in clinical studies intended to treat and prevent cancer and infectious diseases. The adjuvant property of MVA is thought to be due to its capability to stimulate innate immunity. Here, we confirmed that MVA induces interleukin-8 (IL-8), and this chemokine was upregulated significantly more in monocytes and HLA-DRbright dendritic cells (DCs) of HIV-infected patients on combined antiretroviral therapy (ART) than in cells of healthy persons. The effect of MVA on cell surface receptors is mostly unknown. Using mass cytometry profiling, we investigated the expression of 17 cell surface receptors in leukocytes after ex vivo infection of human whole-blood samples with MVA. We found that MVA downregulates most of the characteristic cell surface markers in particular types of leukocytes. In contrast, C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) was significantly upregulated in each leukocyte type of healthy persons. Additionally, we detected a relative higher cell surface expression of the HIV-1 co-receptors C-C motif chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and CXCR4 in leukocytes of HIV-ART patients than in healthy persons. Importantly, we showed that MVA infection significantly downregulated CCR5 in CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells, and three different DC populations. CD86, a costimulatory molecule for T cells, was significantly upregulated in HLA-DRbright DCs after MVA infection of whole blood from HIV-ART patients. However, MVA was unable to downregulate cell surface expression of CD11b and CD32 in monocytes and neutrophils of HIV-ART patients to the same extent as in monocytes and neutrophils of healthy persons. In summary, MVA modulates the expression of many different kinds of cell surface receptors in leukocytes, which can vary in cells originating from persons previously infected with other pathogens.

11.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10(1): 143, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors have reshaped the standard of care in oncology. However, they have been associated with potentially life-threatening immune-related adverse events. With the growing indications of immune checkpoint inhibitors and their position as a pillar of cancer treatment, intensive care physicians will be increasingly confronted with their side effects. The outcome of patients with severe immune-related adverse events in the intensive care unit remains unknown. This retrospective multicentric study aims to describe the characteristics of patients admitted to the intensive care units of 4 academic hospitals in Paris area while receiving immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment between January 2013 and October 2019. RESULTS: Over the study period, 112 cancer patients who received immune checkpoint inhibitors were admitted to the intensive care unit within 60 days after the last dose. ICU admission was related to immune-related adverse events (n = 29, 26%), other intercurrent events (n = 39, 35%), or complications related to tumor progression (n = 44, 39%). Immune-related adverse events were pneumonitis (n = 8), colitis (n = 4), myocarditis (n = 3), metabolic disorders related to diabetes (n = 3), hypophysitis (n = 2), nephritis (n = 2), meningitis or encephalitis (n = 2), hepatitis (n = 2), anaphylaxis (n = 2) and pericarditis (n = 1). Primary tumors were mostly melanomas (n = 14, 48%), non-small-cell lung cancers (n = 7, 24%), and urothelial carcinomas (n = 5, 17%). Diagnosis of melanoma and a neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio < 10 were associated with immune-related diagnosis versus other reasons for ICU admission. During their ICU stay, immune-related adverse events patients needed vasopressors (n = 7), mechanical ventilation (n = 6), and extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (n = 2). One-year survival was significantly higher for patients admitted for irAE compared to patients admitted for other reasons (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Admission to the intensive care unit related to immune-related adverse event was associated with better outcome in cancer patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Our results support the admission for an intensive care unit trial for patients with suspected immune-related adverse events.

12.
Cell Rep ; 32(12): 108174, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966788

RESUMO

Highly efficient CD8+ T cells are associated with natural HIV control, but it has remained unclear how these cells are generated and maintained. We have used a macaque model of spontaneous SIVmac251 control to monitor the development of efficient CD8+ T cell responses. Our results show that SIV-specific CD8+ T cells emerge during primary infection in all animals. The ability of CD8+ T cells to suppress SIV is suboptimal in the acute phase but increases progressively in controller macaques before the establishment of sustained low-level viremia. Controller macaques develop optimal memory-like SIV-specific CD8+ T cells early after infection. In contrast, a persistently skewed differentiation phenotype characterizes memory SIV-specific CD8+ T cells in non-controller macaques. Accordingly, the phenotype of SIV-specific CD8+ T cells defined early after infection appears to favor the development of protective immunity in controllers, whereas SIV-specific CD8+ T cells in non-controllers fail to gain antiviral potency, feasibly as a consequence of early defects imprinted in the memory pool.

13.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 64(11)2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868324

RESUMO

This study aimed to characterize in vitro dolutegravir (DTG) and bictegravir (BIC) binding. They had a preferential binding to human serum albumin (HSA) with two classes of albumin sites. Human alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (HAAG) binding of DTG and BIC showed an atypical nonlinear binding. The low-affinity site on HSA, the main plasma binding protein, suggests that the high protein binding rate should not impair passive diffusion.

14.
Genes Immun ; 21(4): 263-268, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759994

RESUMO

Fcɣ receptors (FcɣRs) are key immune regulatory receptors that connect antibody-mediated immune responses to cellular effector functions. They are involved in the control of various immune functions including responses to infections. Genetic polymorphisms of FcɣRs coding genes (FCGR) have been associated with the regulation of HIV infection and progression. In this study, we analyzed the potential impact of five candidate FcɣR SNPs on viral control by genotyping 251 HIV controllers and 250 progressors. The rs10800309 AA genotype of the FcɣRIIa coding gene FCGR2A was found to be significantly associated with HIV control and this association was independent of HLA-B57 and HLA-B27 (OR, 2.84; 95% CI, 1.20-6.89; Pcor = 0.033). We further confirmed the functional role of this polymorphism by showing an association of this same AA genotype with an increased in vitro FcɣRII expression on myeloid cells including dendritic cells (P = 0.0032). Together, these results suggest that the AA genotype of rs10800309 confers an improved immune response through FcɣRII upregulation and that this polymorphism may serve as an additional predictive marker of HIV control.

15.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 8(2)2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585921

RESUMO

HIV cure-related clinical trials (HCRCT) with analytical antiretroviral treatment interruptions (ATIs) have become unavoidable. However, the limited benefits for participants and the risk of HIV transmission during ATI might negatively impact physicians' motivations to propose HCRCT to patients. Between October 2016 and March 2017, 164 French HIV physicians were asked about their level of agreement with four viewpoints regarding HCRCT. A reluctance score was derived from their answers and factors associated with reluctance identified. Results showed the highest reluctance to propose HCRCT was among physicians with a less research-orientated professional activity, those not informing themselves about cure trials through scientific literature, and those who participated in trials because their department head asked them. Physicians' perceptions of the impact of HIV on their patients' lives were also associated with their motivation to propose HCRCT: those who considered that living with HIV means living with a secret were more motivated, while those worrying about the negative impact on person living with HIV's professional lives were more reluctant. Our study highlighted the need to design a HCRCT that minimizes constraints for participants and for continuous training programs to help physicians keep up-to-date with recent advances in HIV cure research.

16.
Autoimmun Rev ; 19(8): 102586, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In addition to restoring anti-tumor immune responses, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) may also induce immune-related adverse events (irAE) that can affect any organ. We aim to determine the spectrum, timing, clinical features, and fatalities of rheumatic and musculoskeletal immune-related adverse events (RMS-irAE) associated with ICI. PATIENTS METHODS: We performed an observational, retrospective, pharmacovigilance study using the World Health Organization international pharmacovigilance database, VigiBase, from inception to January 2019. RMS-irAE reporting rate on ICI versus full database was performed using disproportionality analysis with computation of reporting-odds-ratios (ROR) and a Bayesian disproportional estimate (information component, IC). IC025 (lower end of the IC 95% credibility interval) >0 is deemed significant. RESULTS: We identified 1288 RMS-irAE significantly associated with ICI: polymyalgia rheumatica (n = 76, ROR = 14.6 [11.6-18.4], IC025 = 3.34), sarcoidosis (n = 94; ROR = 9.6 [7.9-11.9]; IC025 = 2.85), Sjogren's syndrome (n = 49; ROR = 6.9 [5.2-9.2]; IC025 = 2.24), myositis (n = 465; ROR = 4.9 [4.5-5.4]; IC025 = 2.12), arthritis (n = 606; ROR = 1.4 [1.3-1.5]; IC025 = 0.34) and scleroderma (n = 17; ROR = 2.0 [1.2-3.2]; IC025 = 0.17). Arthritis, myositis, and Sjogren's syndrome were over-reported in patients treated with ICI combination versus those treated with ICI monotherapy (ROR = 1.6-2.9, p < .05) and more frequently reported on anti-PD1/PDL1 monotherapy vs. anti-CTLA4 monotherapy (2.1-4.4, p < .05). Median time to onset occurred early for myositis (31 days [19.2-57.8]) and was the most delayed for scleroderma (395 days [323.8-457.2], p < .0001). The fatality rate for RMS-irAE ranged from 24% for myositis (n = 106/441) (up to 56.7% with concurrent myocarditis) to [0-6.7%] for other RMS-irAE (p < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should be aware of the spectrum of RMS-irAE. Myositis can be particularly life-threatening, particularly when associated with myocarditis.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos , Miosite , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Miosite/induzido quimicamente , Miosite/mortalidade , Miosite/patologia , Farmacovigilância , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 6(1): 38, 2020 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382051

RESUMO

Cancer immunotherapies have changed the landscape of cancer treatment during the past few decades. Among them, immune checkpoint inhibitors, which target PD-1, PD-L1 and CTLA-4, are increasingly used for certain cancers; however, this increased use has resulted in increased reports of immune-related adverse events (irAEs). These irAEs are unique and are different to those of traditional cancer therapies, and typically have a delayed onset and prolonged duration. IrAEs can involve any organ or system. These effects are frequently low grade and are treatable and reversible; however, some adverse effects can be severe and lead to permanent disorders. Management is primarily based on corticosteroids and other immunomodulatory agents, which should be prescribed carefully to reduce the potential of short-term and long-term complications. Thoughtful management of irAEs is important in optimizing quality of life and long-term outcomes.

18.
Blood Cancer J ; 10(5): 62, 2020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461544

RESUMO

In total, 279 patients with hairy-cell leukemia (HCL) were analyzed, with a median follow-up of 10 years. Data were collected up to June 2018. We analyzed responses to treatment, relapses, survival, and the occurrence of second malignancies during follow-up. The median age was 59 years. In total, 208 patients (75%) were treated with purine analogs (PNAs), either cladribine (159) or pentosatin (49), as the first-line therapy. After a median follow-up of 127 months, the median overall survival was 27 years, and the median relapse-free survival (RFS) was 11 years. The cumulative 10-year relapse incidence was 39%. In patients receiving second-line therapy, the median RFS was 7 years. For the second-line therapy, using the same or another PNA was equivalent. We identified 68 second malignancies in 59 patients: 49 solid cancers and 19 hematological malignancies. The 10-year cumulative incidences of cancers, solid tumors, and hematological malignancies were 15%, 11%, and 5.0%, respectively, and the standardized incidence ratios were 2.22, 1.81, and 6.67, respectively. In multivariate analysis, PNA was not a risk factor for second malignancies. HCL patients have a good long-term prognosis. PNAs are the first-line treatment. HCL patients require long-term follow-up because of their relatively increased risk of second malignancies.

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