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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 129(18): 180501, 2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36374682

RESUMO

In the absence of quantum repeaters, quantum communication proved to be nearly impossible across optical fibers longer than ≳20 km due to the drop of transmissivity below the critical threshold of 1/2. However, if the signals fed into the fiber are separated by a sufficiently short time interval, memory effects must be taken into account. In this Letter, we show that by properly accounting for these effects it is possible to devise schemes that enable unassisted quantum communication across arbitrarily long optical fibers at a fixed positive qubit transmission rate. We also demonstrate how to achieve entanglement-assisted communication over arbitrarily long distances at a rate of the same order of the maximum achievable in the unassisted noiseless case.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(21): e2119765119, 2022 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35594392

RESUMO

SignificanceQuantum coherence has a fundamentally different origin for nonidentical and identical particles since for the latter a unique contribution exists due to indistinguishability. Here we experimentally show how to exploit, in a controllable fashion, the contribution to quantum coherence stemming from spatial indistinguishability. Our experiment also directly proves, on the same footing, the different role of particle statistics (bosons or fermions) in supplying coherence-enabled advantage for quantum metrology. Ultimately, our results provide insights toward viable quantum-enhanced technologies based on tunable indistinguishability of identical building blocks.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 128(16): 160402, 2022 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522482

RESUMO

We prove that given any two general probabilistic theories (GPTs) the following are equivalent: (i) each theory is nonclassical, meaning that neither of their state spaces is a simplex; (ii) each theory satisfies a strong notion of incompatibility equivalent to the existence of "superpositions"; and (iii) the two theories are entangleable, in the sense that their composite exhibits either entangled states or entangled measurements. Intuitively, in the post-quantum GPT setting, a superposition is a set of two binary ensembles of states that are unambiguously distinguishable if the ensemble is revealed before the measurement has occurred, but not if it is revealed after. This notion is important because we show that, just like in quantum theory, superposition in the form of strong incompatibility is sufficient to realize the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol for secret key distribution.

4.
Commun Math Phys ; 383(1): 223-279, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34720122

RESUMO

Various quantum analogues of the central limit theorem, which is one of the cornerstones of probability theory, are known in the literature. One such analogue, due to Cushen and Hudson, is of particular relevance for quantum optics. It implies that the state in any single output arm of an n-splitter, which is fed with n copies of a centred state ρ with finite second moments, converges to the Gaussian state with the same first and second moments as ρ . Here we exploit the phase space formalism to carry out a refined analysis of the rate of convergence in this quantum central limit theorem. For instance, we prove that the convergence takes place at a rate O n - 1 / 2 in the Hilbert-Schmidt norm whenever the third moments of ρ are finite. Trace norm or relative entropy bounds can be obtained by leveraging the energy boundedness of the state. Via analytical and numerical examples we show that our results are tight in many respects. An extension of our proof techniques to the non-i.i.d. setting is used to analyse a new model of a lossy optical fibre, where a given m-mode state enters a cascade of n beam splitters of equal transmissivities λ 1 / n fed with an arbitrary (but fixed) environment state. Assuming that the latter has finite third moments, and ignoring unitaries, we show that the effective channel converges in diamond norm to a simple thermal attenuator, with a rate O ( n - 1 2 ( m + 1 ) ) . This allows us to establish bounds on the classical and quantum capacities of the cascade channel. Along the way, we derive several results that may be of independent interest. For example, we prove that any quantum characteristic function χ ρ is uniformly bounded by some η ρ < 1 outside of any neighbourhood of the origin; also, η ρ can be made to depend only on the energy of the state ρ .

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(19): 190504, 2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047578

RESUMO

We investigate the energy-constrained (EC) diamond norm distance between unitary channels acting on possibly infinite-dimensional quantum systems, and establish a number of results. First, we prove that optimal EC discrimination between two unitary channels does not require the use of any entanglement. Extending a result by Acín, we also show that a finite number of parallel queries suffices to achieve zero error discrimination even in this EC setting. Second, we employ EC diamond norms to study a novel type of quantum speed limits, which apply to pairs of quantum dynamical semigroups. We expect these results to be relevant for benchmarking internal dynamics of quantum devices. Third, we establish a version of the Solovay-Kitaev theorem that applies to the group of Gaussian unitaries over a finite number of modes, with the approximation error being measured with respect to the EC diamond norm relative to the photon number Hamiltonian.

6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(11): 110403, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798371

RESUMO

The diverse range of resources which underlie the utility of quantum states in practical tasks motivates the development of universally applicable methods to measure and compare resources of different types. However, many of such approaches were hitherto limited to the finite-dimensional setting or were not connected with operational tasks. We overcome this by introducing a general method of quantifying resources for continuous-variable quantum systems based on the robustness measure, applicable to a plethora of physically relevant resources such as optical nonclassicality, entanglement, genuine non-Gaussianity, and coherence. We demonstrate in particular that the measure has a direct operational interpretation as the advantage enabled by a given state in a class of channel discrimination tasks. We show that the robustness constitutes a well-behaved, bona fide resource quantifier in any convex resource theory, contrary to a related negativity-based measure known as the standard robustness. Furthermore, we show the robustness to be directly observable-it can be computed as the expectation value of a single witness operator-and establish general methods for evaluating the measure. Explicitly applying our results to the relevant resources, we demonstrate the exact computability of the robustness for several classes of states.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(11): 110504, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975990

RESUMO

A general attenuator Φ_{λ,σ} is a bosonic quantum channel that acts by combining the input with a fixed environment state σ in a beam splitter of transmissivity λ. If σ is a thermal state, the resulting channel is a thermal attenuator, whose quantum capacity vanishes for λ≤1/2. We study the quantum capacity of these objects for generic σ, proving a number of unexpected results. Most notably, we show that for any arbitrary value of λ>0 there exists a suitable single-mode state σ(λ) such that the quantum capacity of Φ_{λ,σ(λ)} is larger than a universal constant c>0. Our result holds even when we fix an energy constraint at the input of the channel, and implies that quantum communication at a constant rate is possible even in the limit of arbitrarily low transmissivity, provided that the environment state is appropriately controlled. We also find examples of states σ such that the quantum capacity of Φ_{λ,σ} is not monotonic in λ. These findings may have implications for the study of communication lines running across integrated optical circuits, of which general attenuators provide natural models.

8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(5): 050501, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491318

RESUMO

Extendibility of bosonic Gaussian states is a key issue in continuous-variable quantum information. We show that a bosonic Gaussian state is k-extendible if and only if it has a Gaussian k-extension, and we derive a simple semidefinite program, whose size scales linearly with the number of local modes, to efficiently decide k-extendibility of any given bosonic Gaussian state. When the system to be extended comprises one mode only, we provide a closed-form solution. Implications of these results for the steerability of quantum states and for the extendibility of bosonic Gaussian channels are discussed. We then derive upper bounds on the distance of a k-extendible bosonic Gaussian state to the set of all separable states, in terms of trace norm and Rényi relative entropies. These bounds, which can be seen as "Gaussian de Finetti theorems," exhibit a universal scaling in the total number of modes, independently of the mean energy of the state. Finally, we establish an upper bound on the entanglement of formation of Gaussian k-extendible states, which has no analogue in the finite-dimensional setting.

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(15): 150402, 2019 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050502

RESUMO

We compute analytically the maximal rates of distillation of quantum coherence under strictly incoherent operations (SIO) and physically incoherent operations (PIO), showing that they coincide for all states, and providing a complete description of the phenomenon of bound coherence. In particular, we establish a simple, analytically computable necessary and sufficient criterion for the asymptotic distillability under SIO and PIO. We use this result to show that almost every quantum state is undistillable-only pure states as well as states whose density matrix contains a rank-one submatrix allow for coherence distillation under SIO or PIO, while every other quantum state exhibits bound coherence. This demonstrates the fundamental operational limitations of SIO and PIO in the resource theory of quantum coherence. We show that the fidelity of distillation of a single bit of coherence under SIO can be efficiently computed as a semidefinite program, and investigate the generalization of this result to provide an understanding of asymptotically achievable distillation fidelity.

10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(13): 130601, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012629

RESUMO

We study the process of assisted work distillation. This scenario arises when two parties share a bipartite quantum state ρ_{AB} and their task is to locally distill the optimal amount of work when one party is restricted to thermal operations, whereas the other can perform general quantum operations and they are allowed to communicate classically. We demonstrate that this question is intimately related to the distillation of classical and quantum correlations. In particular, we show that the advantage of one party performing global measurements over many copies of ρ_{AB} is related to the nonadditivity of the entanglement of formation. We also show that there may exist work bound in the quantum correlations of the state that is only extractable under the wider class of local Gibbs-preserving operations.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(20): 200503, 2018 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30500217

RESUMO

Genuine high-dimensional entanglement, i.e., the property of having a high Schmidt number, constitutes an instrumental resource in quantum communication, overcoming limitations of low-dimensional systems. States with a positive partial transpose (PPT) are generally considered weakly entangled, as they can never be distilled into pure entangled states. This naturally raises the question of whether high Schmidt numbers are possible for PPT states. Volume estimates suggest that optimal, i.e., linear, scaling in the local dimension should be possible, albeit without providing insight into the possible slope. We provide the first explicit construction of a family of PPT states that achieves linear scaling in the local dimension and we prove that random PPT states typically share this feature. Our construction also allows us to prove a recent conjecture of Chen et al. on the existence of PPT states whose Schmidt number increases by an arbitrarily large amount upon partial transposition. Finally, we link the Schmidt number to entangled sub-block matrices of a quantum state. We use this connection to prove that quantum states that are either (i) invariant under partial transposition on the smallest of their two subsystems, or (ii) absolutely PPT cannot have a maximal Schmidt number. Overall, our findings shed new light on some fundamental problems in entanglement theory.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(7): 070404, 2018 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169098

RESUMO

The ability to distill quantum coherence is pivotal for optimizing the performance of quantum technologies; however, such a task cannot always be accomplished with certainty. Here we develop a general framework of probabilistic distillation of quantum coherence in a one-shot setting, establishing fundamental limitations for different classes of free operations. We first provide a geometric interpretation for the maximal success probability, showing that under maximally incoherent operations (MIO) and dephasing-covariant incoherent operations (DIO) the problem can be simplified into efficiently computable semidefinite programs. Exploiting these results, we find that DIO and its subset of strictly incoherent operations have equal power in the probabilistic distillation of coherence from pure input states, while MIO are strictly stronger. We then prove a fundamental no-go result: Distilling coherence from any full-rank state is impossible even probabilistically. We further find that in some conditions the maximal success probability can vanish suddenly beyond a certain threshold in the distillation fidelity. Finally, we consider probabilistic coherence distillation assisted by a catalyst and demonstrate, with specific examples, its superiority to the unassisted and deterministic cases.

13.
Phys Rev Lett ; 117(22): 220502, 2016 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27925721

RESUMO

We derive fundamental constraints for the Schur complement of positive matrices, which provide an operator strengthening to recently established information inequalities for quantum covariance matrices, including strong subadditivity. This allows us to prove general results on the monogamy of entanglement and steering quantifiers in continuous variable systems with an arbitrary number of modes per party. A powerful hierarchical relation for correlation measures based on the log-determinant of covariance matrices is further established for all Gaussian states, which has no counterpart among quantities based on the conventional von Neumann entropy.

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