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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2206: 223-232, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754821

RESUMO

Exiting developments in tissue engineering and new insights in stem cell biology have led to new possible strategies for the regeneration of damaged tissues in the oral cavity. The regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex regeneration in particular, has drawn the attention of many researchers because of the high clinical needs. While it is still important to perform in vitro research using a wide variety of cells, scaffolds and growth factors, it is also critical to have a reliable animal model for preclinical trials. In this chapter, we describe a mouse model in which a scaffold resembling a tooth containing dental pulp cells is implanted subcutaneously. We also describe which histological stainings could be used to examine blood vessel formation and the regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex.

2.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 54(5): 809-824, 2020 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: High-molecular-weight advanced glycation end-products (HMW-AGEs) are abundantly present in our Western diet. There is growing evidence reporting that HMW-AGEs contribute to the development of cardiovascular dysfunction in vivo, next to the well-known low-molecular-weight AGEs. The goal of our study is to assess the ultrastructure and function of cardiomyocytes after chronic exposure to HMW-AGEs. A better understanding of underlying mechanisms is essential to create new opportunities for further research on the specific role of HMW-AGEs in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: Adult male rats were randomly assigned to daily intraperitoneal injection for six weeks with either HMW-AGEs (20 mg/kg/day) or a control solution. Hemodynamic measurements were performed at sacrifice. Single cardiomyocytes from the left ventricle were obtained by enzymatic dissociation through retrograde perfusion of the aorta. Unloaded cell shortening, time to peak and time to 50% relaxation were measured during field stimulation and normalized to diastolic length. L-type Ca2+ current density (ICaL) and steady-state inactivation of ICaL were measured during whole-cell ruptured patch clamp. Myofilament functional properties were measured in membrane-permeabilized cardiomyocytes. Ultrastructural examination of cardiac tissue was performed using electron microscopy. RESULTS: Rats injected with HMW-AGEs displayed in vivo cardiac dysfunction, characterized by significant changes in left ventricular peak rate pressure rise and decline accompanied with an increased heart mass. Single cardiomyocytes isolated from the left ventricle revealed concentric hypertrophy, indicated by the increase in cellular width. Unloaded fractional cell shortening was significantly reduced in cells derived from the HMW-AGEs group and was associated with slower kinetics. Peak L-type Ca2+ current density was significantly decreased in the HMW-AGEs group.L-type Ca2+ channel availability was significantly shifted towards more negative potentials after HMW-AGEs injection. The impact of HMW-AGEs on myofilament function was measured in membrane-permeabilized cardiomyocytes showing a reduction in passive force, maximal Ca2+ activated force and rate of force development. Ultrastructural examination of cardiac tissue demonstrated adverse structural remodeling in HMW-AGEs group characterized by a disruption of the cyto-architecture, a decreased mitochondrial density and altered mitochondrial function. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that HMW-AGEs induce structural and functional cellular remodeling via a different working mechanism as the well-known LMW-AGEs. Results of our research open the door for new strategies targeting HMW-AGEs to improve cardiac outcome.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12220, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699285

RESUMO

Growing evidence supports the role of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the development of diabetic vascular complications and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). We have shown that high-molecular-weight AGEs (HMW-AGEs), present in our Western diet, impair cardiac function. Whether HMW-AGEs affect vascular function remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the impact of chronic HMW-AGEs exposure on vascular function and structure. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were daily injected with HMW-AGEs or control solution for 6 weeks. HMW-AGEs animals showed intracardiac pressure overload, characterized by increased systolic and mean pressures. The contraction response to PE was increased in aortic rings from the HMW-AGEs group. Relaxation in response to ACh, but not SNP, was impaired by HMW-AGEs. This was associated with reduced plasma cyclic GMP levels. SOD restored ACh-induced relaxation of HMW-AGEs animals to control levels, accompanied by a reduced half-maximal effective dose (EC50). Finally, collagen deposition and intima-media thickness of the aortic vessel wall were increased with HMW-AGEs. Our data demonstrate that chronic HMW-AGEs exposure causes adverse vascular remodelling. This is characterised by disturbed vasomotor function due to increased oxidative stress and structural changes in the aorta, suggesting an important contribution of HMW-AGEs in the development of CVDs.

4.
Cells ; 9(4)2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32326610

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative and inflammatory joint disorder with cartilage loss. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) can undergo chondrogenic differentiation and secrete growth factors associated with tissue repair and immunomodulation. Leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) emerges in regenerative medicine because of its growth factor content and fibrin matrix. This study evaluates the therapeutic application of DPSCs and L-PRF in OA via immunomodulation and cartilage regeneration. Chondrogenic differentiation of DPSCs, with or without L-PRF exudate (ex) and conditioned medium (CM), and of bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells was compared. These cells showed differential chondrogenesis. L-PRF was unable to increase cartilage-associated components. Immature murine articular chondrocytes (iMACs) were cultured with L-PRF ex, L-PRF CM, or DPSC CM. L-PRF CM had pro-survival and proliferative effects on unstimulated and cytokine-stimulated iMACs. L-PRF CM stimulated the release of IL-6 and PGE2, and increased MMP-13, TIMP-1 and IL-6 mRNA levels in cytokine-stimulated iMACs. DPSC CM increased the survival and proliferation of unstimulated iMACs. In cytokine-stimulated iMACs, DPSC CM increased TIMP-1 gene expression, whereas it inhibited nitrite release in 3D culture. We showed promising effects of DPSCs in an in vitro OA model, as they undergo chondrogenesis in vitro, stimulate the survival of chondrocytes and have immunomodulatory effects.

5.
J Periodontal Res ; 55(4): 567-573, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32154923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: While osseointegration following various dental implant placement protocols has been extensively investigated, the neurohistological integration has received little attention. The primary aim of this study was to compare the myelinated nerve fibers density in peri-implant bone tissue following various implant placement protocols. The secondary aim assessed the effect of follow-up on peri-implant nerve fibers density. METHODS: Ten beagle dogs randomly received 68 commercially pure titanium implants in the mandibular premolar or molar region bilaterally following extraction utilizing one of the six treatment protocols: (a) immediate implant placement (IIP) and immediate loading (IL); (b) IIP and delayed loading (DL); (c) IIP and left unloaded (UL); (d) delayed implant placement (DIP) and IL; (e) DIP and DL; and (f) DIP and UL. Histomorphometric analysis of the peri-implant myelinated nerve fibers was performed in a 300 µm peri-implant zone at the cervical, middle, and apical level following implant placement. The follow-up assessment involved longitudinal observation at 3 months following each implant treatment protocol and at 6 months for IIP+IL and IIP+DL protocols. RESULTS: The influence of different treatment protocols, including the fixed effects of implant groups (IIP+IL, IIP+DL, IIP+UL, DIP+IL, DIP+DL, DIP+UL) and regions (cervical, middle, apical), was examined via a linear mixed model. The IIP+IL group showed a significantly higher myelinated nerve density compared to the IIP+UL and DIP+UL group. Peri-implant nerve re-innervation was significantly higher (P = .002) in the apical region compared to the cervical region. After immediate implant placement, the IL group showed a significantly (P = .03) higher density of myelinated nerve fibers compared to DL. No significant (P = .19) effect of follow-up on nerve density was observed. CONCLUSION: The immediate implant placement and loading protocol showed most beneficial effect on peri-implant innervation with highest myelinated nerve density in the apical region. A longer loading time had no influence on the peri-implant nerve density.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220219

RESUMO

Tissue engineering aims to structurally and functionally regenerate damaged tissues, which requires the formation of new blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients by the process of angiogenesis. Stem cells are a promising tool in regenerative medicine due to their combined differentiation and paracrine angiogenic capacities. The study of their proangiogenic properties and associated potential for tissue regeneration requires complex in vivo models comprising all steps of the angiogenic process. The highly vascularized extraembryonic chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of fertilized chicken eggs offers a simple, easy accessible, and cheap angiogenic screening tool compared to other animal models. Although the CAM assay was initially primarily performed for evaluation of tumor growth and metastasis, stem cell studies using this model are increasing. In this review, a detailed summary of angiogenic observations of different mesenchymal, cardiac, and endothelial stem cell types and derivatives in the CAM model is presented. Moreover, we focus on the variation in experimental setup, including the benefits and limitations of in ovo and ex ovo protocols, diverse biological and synthetic scaffolds, imaging techniques, and outcome measures of neovascularization. Finally, advantages and disadvantages of the CAM assay as a model for angiogenesis in tissue engineering in comparison with alternative in vivo animal models are described. Impact statement The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay is an easy and cheap screening tool for the angiogenic properties of stem cells and their associated potential in the tissue engineering field. This review offers an overview of all published angiogenic studies of stem cells using this model, with emphasis on the variation in used experimental timeline, culture protocol (in ovo vs. ex ovo), stem cell type (derivatives), scaffolds, and outcome measures of vascularization. The purpose of this overview is to aid tissue engineering researchers to determine the ideal CAM experimental setup based on their specific study goals.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2113, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034200

RESUMO

Assessing the possible biological effects of exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation (IR) is one of the prime challenges in radiation protection, especially in medical imaging. Today, radiobiological data on cone beam CT (CBCT) related biological effects are scarce. In children and adults, the induction of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in buccal mucosa cells and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) and antioxidant capacity in saliva samples after CBCT examination were examined. No DNA DSBs induction was observed in children nor adults. In children only, an increase in 8-oxo-dG levels was observed 30 minutes after CBCT. At the same time an increase in antioxidant capacity was observed in children, whereas a decrease was observed in adults. Our data indicate that children and adults react differently to IR doses associated with CBCT. Fully understanding these differences could lead to an optimal use of CBCT in different age categories as well as improved radiation protection guidelines.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(9): 5028-5038, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32071226

RESUMO

The brain's endogenous capacity to restore damaged myelin deteriorates during the course of demyelinating disorders. Currently, no treatment options are available to establish remyelination. Chronic demyelination leads to damaged axons and irreversible destruction of the central nervous system (CNS). We identified two promising therapeutic candidates which enhance remyelination: oncostatin M (OSM), a member of the interleukin-6 family, and downstream mediator tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1). While remyelination was completely abrogated in OSMRß knockout (KO) mice, OSM overexpression in the chronically demyelinated CNS established remyelination. Astrocytic TIMP-1 was demonstrated to play a pivotal role in OSM-mediated remyelination. Astrocyte-derived TIMP-1 drove differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells into mature oligodendrocytes in vitro. In vivo, TIMP-1 deficiency completely abolished spontaneous remyelination, phenocopying OSMRß KO mice. Finally, TIMP-1 was expressed by human astrocytes in demyelinated multiple sclerosis lesions, confirming the human value of our findings. Taken together, OSM and its downstream mediator TIMP-1 have the therapeutic potential to boost remyelination in demyelinating disorders.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/metabolismo , Oncostatina M/metabolismo , Remielinização/fisiologia , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1/metabolismo , Animais , Astrócitos/patologia , Axônios , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Doenças Desmielinizantes/metabolismo , Doenças Desmielinizantes/patologia , Humanos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Esclerose Múltipla/metabolismo , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Bainha de Mielina , Células Precursoras de Oligodendrócitos , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1/genética
9.
Cells ; 9(2)2020 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012900

RESUMO

Blood vessel formation or angiogenesis is a key process for successful tooth regeneration. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) possess paracrine proangiogenic properties, which are, at least partially, induced by their extracellular vesicles (EVs). However, the isolation of BM-MSCs is associated with several drawbacks, which could be overcome by MSC-like cells of the teeth, called dental pulp stromal cells (DPSCs). This study aims to compare the angiogenic content and functions of DPSC and BM-MSC EVs and conditioned medium (CM). The angiogenic protein profile of DPSC- and BM-MSC-derived EVs, CM and EV-depleted CM was screened by an antibody array and confirmed by ELISA. Functional angiogenic effects were tested in transwell migration and chicken chorioallantoic membrane assays. All secretion fractions contained several pro- and anti-angiogenic proteins and induced in vitro endothelial cell motility. This chemotactic potential was higher for (EV-depleted) CM, compared to EVs with a stronger effect for BM-MSCs. Finally, BM-MSC CM, but not DPSC CM, nor EVs, increased in ovo angiogenesis. In conclusion, we showed that DPSCs are less potent in relation to endothelial cell chemotaxis and in ovo neovascularization, compared to BM-MSCs, which emphasizes the importance of choice of cell type and secretion fraction for stem cell-based regenerative therapies in inducing angiogenesis.

10.
J Exp Med ; 217(5)2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097464

RESUMO

Failure of remyelination underlies the progressive nature of demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Macrophages and microglia are crucially involved in the formation and repair of demyelinated lesions. Here we show that myelin uptake temporarily skewed these phagocytes toward a disease-resolving phenotype, while sustained intracellular accumulation of myelin induced a lesion-promoting phenotype. This phenotypic shift was controlled by stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), an enzyme responsible for the desaturation of saturated fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acids generated by SCD1 reduced the surface abundance of the cholesterol efflux transporter ABCA1, which in turn promoted lipid accumulation and induced an inflammatory phagocyte phenotype. Pharmacological inhibition or phagocyte-specific deficiency of Scd1 accelerated remyelination ex vivo and in vivo. These findings identify SCD1 as a novel therapeutic target to promote remyelination.

11.
Arch Toxicol ; 94(1): 173-186, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677074

RESUMO

Macrophages play a major role in the removal of foreign materials, including nano-sized materials, such as nanomedicines and other nanoparticles, which they accumulate very efficiently. Because of this, it is recognized that for a safe development of nanotechnologies and nanomedicine, it is essential to investigate potential effects induced by nano-sized materials on macrophages. To this aim, in this work, a recently established model of primary murine alveolar-like macrophages was used to investigate macrophage responses to two well-known nanoparticle models: 50 nm amino-modified polystyrene, known to induce cell death via lysosomal damage and apoptosis in different cell types, and 50 nm silica nanoparticles, which are generally considered non-toxic. Then, a time-resolved study was performed to characterize in detail the response of the macrophages following exposure to the two nanoparticles. As expected, exposure to the amino-modified polystyrene led to cell death, but surprisingly no lysosomal swelling or apoptosis were detected. On the contrary, a peculiar mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization was observed, accompanied by endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress), increased cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and changes of metabolic activity, ultimately leading to cell death. Strong toxic responses were observed also after exposure to silica, which included mitochondrial ROS production, mitochondrial depolarization and cell death by apoptosis. Overall, these results showed that exposure to the two nanoparticles led to a very different series of intracellular events, suggesting that the macrophages responded differently to the two nanoparticle models. Similar time-resolved studies are required to characterize the response of macrophages to nanoparticles, as a key parameter in nanosafety assessment.

12.
J Cardiovasc Transl Res ; 13(5): 769-782, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848881

RESUMO

In this study, the effects of moderate intense endurance exercise on heart and kidney function and morphology were studied in a thoracic inferior vena cava constricted (IVCc) rat model of abdominal venous congestion. After IVC surgical constriction, eight sedentary male Sprague-Dawley IVCc rats (IVCc-SED) were compared to eight IVCc rats subjected to moderate intense endurance exercise (IVCc-MOD). Heart and kidney function was examined and renal functional reserve (RFR) was investigated by administering a high protein diet (HPD). After 12 weeks of exercise training, abdominal venous pressure, indices of body fat content, plasma cystatin C levels, and post-HPD urinary KIM-1 levels were all significantly lower in IVCc-MOD versus IVCc-SED rats (P < 0.05). RFR did not differ between both groups. The implementation of moderate intense endurance exercise in the IVCc model reduces abdominal venous pressure and is beneficial to kidney function.

13.
Int J Implant Dent ; 5(1): 40, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autologous plasma fractions, such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma (PPP), contain growth factors that can enhance neural cell survival and are therefore likely to have the ability to promote nerve regeneration. The present study compared the effect of PRP and PPP application on myelinated nerve density and diameter in the peri-implant bone region. In addition, the effect of healing time on nerve regeneration was assessed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine beagle dogs randomly received 54 dental implants in the bilateral mandible according to a split-mouth design. Each implant was randomly assigned to one of three implant protocols: delayed implant placement with delayed loading (DIP + DL) with local application of PRP, DIP + DL with local application of PPP and DIP + DL without any plasma additive. The animals were euthanized at 1, 3, and 6 months after loading (3 dogs per time point). Block biopsies were prepared for histomorphometry in the peri-implant bone within 500 µm around the implants. RESULTS: Myelinated nerve fibers were identified in the trabecular bone and in the osteons near the implants surface. The nerve fibers in the PRP group (median ± IQR; 2.88 ± 1.55 µm) had a significantly (p < 0.05) greater diameter compared to the PPP (2.40 ± 0.91 µm) and control (2.11 ± 1.16 µm) group. The nerve diameter after 6 months healing (3.18 ± 1.58 µm) was significantly (p < 0.05) greater compared to 1 (2.08 ± 0.89 µm) and 3 (2.49 ± 1.22 µm) months. No significant difference was found for myelinated nerve density between groups and healing time. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that the healing time significantly influenced the diameter of the myelinated nerve fibers in peri-implant bone. PRP exerted a significant effect on the diameter of the myelinated nerve fibers as compared to PPP. Large-scale animal studies and longer follow-up periods are needed to confirm these findings and to verify whether platelet plasma can facilitate nerve regeneration process.

14.
Clin Oral Implants Res ; 30(12): 1190-1199, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506979

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the peri-implant trabecular bone volume and architecture changes with 6-month follow-up after local application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) using high-resolution micro-CT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-two dental implants were placed into healed mandibular sites of 9 beagle dogs. Implants were randomly divided into 4 groups following a split-mouth design: control I; control II; PPP; and PRP. Primary and secondary stabilities were assessed using resonance frequency analyses. At 1, 3, and 6 months after implant loading, trabecular structural parameters were evaluated at 0.5, 1, and 1.5 mm away from implants using micro-CT (voxel = 20 µm). RESULTS: Primary and secondary stabilities were equivalent in all conditions. PPP and PRP groups showed higher bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) but lower trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) and total porosity percentage (Po (tot)) at all 3 time points. A significant decrease in BV/TV and Tb.Th was found for the control groups after 3 months of healing, while this was not observed in both the PPP and PRP groups. However, no distinct difference was found between the PRP and PPP groups over time. Moreover, as the investigated distance from the implant surface increased, BV/TV and Po (tot) within the same group and time point stayed the same, yet Tb.Th and Tb.Sp continued to increase. CONCLUSIONS: Platelet-rich plasma and PPP with conventional implant placement lead to similar primary and secondary implant stability, but improved peri-implant bone volume and structural integration. The present research does not seem to suggest a different bone remodeling pattern when using PRP or PPP.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Plasma Rico em Plaquetas , Animais , Cães , Mandíbula , Cicatrização , Microtomografia por Raio-X
15.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1668, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379859

RESUMO

Stroke is the second most common cause of death and permanent disability. It is characterized by loss of neural tissue in which inflammation plays a crucial role in both the acute contribution to ischemic damage as in the late-stage impact on post-ischemic tissue regeneration. Microglia play a key role in the inflammatory stroke microenvironment as they can adapt a disease-promoting pro-inflammatory- or pro-regenerative phenotype thereby contributing to the exacerbation or alleviation of ischemic damage, respectively. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is a cell surface receptor which in the central nervous system is mainly expressed on microglia. This receptor has been shown to play an essential role in microglial phagocytosis and function but its contribution in stroke pathobiology remains unclear. TREM2 was shown to be activated by nucleotides and lipid mediators, key factors that are secreted in the extracellular stroke environment by apoptotic neurons and cell/myelin debris. These factors in turn stimulate TREM2 signaling which mediates microglial migration toward- and phagocytosis of myelin debris and apoptotic cells. Moreover, microglial TREM2 appears to counteract the toll-like receptor response, thereby decreasing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Finally, TREM2 is involved in microglial migration, survival, and is suggested to directly stimulate pro-regenerative phenotype shift. Therefore, this receptor is an attractive target for microglial modulation in the treatment of ischemic stroke and it provides additional information on microglial effector functions. This short review aims to elaborate on these TREM2-mediated microglial functions in the pathobiology and resolving of ischemic stroke.

16.
Anat Cell Biol ; 52(2): 204-207, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338238

RESUMO

A 51-year-old male was routinely biopsied during a paraspinal muscle study. The biopsy sample was taken from the right erector spinae muscle at the fourth lumbar vertebra. The patient had no history of (diagnosed) major back trauma. The obtained sample was histologically analyzed (hematoxylin and eosin, safranin O), and complementary magnetic resonance imaging was performed. The biopsied sample contained chondroid tissue. Based on its location, the biopsy sample was appointed as chondroid metaplasia. Although chondroid metaplasia is not uncommon in humans, this is the first report of chondroid metaplasia within the paraspinal connective tissue. We propose a novel mechanism to explain the paraspinal chrondrogenic changes, related to spinal degeneration.

17.
Front Neurosci ; 13: 561, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275094

RESUMO

Despite the high prevalence and devastating outcome, only a few treatment options for cerebral ischemic stroke exist. Based on the nitric oxide (NO)-stimulating capacity of Non-pulsed Sinusoidal Electromagnetic Field (NP-SEMF) and the possible neuroprotective role of NO in ischemic stroke, we hypothesized that NP-SEMF is able to enhance survival and neurological outcome in a rat model of cerebral ischemia. The animals, in which ischemic injury was induced by occlusion of both common carotid arteries, received 20 min of NP-SEMF of either 10 or 60 Hz daily for 4 days. NP-SEMF dramatically increased survival, reduced the size of the infarcted brain area and significantly improved the neurological score of the surviving rats. Corresponding to previous reports, NP-SEMF was able to induce NO production in vitro. The importance of NO as a key signaling molecule was highlighted by inhibition of the NP-SEMF beneficial effects in the rat stroke model after blocking NO synthase (NOS). Our results indicate for the first time that NP-SEMF exposure (13.5 mT at 60 and 10 Hz) improves the survival and neurological outcome of rats subjected to cerebral ischemia and that this effect is mediated by NO, underlining the great therapeutic potential of NP-SEMF as a therapy for ischemic stroke.

18.
Clin Oral Investig ; 23(7): 2823-2835, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093743

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression has been associated with tissue development, invasive cancer cell behavior, and inflammation. The associations of increased expression of MMPs with diseases have led to intensive research activities to develop MMP inhibitors. Here, the questions are addressed which associations between increased levels of any MMP with dental diseases may be cause or consequence, whether MMP levels may be of diagnostic value and whether and which MMP inhibitors need further investigations for use in dental diseases. METHODS: To study the role of MMPs and to discriminate between cause or consequence, the literature about measurements of MMPs and about the use of inhibitory drugs and genetic knockout animal models in dentistry was compared. RESULTS: The only FDA-approved treatment with MMP inhibitors is tetracyclines for periodontitis, whereas a diagnostic test for activated MMP-8 in oral fluids is valued in practical periodontology. The MMP literature in dentistry is artificially skewed to the gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 and to enamelysin, alias MMP-20. The basis for this observation is, respectively, the widely used and sensitive technique of gelatin zymography and enamel proteins as substrates of MMP-20. Studies on additional MMPs are gaining interest in dentistry and MMP inhibitors may provide new applications. In addition, drugs with proven effects for the treatment of dental diseases may be found to act through MMP inhibition. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: In conclusion, research on MMPs and inhibitors may provide practical applications beyond diagnosis and treatment of periodontitis and will be, directly or indirectly, beneficial for patients with dental or periodontal diseases.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Metaloproteinases de Matriz , Periodontite , Animais , Odontologia/tendências , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico
19.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 17(1): 62, 2019 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) are important for cell therapy in cancer and tissue regeneration. In vitro studies have shown a transient association of 40 nm polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) with these cells, which is of interest for intelligent design and application of NPs in HPC-based regenerative protocols. In this study, we aimed to investigate the involvement of nanoparticles' size and membrane-attached glycan molecules in the interaction of HPCs with PS NPs, and compared it with monocytes. Human cord blood-derived HPCs and THP-1 cells were exposed to fluorescently labelled, carboxylated PS NPs of 40, 100 and 200 nm. Time-dependent nanoparticle membrane association and/or uptake was observed by measuring fluorescence intensity of exposed cells at short time intervals using flow cytometry. By pretreating the cells with neuraminidase, we studied the possible effect of membrane-associated sialic acids in the interaction with NPs. Confocal microscopy was used to visualize the cell-specific character of the NP association. RESULTS: Confocal images revealed that the majority of PS NPs was initially observed to be retained at the outer membrane of HPCs, while the same NPs showed immediate internalization by THP-1 monocytic cells. After prolonged exposure up to 4 h, PS NPs were also observed to enter the HPCs' intracellular compartment. Cell-specific time courses of NP association with HPCs and THP-1 cells remained persistent after cells were enzymatically treated with neuraminidase, but significantly increased levels of NP association could be observed, suggesting a role for membrane-associated sialic acids in this process. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the terminal membrane-associated sialic acids contribute to the NP retention at the outer cell membrane of HPCs. This retention behavior is a unique characteristic of the HPCs and is independent of NP size.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Monócitos/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Ácidos Siálicos/química , Antígenos CD34/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Linhagem Celular , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparações de Ação Retardada/metabolismo , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Poliestirenos , Propriedades de Superfície
20.
Stem Cells Int ; 2019: 8589149, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089335

RESUMO

Pathologies of the central nervous system are characterized by loss of brain tissue and neuronal function which cannot be adequately restored by endogenous repair processes. This stresses the need for novel treatment options such as cell-based therapies that are able to restore damaged tissue or stimulate repair. This study investigated the neuroregenerative potential of the conditioned medium of human dental pulp stem cells (CM-hDPSCs) on neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and migration as well as on neurite outgrowth of primary cortical neurons (pCNs). Additionally, the effect of leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) priming on the neuroregenerative potential of the hDPSC secretome on NSCs and pCNs was evaluated. L-PRF contains factors that enhance stem cell-induced regeneration, but its effect on hDPSC-mediated neuroregeneration is unknown. This study demonstrated that CM-hDPSCs enhanced neuritogenesis. Moreover, CM-hDPSCs had a chemoattractant effect on NSCs. Although priming hDPSCs with L-PRF increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor secretion, no additional effects on the paracrine-mediated repair mechanisms were observed. These data support the neuroregenerative potential of hDPSCs, and although priming had no additional effect, the potential of L-PRF-primed hDPSCs on distinct regenerative mechanisms remains to be clarified.

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