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1.
Lancet ; 394(10205): 1231-1242, 2019 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease globally. Despite proven benefits, hypertension control is poor. We hypothesised that a comprehensive approach to lowering blood pressure and other risk factors, informed by detailed analysis of local barriers, would be superior to usual care in individuals with poorly controlled or newly diagnosed hypertension. We tested whether a model of care involving non-physician health workers (NPHWs), primary care physicians, family, and the provision of effective medications, could substantially reduce cardiovascular disease risk. METHODS: HOPE 4 was an open, community-based, cluster-randomised controlled trial involving 1371 individuals with new or poorly controlled hypertension from 30 communities (defined as townships) in Colombia and Malaysia. 16 communities were randomly assigned to control (usual care, n=727), and 14 (n=644) to the intervention. After community screening, the intervention included treatment of cardiovascular disease risk factors by NPHWs using tablet computer-based simplified management algorithms and counselling programmes; free antihypertensive and statin medications recommended by NPHWs but supervised by physicians; and support from a family member or friend (treatment supporter) to improve adherence to medications and healthy behaviours. The primary outcome was the change in Framingham Risk Score 10-year cardiovascular disease risk estimate at 12 months between intervention and control participants. The HOPE 4 trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01826019. FINDINGS: All communities completed 12-month follow-up (data on 97% of living participants, n=1299). The reduction in Framingham Risk Score for 10-year cardiovascular disease risk was -6·40% (95% CI 8·00 to -4·80) in the control group and -11·17% (-12·88 to -9·47) in the intervention group, with a difference of change of -4·78% (95% CI -7·11 to -2·44, p<0·0001). There was an absolute 11·45 mm Hg (95% CI -14·94 to -7·97) greater reduction in systolic blood pressure, and a 0·41 mmol/L (95% CI -0·60 to -0·23) reduction in LDL with the intervention group (both p<0·0001). Change in blood pressure control status (<140 mm Hg) was 69% in the intervention group versus 30% in the control group (p<0·0001). There were no safety concerns with the intervention. INTERPRETATION: A comprehensive model of care led by NPHWs, involving primary care physicians and family that was informed by local context, substantially improved blood pressure control and cardiovascular disease risk. This strategy is effective, pragmatic, and has the potential to substantially reduce cardiovascular disease compared with current strategies that are typically physician based. FUNDING: Canadian Institutes of Health Research; Grand Challenges Canada; Ontario SPOR Support Unit and the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care; Boehringer Ingelheim; Department of Management of Non-Communicable Diseases, WHO; and Population Health Research Institute. VIDEO ABSTRACT.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Participação da Comunidade/métodos , Hipertensão/complicações , Idoso , Colômbia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Hipertensão/terapia , Malásia , Masculino , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
2.
J. Hypertens ; 37(9): 1813-1821, Jul., 31, 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1015823

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective is to describe hypertension (HTN) prevalence, awareness, treatment and control in urban and rural communities in Latin America to inform public and policy-makers. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis from urban (n = 111) and rural (n = 93) communities including 33 276 participants from six Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru and Uruguay)were included. HTN was defined as self-reported HTN on blood pressure (BP)medication or average BP over 140/90 mmHg, awareness as self-reported HTN, and controlled as those with BP under 140/90 mmHg. RESULTS: Mean age was 52 years,60% were Female and 32% belonged to rural communities. HTN prevalence was 44.0%, with the lowest rates in Peru (17.7%) and the highest rates in Brazil (52.5%)58.9% were aware of HTN diagnosis and 53.3% were receiving treatment. Prevalence of HTN were higher in urban (44.8%) than rural (42.1%) communities in all countries. Most participants who were aware of HTN were receiving medical treatment (90.5%), but only 37.6% of patients receiving medical treatment had their BP controlled (<140/<90 mmHg), with the rates being higher in urban (39.6%) than in rural (32.4%) communities. The rate of use of two or more drugs was low [36.4%, lowest in Argentina (29.6%) and highest in Brazil (44.6%)]. Statin use was low (12.3%), especially in rural areas (7.0%). Most modifiable risk factors were higher in people with HTN than people without HTN. CONCLUSION: HTN prevalence is high but BP control is low in Latin America, with marked differences between countries and between urban and rural settings. There is na urgent need for systematic approaches for better detection, treatment optimization and risk factor modification among those with HTN in Latin America.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , América Latina/epidemiologia
3.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 93(7): 1288-1289, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172679

RESUMO

Current transradial access (TRA) practices are unknown in the United States and the rest of the world. There is a decline in preprocedure collateral assessment, low use of ultrasound, and infrequent radial patency check after hemostasis. Significant knowledge-practice gaps exist in TRA calling for more dissemination and education.

4.
Lancet Glob Health ; 7(5): e613-e623, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The associations between the extent of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) impairment and mortality, incident cardiovascular disease, and respiratory hospitalisations are unclear, and how these associations might vary across populations is unknown. METHODS: In this international, community-based cohort study, we prospectively enrolled adults aged 35-70 years who had no intention of moving residences for 4 years from rural and urban communities across 17 countries. A portable spirometer was used to assess FEV1. FEV1 values were standardised within countries for height, age, and sex, and expressed as a percentage of the country-specific predicted FEV1 value (FEV1%). FEV1% was categorised as no impairment (FEV1% ≥0 SD from country-specific mean), mild impairment (FEV1% <0 SD to -1 SD), moderate impairment (FEV1% <-1 SD to -2 SDs), and severe impairment (FEV1% <-2 SDs [ie, clinically abnormal range]). Follow-up was done every 3 years to collect information on mortality, cardiovascular disease outcomes (including myocardial infarction, stroke, sudden death, or congestive heart failure), and respiratory hospitalisations (from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, pneumonia, tuberculosis, or other pulmonary conditions). Fully adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated by multilevel Cox regression. FINDINGS: Among 126 359 adults with acceptable spirometry data available, during a median 7·8 years (IQR 5·6-9·5) of follow-up, 5488 (4·3%) deaths, 5734 (4·5%) cardiovascular disease events, and 1948 (1·5%) respiratory hospitalisation events occurred. Relative to the no impairment group, mild to severe FEV1% impairments were associated with graded increases in mortality (HR 1·27 [95% CI 1·18-1·36] for mild, 1·74 [1·60-1·90] for moderate, and 2·54 [2·26-2·86] for severe impairment), cardiovascular disease (1·18 [1·10-1·26], 1·39 [1·28-1·51], 2·02 [1·75-2·32]), and respiratory hospitalisation (1·39 [1·24-1·56], 2·02 [1·75-2·32], 2·97 [2·45-3·60]), and this pattern persisted in subgroup analyses considering country income level and various baseline risk factors. Population-attributable risk for mortality (adjusted for age, sex, and country income) from mildly to moderately reduced FEV1% (24·7% [22·2-27·2]) was larger than that from severely reduced FEV1% (3·7% [2·1-5·2]) and from tobacco use (19·7% [17·2-22·3]), previous cardiovascular disease (5·5% [4·5-6·5]), and hypertension (17·1% [14·6-19·6]). Population-attributable risk for cardiovascular disease from mildly to moderately reduced FEV1 was 17·3% (14·8-19·7), second only to the contribution of hypertension (30·1% [27·6-32·5]). INTERPRETATION: FEV1 is an independent and generalisable predictor of mortality, cardiovascular disease, and respiratory hospitalisation, even across the clinically normal range (mild to moderate impairment). FUNDING: Population Health Research Institute, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, AstraZeneca, Sanofi-Aventis, Boehringer Ingelheim, Servier, and GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis, and King Pharma. Additional funders are listed in the appendix.

5.
Lancet Glob Health ; 7(6): e748-e760, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status is associated with differences in risk factors for cardiovascular disease incidence and outcomes, including mortality. However, it is unclear whether the associations between cardiovascular disease and common measures of socioeconomic status-wealth and education-differ among high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries, and, if so, why these differences exist. We explored the association between education and household wealth and cardiovascular disease and mortality to assess which marker is the stronger predictor of outcomes, and examined whether any differences in cardiovascular disease by socioeconomic status parallel differences in risk factor levels or differences in management. METHODS: In this large-scale prospective cohort study, we recruited adults aged between 35 years and 70 years from 367 urban and 302 rural communities in 20 countries. We collected data on families and households in two questionnaires, and data on cardiovascular risk factors in a third questionnaire, which was supplemented with physical examination. We assessed socioeconomic status using education and a household wealth index. Education was categorised as no or primary school education only, secondary school education, or higher education, defined as completion of trade school, college, or university. Household wealth, calculated at the household level and with household data, was defined by an index on the basis of ownership of assets and housing characteristics. Primary outcomes were major cardiovascular disease (a composite of cardiovascular deaths, strokes, myocardial infarction, and heart failure), cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality. Information on specific events was obtained from participants or their family. FINDINGS: Recruitment to the study began on Jan 12, 2001, with most participants enrolled between Jan 6, 2005, and Dec 4, 2014. 160 299 (87·9%) of 182 375 participants with baseline data had available follow-up event data and were eligible for inclusion. After exclusion of 6130 (3·8%) participants without complete baseline or follow-up data, 154 169 individuals remained for analysis, from five low-income, 11 middle-income, and four high-income countries. Participants were followed-up for a mean of 7·5 years. Major cardiovascular events were more common among those with low levels of education in all types of country studied, but much more so in low-income countries. After adjustment for wealth and other factors, the HR (low level of education vs high level of education) was 1·23 (95% CI 0·96-1·58) for high-income countries, 1·59 (1·42-1·78) in middle-income countries, and 2·23 (1·79-2·77) in low-income countries (pinteraction<0·0001). We observed similar results for all-cause mortality, with HRs of 1·50 (1·14-1·98) for high-income countries, 1·80 (1·58-2·06) in middle-income countries, and 2·76 (2·29-3·31) in low-income countries (pinteraction<0·0001). By contrast, we found no or weak associations between wealth and these two outcomes. Differences in outcomes between educational groups were not explained by differences in risk factors, which decreased as the level of education increased in high-income countries, but increased as the level of education increased in low-income countries (pinteraction<0·0001). Medical care (eg, management of hypertension, diabetes, and secondary prevention) seemed to play an important part in adverse cardiovascular disease outcomes because such care is likely to be poorer in people with the lowest levels of education compared to those with higher levels of education in low-income countries; however, we observed less marked differences in care based on level of education in middle-income countries and no or minor differences in high-income countries. INTERPRETATION: Although people with a lower level of education in low-income and middle-income countries have higher incidence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease, they have better overall risk factor profiles. However, these individuals have markedly poorer health care. Policies to reduce health inequities globally must include strategies to overcome barriers to care, especially for those with lower levels of education. FUNDING: Full funding sources are listed at the end of the paper (see Acknowledgments).

6.
J Hypertens ; 37(9): 1813-1821, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964825

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective is to describe hypertension (HTN) prevalence, awareness, treatment and control in urban and rural communities in Latin America to inform public and policy-makers. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis from urban (n = 111) and rural (n = 93) communities including 33 276 participants from six Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru and Uruguay) were included. HTN was defined as self-reported HTN on blood pressure (BP) medication or average BP over 140/90 mmHg, awareness as self-reported HTN, and controlled as those with BP under 140/90 mmHg. RESULTS: Mean age was 52 years, 60% were Female and 32% belonged to rural communities. HTN prevalence was 44.0%, with the lowest rates in Peru (17.7%) and the highest rates in Brazil (52.5%). 58.9% were aware of HTN diagnosis and 53.3% were receiving treatment. Prevalence of HTN were higher in urban (44.8%) than rural (42.1%) communities in all countries. Most participants who were aware of HTN were receiving medical treatment (90.5%), but only 37.6% of patients receiving medical treatment had their BP controlled (<140/<90 mmHg), with the rates being higher in urban (39.6%) than in rural (32.4%) communities. The rate of use of two or more drugs was low [36.4%, lowest in Argentina (29.6%) and highest in Brazil (44.6%)]. Statin use was low (12.3%), especially in rural areas (7.0%). Most modifiable risk factors were higher in people with HTN than people without HTN. CONCLUSION: HTN prevalence is high but BP control is low in Latin America, with marked differences between countries and between urban and rural settings. There is an urgent need for systematic approaches for better detection, treatment optimization and risk factor modification among those with HTN in Latin America.

7.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 93(4): 739, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859731

RESUMO

This study shows excellent transcatheter aortic valve replacement hemodynamic mid-term durability, aligned with prior research up to 5-years. Long-term (10+ years) data are needed before treating young low-risk people with aortic stenosis. Data so far are excellent, indicating a prosperous future for this procedure in young patients.

8.
Rev. argent. cardiol ; 87(1): 21-30, feb. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1003245

RESUMO

RESUMEN Introducción: El acceso radial se ha asociado a numerosos beneficios en angioplastia coronaria en comparación con el acceso femoral. Sin embargo, múltiples registros internacionales han reportado una escasa adherencia a esta técnica. Objetivos: Evaluar la seguridad, la eficacia y la eficiencia operativa de la angioplastia coronaria según la vía de acceso utilizada y el cuadro clínico del paciente. Métodos: Análisis de registro, unicéntrico y retrospectivo de los pacientes con enfermedad coronaria tratados con angioplastia coronaria desde marzo de 2009 a junio de 2018, según el acceso vascular. Se aplicó un modelo de regresión de Cox ajustado para evaluar la relación entre la vía de acceso y el riesgo de eventos cardiovasculares mayores y un modelo de regresión logística para evaluar la relación con el sangrado mayor y las complicaciones del acceso vascular. La eficiencia operativa se evaluó mediante la medición del tiempo de internación total y los costos totales asociados a esta. Resultados: Se incluyeron 8155 angioplastias coronarias (seguimiento promedio 1448,6 ± 714,1 días), mediante acceso radial (n = 5706) o acceso femoral (n = 2449). A los 30 días, el riesgo de eventos cardiovasculares mayores se redujo significativamente con el acceso radial (HR 0,66 [0,5-0,88], p = 0,004), a expensas de una reducción de la mortalidad total. A su vez, el acceso radial redujo significativamente el riesgo de sangrado mayor (HR 0,33 [0,16- 0,67], p = 0,002) y de complicaciones del acceso vascular (HR 0,72 [0,53-0,98], p = 0,038). Se observó una interacción significativa entre la vía de acceso y el riesgo de eventos según el cuadro clínico al ingreso. Se observó una reducción significativa del tiempo total de internación (≈30%) y de sus costos totales (≈15%) mediante el uso del acceso radial. Conclusiones: El uso del acceso radial en angioplastia coronaria es seguro y eficaz en comparación con el acceso femoral, con menores tasas de eventos cardiovasculares mayores a los 30 días, como, así también, un menor riesgo de sangrado mayor y complicaciones del acceso vascular. Asimismo, el acceso radial se asoció con una mayor eficiencia operativa durante la internación.


ABSTRACT Background: Radial access has been associated with many advantages in percutaneous coronary intervention compared with femoral access. However, many international registries have reported poor adherence to this technique. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, efficacy and operational efficiency of percutaneous coronary intervention according to the access site and the clinical presentation of the patient. Methods: A single-center, retrospective registry of patientis with coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention was conducted from March 2009 to June 2018 according to the vascular access. A Cox proportional-hazards model was used to analyze the association between vascular access and risk of major cardiovascular eventis, and a logistic regression model was applied to assess the relationship between major bleeding and access site complications. Total hospital stay and total hospitalization costis were measured to evaluate the operational efficiency. Resultis: A total of 8,155 percutaneous coronary interventions (mean follow-up of 1,448.6±714.1 days), via radial access (n=5,706) or femoral access (n=2,449), were included in the study. At 30 days, the risk of major cardiovascular eventis was significantly lower with the radial access (HR 0.66 [0.5-0.88], p=0.004), at the expense of a reduction in all-cause mortal-ity In addition, radial access significantly reduced the risk of major bleeding (HR 0.33 [0.16-0.67], p=0.002) and access site complications (HR 0.72 [0.53-0.98], p=0.038). A significant interaction was observed between the vascular access site and the risk of eventis according to the clinical presentation at admission. Use of radial access was associated with a significant reduction in the length of total hospital stay (≈30%) and total hospitalization costis (≈15%). Conclusions: The use of radial access in percutaneous coronary intervention was safe and effective compared with the femoral access, with lower rates of major cardiovascular eventis at 30 days, lower risk of major bleeding and of access site complications. Moreover, radial access was associated with greater operational efficiency during hospitalization.

9.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 93(2): 354-355, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30719856

RESUMO

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement has been used successfully to treat native aortic valve regurgitation. Current observational evidence shows promising results in terms of procedural success while outcome data are difficult to interpret given the observational nature of the evidence. We are ready for a randomized trial, which will be very challenging to run.

10.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 93(3): E191-E192, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30770665

RESUMO

There is limited data regarding percutaneous ventricular support in chronic total occlusion angioplasty in terms of population, procedure, and outcomes. This is the largest report to date showing promising results in terms of technical and procedural success in this highly comorbid population. This study encourages more research in the area and its use in large volume and experienced centers.

11.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 92(5): 852-853, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30450705

RESUMO

Japanese participants experienced higher incidence of radial artery occlusion when compared to non-Japanese participants. The use of 6Fr Slender sheath was inferior for radial artery occlusion than 5Fr sheath in Japanese, but no different in non-Japanese participants. Is not clear if this apparent ethnical interaction is real versus confounded, warranting more research in the area.

12.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 92(4): 666-667, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30341823

RESUMO

Information of P2Y12 inhibitors in acute coronary syndromes with vein graft angioplasty is limited. This new analysis from the UK database was not able to find significant differences between Clopidogrel, Prasugrel and Ticagrelor. Large trials would be needed to reliably confirm the best antiplatelet regimen in this setting.

13.
Am J Cardiol ; 122(7): 1155-1160, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30107907

RESUMO

It is unclear why high body mass index (BMI) is associated with a lower risk of death in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). We hypothesized that the impact of higher BMI varies by the patient's baseline risk of death. We analyzed data from 14 prospective studies conducted by us in 50 countries of 170,470 patients: 22.8% without CVD, 29.4% with stable CVD and 47.8% with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Compared with overweight (BMI 25 to 29.9 kg/m2), normal weight (BMI 20 to 24.9 kg/m2), and underweight (BMI < 20 kg/m2) were associated with higher mortality in all cohorts. Compared with overweight, the risk of death among those with obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) varied depending on the population studied: HR (95% confidence interval) in those without CVD, with stable CVD, and with ACS were 1.20 (1.01 to 1.45; p = 0.04), 1.08 (1.02 to 1.15; p = 0.01), and 1.01 (0.93 to 1.10; p = 0.72), respectively. The BMI associated with lowest mortality increased as cohort risk increased (no-CVD 27.2 kg/m2, stable CVD 28.1 kg/m2, and ACS 30.9 kg/m2; p <0.001). Within each cohort, the optimal BMI value was higher in the high-risk subgroup. In the ACS cohort, low-risk patients had an optimal BMI value of 29.1 kg/m2 while in the high-risk group higher BMI was associated with lower risk of death (interaction-p <0.001). In conclusion, between and within cohorts of people without CVD, stable CVD, and ACS, higher BMI was associated with lower risk of death in higher risk groups. The benefits of increased body fat (i.e., increased caloric reserve) may counteract the hazards in high-risk groups, suggesting an alternative explanation of the obesity paradox.

15.
Am Heart J ; 203: 57-66, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30015069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death throughout the world, with the majority of deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries. Despite clear evidence for the benefits of blood pressure reduction and availability of safe and low-cost medications, most individuals are either unaware of their condition or not adequately treated. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study is to evaluate whether a community-based, multifaceted intervention package primarily provided by nonphysician health workers can improve long-term cardiovascular risk in people with hypertension by addressing identified barriers at the patient, health care provider, and health system levels. METHODS/DESIGN: HOPE-4 is a community-based, parallel-group, cluster randomized controlled trial involving 30 communities (1,376 participants) in Colombia and Malaysia. Participants ≥50 years old and with newly diagnosed or poorly controlled hypertension were included. Communities were randomized to usual care or to a multifaceted intervention package that entails (1) detection, treatment, and control of cardiovascular risk factors by nonphysician health workers in the community, who use tablet-based simplified management algorithms, decision support, and counseling programs; (2) free dispensation of combination antihypertensive and cholesterol-lowering medications, supervised by local physicians; and (3) support from a participant-nominated treatment supporter (either a friend or family member). The primary outcome is the change in Framingham Risk Score after 12 months between the intervention and control communities. Secondary outcomes including change in blood pressure, lipid levels, and Interheart Risk Score will be evaluated. SIGNIFICANCE: If successful, the study could serve as a model to develop low-cost, effective, and scalable strategies to reduce cardiovascular risk in people with hypertension.

16.
Glob Heart ; 13(2): 93-100.e1, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29331282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. The need to address CVD is greatest in low- and middle-income countries where there is a shortage of trained health workers in CVD detection, prevention, and control. OBJECTIVES: Based on the growing evidence that many elements of chronic disease management can be shifted to nonphysician health care workers (NPHW), the HOPE-4 (Heart Outcomes Prevention and Evaluation Program) aimed to develop, test, and implement a training curriculum on CVD prevention and control in Colombia, Malaysia, and low-resource settings in Canada. METHODS: Curriculum development followed an iterative and phased approach where evidence-based guidelines, revised blood pressure treatment algorithms, and culturally relevant risk factor counseling were incorporated. Through a pilot-training process with high school students in Canada, the curriculum was further refined. Implementation of the curriculum in Colombia, Malaysia, and Canada occurred through partner organizations as the HOPE-4 team coordinated the program from Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. In addition to content on the burden of disease, cardiovascular system pathophysiology, and CVD risk factors, the curriculum also included evaluations such as module tests, in-class exercises, and observed structured clinical examinations, which were administered by the local partner organizations. These evaluations served as indicators of adequate uptake of curriculum content as well as readiness to work as an NPHW in the field. RESULTS: Overall, 51 NPHW successfully completed the training curriculum with an average score of 93.19% on module tests and 84.76% on the observed structured clinical examinations. Since implementation, the curriculum has also been adapted to the World Health Organization's HEARTS Technical Package, which was launched in 2016 to improve management of CVD in primary health care. CONCLUSIONS: The robust curriculum development, testing, and implementation process described affirm that NPHW in diverse settings can be trained in implementing measures for CVD prevention and control.


Assuntos
Cardiologia/educação , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Currículo/normas , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/normas , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Canadá/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Morbidade/tendências , Projetos Piloto
17.
Am J Cardiol ; 120(9): 1453-1459, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28916239

RESUMO

The association between body mass index (BMI) and major clinical events after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains controversial. We investigated the impact of BMI on major clinical events after ACS in a large individual patient data meta-analysis. Data on 81,553 patients from 45 different countries with ACS enrolled in 8 large randomized clinical trials were included, followed up for a median of 171 days. The mean age was 63.4 ± 11.7, 70% were male, and the mean BMI was 27.3 ± 4.7 kg/m2. Compared with upper-normal-weight participants (BMI 21.75 to 24.9 kg/m2, reference category), underweight participants (<18.5 kg/m2) had an increased risk of death (hazard ratio [HR] 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10 to 1.66, p = 0.004). Both overweight subcategories, BMI 25 to 27.5 kg/m2 (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.89, p <0.001) and BMI 27.5 to 29.9 kg/m2 (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.92, p <0.001), and type I obesity (30 to 34.9, HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.89, p <0.001) had a significantly lower mortality. Type II and III obesities were not significantly associated with mortality. Mortality was lowest at a BMI of 30.9 kg/m2. Compared with normal-weight patients, overweight and obese categories were related with a significantly lower risk of bleeding and refractory ischemia. Overweight patients had a lower risk of myocardial infarction, heart failure hospitalizations, and heart failure-related deaths. There were no associations between BMI and revascularization rates or stroke. In conclusion, underweight and normal-weight patients were associated with an increased mortality risk, bleeding, ischemia, and heart failure compared with those with higher BMI after ACS.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade/complicações , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
18.
Rev. argent. cardiol ; 85(4): 1-8, ago. 2017. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-957789

RESUMO

Introducción: Las reinternaciones luego de cirugía cardíaca son un problema relevante para los pacientes y para el sistema de salud en general. Existen pocos datos respecto de la relación entre las reinternaciones después de cirugía cardíaca y el pronóstico evolutivo de los pacientes, ni su impacto en la mortalidad alejada. Objetivo: Analizar la incidencia, factores predictores de las reinternaciones a 30 días luego de cirugía cardíaca y su asociación con la mortalidad alejada. Material y Métodos: Se analizó en forma retrospectiva la base de datos informatizada del servicio de cirugía cardíaca. En el análisis se incluyeron a todos los pacientes sometidos a cirugía cardíaca en forma consecutiva, dados de alta en el período comprendido entre junio del 2010 y mayo del 2013. Se excluyeron a los pacientes operados de trasplante cardíaco. Reinternación se definió como el reingreso hospitalario no planificado dentro de los 30 días transcurridos desde el egreso hospitalario. Mortalidad alejada fue considerada la muerte de causa cardiovascular o no cardiovascular a partir del día 30 posterior al alta hasta finalizar el seguimiento. Resultados: Se incluyeron 1327 pacientes, de los cuales se reinternaron 184 (13,9%). La mediana de seguimiento fue de 826 días (IQ 581 a 1085 días). Los pacientes que se reinternaron presentaban mayor tasa de comorbilidades como EPOC (6,5% vs. 2,1%; p 0,002) e insuficiencia cardíaca (12% vs. 6%; p 0,0064). También, en este grupo se observó mayor incidencia de las complicaciones posoperatorias de fibrilación auricular (35% vs. 19%; p < 0,0001) y de bajo gasto cardiaco posoperatorio (9,2% vs. 4%; p 0,004). Entre las causas más frecuentes de las reinternaciones se identificaron a las infecciones (no mediastinitis) (25%), arritmias e implante de MCP (15,2%), insuficiencia cardíaca (13%), derrame pleural (6,5%), derrame pericárdico (3,8%), fiebre sin foco establecido (3,26%) y mediastinitis (6%), entre otras. Según el análisis de regresión logística los factores que se asociaban con mayor riesgo de reinternación fueron la cirugía cardíaca no CRM (IC 95% 1,55-3,37; p<0,0001), antecedentes de enfermedad respiratoria (IC 95% 1,32-6,6; p 0,0084), fibrilación auricular (OR 1,99; IC 95% 1,34-2,94; p 0,0005) e IMC (OR 1,046; IC 95% 1,008-1,085; p 0,017). En cuanto al punto final, las reinternaciones se asociaron en forma significativa con aumento en la mortalidad a 1 y 3 años: 8,7% vs. 2,3%; p<0,0001 y 13,6% vs. 4,2%, p<0,0001, respectivamente. Conclusiónes: La reinternación a 30 días luego de cirugía cardíaca se asocia en forma significativa con mayor mortalidad alejada de los pacientes operados. La implementación de las medidas asistenciales adecuadas podría reducir la probabilidad de las reinternaciones, y por ende, mejorar el pronóstico de este grupo de pacientes.

19.
Acta Cardiol ; 72(6): 655-661, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28657464

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The association between body mass index (BMI) and mortality after acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is controversial. The objective of this analysis is to summarize the available evidence of this association and perform meta-analysis using adjusted estimates. METHODS AND RESULTS: Systematic review from MEDLINE and EMBASE through May 2015 was performed. Studies were considered eligible if they described the association between BMI and all-cause mortality after ACS, and those reporting adjusted estimates were included in the meta-analysis. We included 35 articles with 316,455 participants, with overall poor to moderate quality. No study reported that overweight, type-I or type-II obesity was related to an increased risk of mortality compared to normal weight. Pooled adjusted estimates from 18 studies (137,975 participants) showed lower adjusted mortality both overweight (RR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.75-0.91; p < .001; I2 51%) and obese (RR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.71-0.88; p < .001; I2 33%) categories when compared to normal weight. Heterogeneity was not explained in pre-specified subgroups analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Increased BMI was associated with increased adjusted survival after ACS when compared to normal BMI. Unexplained heterogeneity and suboptimal quality of studies limit the strength of the results. This seemingly paradoxical finding needs to be confirmed with further research.

20.
Curr Opin Cardiol ; 32(5): 557-566, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28639971

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Describe the global burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD), highlight barriers to evidence-based care and propose effective interventions based on identified barriers. RECENT FINDINGS: The global burden of CVD is increasing worldwide. This trend is steeper in lower income countries, where CVD incidence and fatality remains high. Risk factor control, around the world, remains poor, especially in lower and middle-income countries. Barriers at the patient, healthcare provider and health system have been identified. The use of multifaceted interventions that target identified contextual barriers to care, including increasing awareness of CVD and related risk, improving health policy (i.e. taxation of tobacco), improving the availability and affordability of fixed-dose combined medications and task-shifting of healthcare responsibilities are potential solutions to improve the global burden of CVD. SUMMARY: There is a need to address identified barriers using evidence-based and multifaceted interventions. Global initiatives, led by the World Heart Federation and the WHO, to facilitate the implementation of such interventions are underway.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Carga Global da Doença , Saúde Global , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Pessoal de Saúde , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
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