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1.
Nat Genet ; 53(1): 86-99, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414553

RESUMO

Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) are resected human tumors engrafted into mice for preclinical studies and therapeutic testing. It has been proposed that the mouse host affects tumor evolution during PDX engraftment and propagation, affecting the accuracy of PDX modeling of human cancer. Here, we exhaustively analyze copy number alterations (CNAs) in 1,451 PDX and matched patient tumor (PT) samples from 509 PDX models. CNA inferences based on DNA sequencing and microarray data displayed substantially higher resolution and dynamic range than gene expression-based inferences, and they also showed strong CNA conservation from PTs through late-passage PDXs. CNA recurrence analysis of 130 colorectal and breast PT/PDX-early/PDX-late trios confirmed high-resolution CNA retention. We observed no significant enrichment of cancer-related genes in PDX-specific CNAs across models. Moreover, CNA differences between patient and PDX tumors were comparable to variations in multiregion samples within patients. Our study demonstrates the lack of systematic copy number evolution driven by the PDX mouse host.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 148(2): 307-319, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851660

RESUMO

Blood lipids have been associated with the development of a range of cancers, including breast, lung and colorectal cancer. For endometrial cancer, observational studies have reported inconsistent associations between blood lipids and cancer risk. To reduce biases from unmeasured confounding, we performed a bidirectional, two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate the relationship between levels of three blood lipids (low-density lipoprotein [LDL] and high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol, and triglycerides) and endometrial cancer risk. Genetic variants associated with each of these blood lipid levels (P < 5 × 10-8 ) were identified as instrumental variables, and assessed using genome-wide association study data from the Endometrial Cancer Association Consortium (12 906 cases and 108 979 controls) and the Global Lipids Genetic Consortium (n = 188 578). Mendelian randomization analyses found genetically raised LDL cholesterol levels to be associated with lower risks of endometrial cancer of all histologies combined, and of endometrioid and non-endometrioid subtypes. Conversely, higher genetically predicted HDL cholesterol levels were associated with increased risk of non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. After accounting for the potential confounding role of obesity (as measured by genetic variants associated with body mass index), the association between genetically predicted increased LDL cholesterol levels and lower endometrial cancer risk remained significant, especially for non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. There was no evidence to support a role for triglycerides in endometrial cancer development. Our study supports a role for LDL and HDL cholesterol in the development of non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. Further studies are required to understand the mechanisms underlying these findings.

3.
Cell Death Differ ; 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328572

RESUMO

The BCL2 family of proteins regulate apoptosis by controlling mitochondrial outer membrane permeability. However, the effects on mitochondrial structure and bioenergetics have also been reported. Here we comprehensively characterized the effects of BCL2 and BCL(X)L on cellular energetics in MCF7 breast cancer cells using time-lapse confocal single-cell imaging and mitochondrial and cytosolic FRET reporters. We found that BCL2 and BCL(X)L increase the metabolic robustness of MCF7 cells, and that this was associated with increased mitochondrial NAD(P)H and ATP levels. Experiments with the F1F0 synthase inhibitor oligomycin demonstrated that BCL2 and in particular BCL(X)L, while not affecting ATP synthase activity, more efficiently coupled the mitochondrial proton motive force with ATP production. This metabolic advantage was associated with an increased resistance to nutrient deprivation and enhanced clonogenic survival in response to metabolic stress, in the absence of profound effects on cell death. Our data suggest that a primary function of BCL(X)L and BCL2 overexpression in tumor cells is to increase their resistance to metabolic stress in the tumor microenvironment, independent of cell death signaling.

4.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 2020 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361087

RESUMO

Interleukin-1ß (IL1ß) is a central mediator of inflammation. Secretion of IL1ß typically requires proteolytic maturation by the inflammasome and formation of membrane pores by gasdermin D (GSDMD). Emerging evidence suggests an important role for IL1ß in promoting cancer progression in patients, but the underlying mechanisms are ill-defined. Here, we have shown a key role for IL1ß in driving tumor progression in two distinct mouse tumor models. Notably, activation of the inflammasome, caspase-8 as well as the pore-forming proteins GSDMD and mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) in the host were dispensable for the release of intratumoral bioactive IL1ß. Inflammasome-independent IL1ß release promoted systemic neutrophil expansion and fostered accumulation of T-cell suppressive neutrophils in the tumor. Moreover, IL1ß was essential for neutrophil infiltration triggered by antiangiogenic therapy, thereby contributing to treatment-induced immunosuppression. Deletion of IL1ß allowed intratumoral accumulation of CD8+ effector T cells that subsequently activated tumor-associated macrophages. Depletion of either CD8+ T cells or macrophages abolished tumor growth inhibition in IL1ß-deficient mice, demonstrating a crucial role for CD8+ T cell-macrophage crosstalk in the antitumor immune response. Overall, these results support a tumor-promoting role for IL1ß through establishing an immunosuppressive microenvironment and show that inflammasome activation is not essential for release of this cytokine in tumors.

5.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The Hippo pathway and its downstream effectors YAP and TAZ (YAP/TAZ) are heralded as important regulators of organ growth and regeneration. However, different studies provided contradictory conclusions about their role during regeneration of different organs, ranging from promoting proliferation to inhibiting it. Here we resolve the function of YAP/TAZ during regeneration of the liver, where Hippo's role in growth control has been studied most intensely. METHODS: We evaluated liver regeneration after carbon tetrachloride toxic liver injury in mice with conditional deletion of Yap/Taz in hepatocytes and/or biliary epithelial cells, and measured the behavior of different cell types during regeneration by histology, RNA sequencing, and flow cytometry. RESULTS: We found that YAP/TAZ were activated in hepatocytes in response to carbon tetrachloride toxic injury. However, their targeted deletion in adult hepatocytes did not noticeably impair liver regeneration. In contrast, Yap/Taz deletion in adult bile ducts caused severe defects and delay in liver regeneration. Mechanistically, we showed that Yap/Taz mutant bile ducts degenerated, causing cholestasis, which stalled the recruitment of phagocytic macrophages and the removal of cellular corpses from injury sites. Elevated bile acids activated pregnane X receptor, which was sufficient to recapitulate the phenotype observed in mutant mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that YAP/TAZ are practically dispensable in hepatocytes for liver development and regeneration. Rather, YAP/TAZ play an indirect role in liver regeneration by preserving bile duct integrity and securing immune cell recruitment and function.

6.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(23): 6254-6265, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943456

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) represents the second most common histologic breast cancer subtype after invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). While primary ILC has been extensively studied, metastatic ILC has been poorly characterized at the genomic and immune level. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We retrospectively assembled the multicentric EuroILC series of matched primary and metastatic samples from 94 patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive ILC. Stromal tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (sTILs) were assessed by experienced pathologists. Targeted sequencing and low pass whole-genome sequencing were conducted to detect mutations and copy-number aberrations (CNAs). We compared the frequencies of the alterations in EuroILC with those from patients with ER-positive metastatic ILC (n = 135) and IDC (n = 563) from MSK-IMPACT. RESULTS: Low sTIL levels were observed in ILC metastases, with higher levels in the mixed nonclassic histology. Considering ILC metastases from EuroILC and MSK-IMPACT, we observed that >50% of tumors harbor genomic alterations that have previously been associated with endocrine resistance. A matched primary/metastasis comparison in EuroILC revealed mutations (AKT1, ARID1A, ESR1, ERBB2, or NF1) and CNAs (PTEN or NF1 deletion, CYP19A1 amplification) associated with endocrine resistance that were private to the metastasis in 22% (7/32) and 19% (4/21) of patients, respectively. An increase in CDH1, ERBB2, FOXA1, and TBX3 mutations, in CDH1 deletions and a decrease in TP53 mutations was observed in ILC as compared with IDC metastases. CONCLUSIONS: ILC metastases harbor genomic alterations that may potentially explain endocrine resistance in a large proportion of patients, and present genomic differences as compared with IDC metastases.

7.
Diabetologia ; 63(10): 2235-2248, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734440

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes and a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness. Despite recent advances, our understanding of its pathophysiology remains incomplete. The aim of this study was to provide deeper insight into the complex network of molecular and cellular changes that underlie diabetic retinopathy by systematically mapping the transcriptional changes that occur in the different cellular compartments of the degenerating diabetic mouse retina. METHODS: Single-cell RNA sequencing was performed on retinal tissue from 12-week-old wild-type and Akimba (Ins2Akita×Vegfa+/-) mice, which are known to replicate features of clinical diabetic retinopathy. This resulted in transcriptome data for 9474 retinal cells, which could be annotated to eight distinct retinal cell types. Using STRING analysis, we studied differentially expressed gene networks in neuronal, glial and immune cell compartments to create a comprehensive view on the pathological changes that occur in the Akimba retina. Using subclustering analysis, we further characterised macroglial and inflammatory cell subpopulations. Prominent findings were confirmed at the protein level using immunohistochemistry, western blotting and ELISA. RESULTS: At 12 weeks, the Akimba retina was found to display degeneration of rod photoreceptors and presence of inflammatory cells, identified by subclustering analysis as monocyte, macrophage and microglial populations. Analysis of differentially expressed genes in the rod, cone, bipolar cell and macroglial compartments indicated changes in cell metabolism and ribosomal gene expression, gliosis, activation of immune system pathways and redox and metal ion dyshomeostasis. Experiments at the protein level supported a metabolic shift from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase), activation of microglia/macrophages (isolectin-B4), metal ion and oxidative stress response (metallothionein and haem oxygenase-1) and reactive macroglia (glial fibrillary acidic protein and S100) in the Akimba retina, compared with wild-type mice. Our single-cell approach also indicates macroglial subpopulations with distinct fibrotic, inflammatory and gliotic profiles. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our study identifies molecular pathways underlying inflammatory, metabolic and oxidative stress-mediated changes in the Akimba mouse model of diabetic retinopathy and distinguishes distinct functional subtypes of inflammatory and macroglial cells. DATA AVAILABILITY: RNA-seq data have been deposited in the ArrayExpress database at EMBL-EBI ( www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress ) under accession number E-MTAB-9061. Graphical abstract.

8.
Gynecol Oncol ; 158(3): 702-709, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641237

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prior studies of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and ovarian cancer survival have been limited by lack of hormone regimen detail and insufficient sample sizes. To address these limitations, a comprehensive analysis of 6419 post-menopausal women with pathologically confirmed ovarian carcinoma was conducted to examine the association between MHT use prior to diagnosis and survival. METHODS: Data from 15 studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium were included. MHT use was examined by type (estrogen-only (ET) or estrogen+progestin (EPT)), duration, and recency of use relative to diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the association between hormone therapy use and survival. Logistic regression and mediation analysis was used to explore the relationship between MHT use and residual disease following debulking surgery. RESULTS: Use of ET or EPT for at least five years prior to diagnosis was associated with better ovarian cancer survival (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.87). Among women with advanced stage, high-grade serous carcinoma, those who used MHT were less likely to have any macroscopic residual disease at the time of primary debulking surgery (p for trend <0.01 for duration of MHT use). Residual disease mediated some (17%) of the relationship between MHT and survival. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-diagnosis MHT use for 5+ years was a favorable prognostic factor for women with ovarian cancer. This large study is consistent with prior smaller studies, and further work is needed to understand the underlying mechanism.

10.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 182, 2020 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypoxia is pervasive in cancer and other diseases. Cells sense and adapt to hypoxia by activating hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs), but it is still an outstanding question why cell types differ in their transcriptional response to hypoxia. RESULTS: We report that HIFs fail to bind CpG dinucleotides that are methylated in their consensus binding sequence, both in in vitro biochemical binding assays and in vivo studies of differentially methylated isogenic cell lines. Based on in silico structural modeling, we show that 5-methylcytosine indeed causes steric hindrance in the HIF binding pocket. A model wherein cell-type-specific methylation landscapes, as laid down by the differential expression and binding of other transcription factors under normoxia, control cell-type-specific hypoxia responses is observed. We also discover ectopic HIF binding sites in repeat regions which are normally methylated. Genetic and pharmacological DNA demethylation, but also cancer-associated DNA hypomethylation, expose these binding sites, inducing HIF-dependent expression of cryptic transcripts. In line with such cryptic transcripts being more prone to cause double-stranded RNA and viral mimicry, we observe low DNA methylation and high cryptic transcript expression in tumors with high immune checkpoint expression, but not in tumors with low immune checkpoint expression, where they would compromise tumor immunotolerance. In a low-immunogenic tumor model, DNA demethylation upregulates cryptic transcript expression in a HIF-dependent manner, causing immune activation and reducing tumor growth. CONCLUSIONS: Our data elucidate the mechanism underlying cell-type-specific responses to hypoxia and suggest DNA methylation and hypoxia to underlie tumor immunotolerance.

11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9778, 2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555399

RESUMO

Chemotherapy combined with the angiogenesis inhibitor bevacizumab (BVZ) is approved as a first-line treatment in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Limited clinical benefit underpins the need for improved understanding of resistance mechanisms and the elucidation of novel predictive biomarkers. We assessed germline single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 180 mCRC patients (Angiopredict [APD] cohort) treated with combined BVZ + chemotherapy and investigated previously reported predictive SNPs. We further employed a machine learning approach to identify novel associations. In the APD cohort IL8 rs4073 any A carriers, compared to TT carriers, were associated with worse progression-free survival (PFS) (HR = 1.51, 95% CI:1.03-2.22, p-value = 0.037) and TBK1 rs7486100 TT carriers, compared to any A carriers, were associated with worse PFS in KRAS wild-type (wt) patients (HR = 1.94, 95% CI:1.04-3.61, p-value = 0.037), replicating previous findings. Machine learning identified novel associations in genes encoding the inflammasome protein NLRP1 and the ER protein Sarcalumenin (SRL). A negative association between PFS and carriers of any A at NLRP1 rs12150220 and AA for SRL rs13334970 in APD KRAS wild-type patients (HR = 4.44, 95% CI:1.23-16.13, p-value = 0.005), which validated in two independent clinical cohorts involving BVZ, MAVERICC and TRIBE. Our findings highlight a key role for inflammation and ER signalling underpinning BVZ + chemotherapy responsiveness.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Idoso , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Transdução de Sinais
12.
EBioMedicine ; 56: 102793, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In breast cancer (BC), axillary lymph node (ALN) involvement is one of the strongest adverse prognostic factors. However, it is unclear whether loco-regional lymph node deposits are effectively the root of secondary metastases or only an indicator of competence of the primary tumour to spread to distant organs. METHODS: Here, we investigated the evolutionary trajectories of primary tumour, ALN and distant metastasis samples from 16 estrogen-receptor (ER)-positive lymph node-positive BC patients. Low-pass whole genome sequencing was performed to infer somatic copy number aberrations and the phylogenetic profiles for all patients were obtained. FINDINGS: We show that lymph nodes and distant metastases shared a common origin in only 25% of the cases highlighting that the predominant route of metastatic dissemination is the direct seeding of tumour cells from the primary tumour to distant organs, independently of lymph node metastasis. Noticeably, patients sharing a common origin significantly have worse prognosis. INTERPRETATION: Our results shed light on the routes on which tumour cells metastasize and their role in disease progression in ER-positive BC. FUNDING: This work has received financial support from Les Amis de l'Institut Bordet, MEDIC, the Breast Cancer Research Foundation (BCRF), the Belgian Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique (F.R.S-FNRS) and from a grant of the Région Wallonne.

13.
Cell Res ; 30(9): 745-762, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561858

RESUMO

The stromal compartment of the tumor microenvironment consists of a heterogeneous set of tissue-resident and tumor-infiltrating cells, which are profoundly moulded by cancer cells. An outstanding question is to what extent this heterogeneity is similar between cancers affecting different organs. Here, we profile 233,591 single cells from patients with lung, colorectal, ovary and breast cancer (n = 36) and construct a pan-cancer blueprint of stromal cell heterogeneity using different single-cell RNA and protein-based technologies. We identify 68 stromal cell populations, of which 46 are shared between cancer types and 22 are unique. We also characterise each population phenotypically by highlighting its marker genes, transcription factors, metabolic activities and tissue-specific expression differences. Resident cell types are characterised by substantial tissue specificity, while tumor-infiltrating cell types are largely shared across cancer types. Finally, by applying the blueprint to melanoma tumors treated with checkpoint immunotherapy and identifying a naïve CD4+ T-cell phenotype predictive of response to checkpoint immunotherapy, we illustrate how it can serve as a guide to interpret scRNA-seq data. In conclusion, by providing a comprehensive blueprint through an interactive web server, we generate the first panoramic view on the shared complexity of stromal cells in different cancers.

14.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 85(6): 1141-1152, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468081

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tamoxifen is part of endocrine therapy in breast cancer treatment. Studies have indicated the use of endoxifen concentrations, tamoxifen active metabolite, to guide tamoxifen efficacy. Three endoxifen thresholds have been suggested (5.9 ng/ml, 5.2 ng/ml and 3.3 ng/ml) for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Our aim was to validate these thresholds and to examine endoxifen exposure with clinical outcome in early-breast cancer patients using tamoxifen. METHODS: Data from 667 patients from the CYPTAM study (NTR1509) were available. Patients were stratified (above or below), according to the endoxifen threshold values for tamoxifen efficacy and tested by Cox regression. Logistic regressions to estimate the probability of relapse and tamoxifen discontinuation were performed. RESULTS: None of the thresholds showed a statistically significant difference in relapse-free survival: 5.2 ng/ml threshold: hazard ratio (HR): 2.545, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.912-7.096, p value: 0.074; 3.3 ng/ml threshold: HR: 0.728; 95% CI 0.421-1.258, p value: 0.255. Logistic regression did not show a statistically significant association between the risk of relapse (odds ratio (OR): 0.971 (95% CI 0.923-1.021, p value: 0.248) and the risk for tamoxifen discontinuation (OR: 1.006 95% CI 0.961-1.053, p value: 0.798) with endoxifen concentrations. CONCLUSION: Our findings do not confirm the endoxifen threshold values for TDM nor does it allow definition of a novel threshold. These findings indicate a limited value of TDM to guide tamoxifen efficacy.

15.
Nat Genet ; 52(6): 594-603, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451460

RESUMO

Immunotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer is effective only for mismatch repair-deficient tumors with high microsatellite instability that demonstrate immune infiltration, suggesting that tumor cells can determine their immune microenvironment. To understand this cross-talk, we analyzed the transcriptome of 91,103 unsorted single cells from 23 Korean and 6 Belgian patients. Cancer cells displayed transcriptional features reminiscent of normal differentiation programs, and genetic alterations that apparently fostered immunosuppressive microenvironments directed by regulatory T cells, myofibroblasts and myeloid cells. Intercellular network reconstruction supported the association between cancer cell signatures and specific stromal or immune cell populations. Our collective view of the cellular landscape and intercellular interactions in colorectal cancer provide mechanistic information for the design of efficient immuno-oncology treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Linhagem da Célula , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Mucosa Gástrica/imunologia , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Análise de Célula Única , Células Estromais/patologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
16.
Elife ; 92020 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32420869

RESUMO

Current methods for single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) of yeast cells do not match the throughput and relative simplicity of the state-of-the-art techniques that are available for mammalian cells. In this study, we report how 10x Genomics' droplet-based single-cell RNA sequencing technology can be modified to allow analysis of yeast cells. The protocol, which is based on in-droplet spheroplasting of the cells, yields an order-of-magnitude higher throughput in comparison to existing methods. After extensive validation of the method, we demonstrate its use by studying the dynamics of the response of isogenic yeast populations to a shift in carbon source, revealing the heterogeneity and underlying molecular processes during this shift. The method we describe opens new avenues for studies focusing on yeast cells, as well as other cells with a degradable cell wall.

17.
Stem Cell Reports ; 14(4): 717-729, 2020 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243841

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer (OC) represents the most dismal gynecological cancer. Pathobiology is poorly understood, mainly due to lack of appropriate study models. Organoids, defined as self-developing three-dimensional in vitro reconstructions of tissues, provide powerful tools to model human diseases. Here, we established organoid cultures from patient-derived OC, in particular from the most prevalent high-grade serous OC (HGSOC). Testing multiple culture medium components identified neuregulin-1 (NRG1) as key factor in maximizing OC organoid development and growth, although overall derivation efficiency remained moderate (36% for HGSOC patients, 44% for all patients together). Established organoid lines showed patient tumor-dependent morphology and disease characteristics, and recapitulated the parent tumor's marker expression and mutational landscape. Moreover, the organoids displayed tumor-specific sensitivity to clinical HGSOC chemotherapeutic drugs. Patient-derived OC organoids provide powerful tools for the study of the cancer's pathobiology (such as importance of the NRG1/ERBB pathway) as well as advanced preclinical tools for (personalized) drug screening and discovery.

18.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 181(2): 423-434, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three tools are currently available to predict the risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC). We aimed to compare the performance of the Manchester formula, CBCrisk, and PredictCBC in patients with invasive breast cancer (BC). METHODS: We analyzed data of 132,756 patients (4682 CBC) from 20 international studies with a median follow-up of 8.8 years. Prediction performance included discrimination, quantified as a time-dependent Area-Under-the-Curve (AUC) at 5 and 10 years after diagnosis of primary BC, and calibration, quantified as the expected-observed (E/O) ratio at 5 and 10 years and the calibration slope. RESULTS: The AUC at 10 years was: 0.58 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.57-0.59) for CBCrisk; 0.60 (95% CI 0.59-0.61) for the Manchester formula; 0.63 (95% CI 0.59-0.66) and 0.59 (95% CI 0.56-0.62) for PredictCBC-1A (for settings where BRCA1/2 mutation status is available) and PredictCBC-1B (for the general population), respectively. The E/O at 10 years: 0.82 (95% CI 0.51-1.32) for CBCrisk; 1.53 (95% CI 0.63-3.73) for the Manchester formula; 1.28 (95% CI 0.63-2.58) for PredictCBC-1A and 1.35 (95% CI 0.65-2.77) for PredictCBC-1B. The calibration slope was 1.26 (95% CI 1.01-1.50) for CBCrisk; 0.90 (95% CI 0.79-1.02) for PredictCBC-1A; 0.81 (95% CI 0.63-0.99) for PredictCBC-1B, and 0.39 (95% CI 0.34-0.43) for the Manchester formula. CONCLUSIONS: Current CBC risk prediction tools provide only moderate discrimination and the Manchester formula was poorly calibrated. Better predictors and re-calibration are needed to improve CBC prediction and to identify low- and high-CBC risk patients for clinical decision-making.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/patologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Agências Internacionais , Mastectomia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/metabolismo , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
19.
Transl Oncol ; 13(3): 100743, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a very lethal disease that can develop therapy resistance over time. The dense stroma in PDAC plays a critical role in tumor progression and resistance. How this stroma interacts with the tumor cells and how this is influenced by chemotherapy remain poorly understood. METHODS: The backbone of this study is the parallel transcriptome analysis of human tumor and mouse stroma in two molecular and clinical representative patient-derived tumor xenografts models. Mice (8 animals per group) were treated for 4 weeks with gemcitabine or control. We studied tumor growth, RNA expression in the stroma, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) with immunofluorescence, and cytokines in the serum. RESULTS: A method for parallel transcriptome analysis was optimized. We found that the tumor (differentiation, gene expression) determines the infiltration of macrophages into the stroma. In aggressive PDAC (epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition high), we find more M2 polarized TAMs and the activation of cytokines and growth factors (TNFα, TGFß1, and IL6). There are increased stromal glycolysis, reduced fatty acid oxidation, and reduced mitochondrial oxidation (tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation). Treatment with gemcitabine results in a shift of innate immune cells, especially additional infiltration of protumoral M2 TAMs (P < .001) and metabolic reprogramming. CONCLUSIONS: Gemcitabine treatment of PDAC xenografts stimulates a protumoral macrophage phenotype, and this, in combination with a shift of the tumor cells to a mesenchymal phenotype that we reported previously, contributes to tumor progression and therapeutic resistance. Targeting M2-polarized TAMs may benefit PDAC patients at risk to become refractory to current anticancer regimens.

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