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1.
Adv Nutr ; 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386148

RESUMO

While conventional nutrition research has yielded biomarkers such as doubly labeled water for energy metabolism and 24-h urinary nitrogen for protein intake, a critical need exists for additional, equally robust biomarkers that allow for objective assessment of specific food intake and dietary exposure. Recent advances in high-throughput MS combined with improved metabolomics techniques and bioinformatic tools provide new opportunities for dietary biomarker development. In September 2018, the NIH organized a 2-d workshop to engage nutrition and omics researchers and explore the potential of multiomics approaches in nutritional biomarker research. The current Perspective summarizes key gaps and challenges identified, as well as the recommendations from the workshop that could serve as a guide for scientists interested in dietary biomarkers research. Topics addressed included study designs for biomarker development, analytical and bioinformatic considerations, and integration of dietary biomarkers with other omics techniques. Several clear needs were identified, including larger controlled feeding studies, testing a variety of foods and dietary patterns across diverse populations, improved reporting standards to support study replication, more chemical standards covering a broader range of food constituents and human metabolites, standardized approaches for biomarker validation, comprehensive and accessible food composition databases, a common ontology for dietary biomarker literature, and methodologic work on statistical procedures for intake biomarker discovery. Multidisciplinary research teams with appropriate expertise are critical to moving forward the field of dietary biomarkers and producing robust, reproducible biomarkers that can be used in public health and clinical research.

2.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(4): 984-992, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low-glycemic load dietary patterns, characterized by consumption of whole grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables, are associated with reduced risk of several chronic diseases. METHODS: Using samples from a randomized, controlled, crossover feeding trial, we evaluated the effects on metabolic profiles of a low-glycemic whole-grain dietary pattern (WG) compared with a dietary pattern high in refined grains and added sugars (RG) for 28 d. LC-MS-based targeted metabolomics analysis was performed on fasting plasma samples from 80 healthy participants (n = 40 men, n = 40 women) aged 18-45 y. Linear mixed models were used to evaluate differences in response between diets for individual metabolites. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG)-defined pathways and 2 novel data-driven analyses were conducted to consider differences at the pathway level. RESULTS: There were 121 metabolites with detectable signal in >98% of all plasma samples. Eighteen metabolites were significantly different between diets at day 28 [false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05]. Inositol, hydroxyphenylpyruvate, citrulline, ornithine, 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, glutamine, and oxaloacetate were higher after the WG diet than after the RG diet, whereas melatonin, betaine, creatine, acetylcholine, aspartate, hydroxyproline, methylhistidine, tryptophan, cystamine, carnitine, and trimethylamine were lower. Analyses using KEGG-defined pathways revealed statistically significant differences in tryptophan metabolism between diets, with kynurenine and melatonin positively associated with serum C-reactive protein concentrations. Novel data-driven methods at the metabolite and network levels found correlations among metabolites involved in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) degradation, trimethylamine-N-oxide production, and ß oxidation of fatty acids (FDR < 0.1) that differed between diets, with more favorable metabolic profiles detected after the WG diet. Higher BCAAs and trimethylamine were positively associated with homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS: These exploratory metabolomics results support beneficial effects of a low-glycemic load dietary pattern characterized by whole grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables, compared with a diet high in refined grains and added sugars on inflammation and energy metabolism pathways. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00622661.

3.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 12(9): 567-578, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266826

RESUMO

Increased adiposity and diets high in glycemic load (GL) are associated with increased risk of many chronic diseases including cancer. Using plasma from 80 healthy individuals [40 men/40 women, 29 with DXA-derived low fat mass (FM) and 51 with high FM] in a randomized cross-over-controlled feeding trial and arrays populated with 3,504 antibodies, we measured plasma proteins collected at baseline and end of each of two 28-day controlled diets: a low GL diet high in whole grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables (WG) and a high GL diet high in refined grains and added sugars (RG). Following univariate testing for proteins differing by diet, we evaluated pathway-level involvement. Among all 80 participants, 172 proteins were identified as differing between diets. Stratifying participants by high and low FM identified 221 and 266 proteins, respectively, as differing between diets (unadjusted P < 0.05). These candidate proteins were tested for overrepresentation in Reactome pathways, corresponding to 142 (of 291) pathways in the high-FM group and 72 (of 274) pathways in the low-FM group. We observed that the cancer-related pathways, DNA Repair, DNA Replication, and Cell Cycle, were overrepresented in the high-FM participants while pathways involved in post-translational protein modification were overrepresented in participants with either FM. Although high-GL diets are associated with increased risk of some cancers, our study further suggests that biology associated with consumption of GL diets is variable depending on an individual's adiposity and dietary recommendations related to cancer prevention be made with the additional consideration of an individual's FM.

4.
J Nutr ; 149(9): 1575-1584, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variation in gut microbial community structure is partly attributed to variations in diet. A priori dietary indexes capture diet quality and have been associated with chronic disease risk. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the association of diet quality, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index, Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010, alternate Mediterranean Diet, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Trial, with measures of fecal microbial community structure assessed in the Adiposity Phenotype Study (APS), an ethnically diverse study population with varied food intakes. METHODS: Multiethnic Cohort Study members completed a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ) at cohort entry (1993-1996) and, for the APS subset, at clinic visit (2013-2015), when they also provided a stool sample. DNA was extracted from stool, and the V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced. Dietary index scores were computed based on the QFFQ and an extensive nutritional database. Using linear regression adjusted for relevant covariates, we estimated associations of dietary quality with microbiome measures and computed adjusted mean values of microbial measures by tertiles of dietary index scores. RESULTS: The 858 men and 877 women of white, Japanese American, Latino, Native Hawaiian, and African American ancestry had a mean age of 69.2 years at stool collection. Alpha diversity according to the Shannon index increased by 1-2% across tertiles of all 4 diet indexes measured at clinic visit. The mean relative abundance of the phylum Actinobacteria was 13-19% lower with higher diet quality across all 4 indexes (difference between tertile 3 and tertile 1 divided by tertile 1). Of the 104 bacterial genera tested, 21 (primarily from the phylum Firmicutes) were positively associated with at least 1 index after Bonferroni adjustment. CONCLUSION: Diet quality was strongly associated with fecal microbial alpha diversity and beta diversity and several genera previously associated with human health.

5.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226790

RESUMO

Intermittent energy restriction combined with a Mediterranean diet (IER+MED) has shown promise to reduce body fat and insulin resistance. In the Multiethnic Cohort Adiposity Phenotype Study, Japanese Americans had the highest visceral adipose tissue (VAT) when adjusting for total adiposity. We conducted this pilot study to demonstrate feasibility and explore efficacy of following IER+MED for 12 weeks to reduce VAT among East Asians in Hawaii. Sixty volunteers (aged 35-55, BMI 25-40 kg/m2, VAT ≥ 90 cm2 for men and ≥ 80 cm2 for women) were randomized to IER+MED (two consecutive days with 70% energy restriction and 5 days euenergetic MED) or an active comparator (euenergetic Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet). Participants and clinic staff (except dietitians) were blinded to group assignments. IER+MED had significantly larger reductions in DXA-measured VAT and total fat mass (-22.6 ± 3.6 cm2 and -3.3 ± 0.4 kg, respectively) vs. DASH (-10.7 ± 3.5 cm2 and -1.6 ± 0.4 kg) (p = 0.02 and p = 0.005). However, after adjusting for total fat mass, change in VAT was not statistically different between groups; whereas, improvement in alanine transaminase remained significantly greater for IER+MED vs. DASH (-16.2 ± 3.8 U/L vs. -4.0 ± 3.6 U/L, respectively, p = 0.02). Attrition rate was 10%, and participants adhered well to study prescriptions with no reported major adverse effect. Results demonstrate IER+MED is acceptable, lowers visceral and total adiposity among East Asian Americans, and may improve liver function more effectively than a healthful diet pattern. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03639350.

6.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(2): 377-390, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microbial metabolism of lignans from high-fiber plant foods produces bioactive enterolignans, such as enterolactone (ENL) and enterodiol (END). Enterolignan exposure influences cellular pathways important to cancer risk and is associated with reduced colon tumorigenesis in animal models and lower colorectal cancer risk in humans. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to test the effects of a flaxseed lignan supplement (50 mg secoisolariciresinol diglucoside/d) compared with placebo on host gene expression in colon biopsies and exfoliated colonocyte RNA in feces and fecal microbial community composition, and to compare responses in relation to ENL excretion. METHODS: We conducted a 2-period randomized, crossover intervention in 42 healthy men and women (20-45 y). We used RNA-seq to measure differentially expressed (DE) genes in colonic mucosa and fecal exfoliated cells through the use of edgeR and functional analysis with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. We used 16S ribosomal RNA gene (V1-V3) analysis to characterize the fecal microbiome, and measured END and ENL in 24-h urine samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: We detected 32 DE genes (false discovery rate <0.05) in the exfoliome, but none in the mucosal biopsies, in response to 60 d of lignan supplement compared with placebo. Statistically significant associations were detected between ENL excretion and fecal microbiome measured at baseline and at the end of the intervention periods. Further, we detected DE genes in colonic mucosa and exfoliome between low- and high-ENL excreters. Analysis of biopsy samples indicated that several anti-inflammatory upstream regulators, including transforming growth factor ß and interleukin 10 receptor, were suppressed in low-ENL excreters. Complementary analyses in exfoliated cells also suggested that low-ENL excreters may be predisposed to proinflammatory cellular events due to upregulation of nuclear transcription factor κB and NOS2, and an inhibition of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ network. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that ENL or other activities of the associated gut microbial consortia may modulate response to a dietary lignan intervention. This has important implications for dietary recommendations and chemoprevention strategies. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01619020.

7.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(4): 1189-1196, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30915444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biomarkers provide potential to objectively measure the intake of nutrients and foods, and thereby to strengthen nutritional epidemiology association studies. However, there are only a few established intake biomarkers, mostly based on recovery of nutrients or their metabolites in urine. Blood concentration measures provide a potential biomarker source for many additional nutritional variables, but their use in disease-association studies requires further development. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to apply recently proposed serum-based carotenoid and tocopherol intake biomarkers and to examine their association with the incidence of major cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and diabetes in a subset of Women's Health Initiative (WHI) cohorts. METHODS: Serum concentrations of α- and ß-carotene, lutein plus zeaxanthin (L + Z), and α-tocopherol were routinely measured at baseline in a subset of 5488 enrollees in WHI cohorts. Intake biomarkers for these 4 micronutrients, obtained by combining serum concentrations with participant characteristics, were recently proposed using a 153-woman feeding study within WHI. These biomarker equations are augmented here to include pertinent disease risk factors and are associated with subsequent chronic disease incidence in this WHI subset. RESULTS: HRs for a doubling of micronutrient intake differed only moderately from the null for the outcomes considered. However, somewhat lower risks of specific cardiovascular outcomes, breast cancer, and diabetes were associated with a higher intake of α- and ß-carotene, lower risk of diabetes was associated with higher L + Z intake, and elevated risks of certain cardiovascular outcomes were associated with a higher intake of α-tocopherol. These patterns remained following the exclusion of baseline users of dietary supplements. CONCLUSIONS: Concentration biomarkers can be calculated from blood specimens obtained in large epidemiologic cohorts and applied directly in disease-association analyses, without relying on self-reported dietary data. Observed associations between carotenoid and tocopherol biomarkers and chronic disease risk could be usefully evaluated further using stored serum specimens on the entire WHI cohort. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000611.

8.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(2): 265-274, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolism and excretion of the phytoestrogen enterolactone (ENL), which has been associated with breast cancer risk, may be affected by variation in steroid hormone and xenobiotic-metabolizing genes. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, crossover flaxseed intervention study in 252 healthy, postmenopausal women [137 European ancestry (EA) and 115 African ancestry (AA)] from western New York. Participants were randomly assigned to maintain usual diet or consume 10 g/day ground flaxseed for 6 weeks. After a 2-month washout period, participants crossed over to the other diet condition for an additional 6 weeks. Urinary ENL excretion was measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 70 polymorphisms in 29 genes related to steroid hormone and xenobiotic metabolism were genotyped. Mixed additive genetic models were constructed to examine association of genetic variation with urinary ENL excretion at baseline and after the flaxseed intervention. RESULTS: SNPs in several genes were nominally (P < 0.05) associated with ENL excretion at baseline and/or after intervention: ESR1, CYP1B1, COMT, CYP3A5, ARPC1A, BCL2L11, SHBG, SLCO1B1, and ZKSCAN5. A greater number of SNPs were associated among AA women than among EA women, and no SNPs were associated in both races. No SNP-ENL associations were statistically significant after correction for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: Variation in several genes related to steroid hormone metabolism was associated with lignan excretion at baseline and/or after flaxseed intervention among postmenopausal women. IMPACT: These findings may contribute to our understanding of the differences observed in urinary ENL excretion among AA and EA women and thus hormone-related breast cancer risk.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30648524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, e.g., celecoxib, are commonly used for inflammatory conditions, but can be associated with adverse effects. Combined glucosamine hydrochloride plus chondroitin sulfate (GH+CS) are commonly used for joint pain and have no known adverse effects. Evidence from in vitro, animal and human studies suggests that GH+CS have anti-inflammatory activity, among other mechanisms of action. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effects of GH+CS versus celecoxib on a panel of 20 serum proteins involved in inflammation and other metabolic pathways. METHODS: Samples were from a randomized, parallel, double-blind trial of pharmaceutical grade 1500 mg GH + 1200 mg CS (n=96) versus 200 mg celecoxib daily (n=93) for 6-months in knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Linear mixed models adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, baseline serum protein values, and rescue medicine use assessed the intervention effects of each treatment arm adjusting for multiple testing. RESULTS: All serum proteins except WNT16 were lower after treatment with GH+CS, while about half increased after celecoxib. Serum IL-6 was significantly reduced (by 9%, P=0.001) after GH+CS, and satisfied the FDR<0.05 threshold. CCL20, CSF3, and WNT16 increased after celecoxib (by 7%, 9% and 9%, respectively, P<0.05), but these serum proteins were no longer statistically significant after controlling for multiple testing. CONCLUSION: The results of this study using samples from a previously conducted trial in OA patients, demonstrate that GH+CS reduces circulating IL-6, an inflammatory cytokine, but is otherwise comparable to celecoxib with regard to effects on other circulating protein biomarkers.

10.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476131

RESUMO

Background: Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) is also moderately associated with CRC risk. However, observational studies are susceptible to unmeasured confounding or reverse causality. Using genetic risk variants as instrumental variables, we investigated the causal relationship between genetically elevated CRP concentration and CRC risk, using a Mendelian randomization approach. Methods: Individual-level data from 30 480 CRC cases and 22 844 controls from 33 participating studies in three international consortia were used: the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), the Colorectal Transdisciplinary Study (CORECT) and the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR). As instrumental variables, we included 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with CRP concentration. The SNP-CRC associations were estimated using a logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, principal components and genotyping phases. An inverse-variance weighted method was applied to estimate the causal effect of CRP on CRC risk. Results: Among the 19 CRP-associated SNPs, rs1260326 and rs6734238 were significantly associated with CRC risk (P = 7.5 × 10-4, and P = 0.003, respectively). A genetically predicted one-unit increase in the log-transformed CRP concentrations (mg/l) was not associated with increased risk of CRC [odds ratio (OR) = 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.97, 1.12; P = 0.256). No evidence of association was observed in subgroup analyses stratified by other risk factors. Conclusions: In spite of adequate statistical power to detect moderate association, we found genetically elevated CRP concentration was not associated with increased risk of CRC among individuals of European ancestry. Our findings suggested that circulating CRP is unlikely to be a causal factor in CRC development.

11.
Gastroenterology ; 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: We compared fat storage in the abdominal region among individuals from 5 different ethnic/racial groups to determine whether fat storage is associated with disparities observed in the metabolic syndrome and other obesity-associated diseases. METHODS: We collected data from 1794 participants in the Multiethnic Cohort Study (60-77 years old; of African, European (white), Japanese, Latino, or Native Hawaiian ancestry) with body mass index values of 17.1-46.2 kg/m2. From May 2013 through April 2016, participants visited the study clinic to undergo body measurements, an interview, and a blood collection. Participants were evaluated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging. Among the ethnic groups, we compared adiposity of trunk, intra-abdominal visceral cavity, and liver, adjusting for total fat mass; we evaluated the association of adult weight change with abdominal adiposity; and we examined the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome mediated by abdominal adiposity. RESULTS: Relative amounts of trunk, visceral, and liver fat varied significantly with ethnicity-they were highest in Japanese Americans, lowest in African Americans, and intermediate in the other groups. Compared with African Americans, the mean visceral fat area was 45% and 73% greater in Japanese American men and women, respectively, and the mean measurements of liver fat were 61% and 122% greater in Japanese American men and women. The visceral and hepatic adiposity associated with weight gain since participants were 21 years old varied in a similar pattern among ethnic/racial groups. In the mediation analysis, visceral and liver fat jointly accounted for a statistically significant fraction of the difference in metabolic syndrome prevalence, in comparison to white persons, for African Americans, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiian women, independently of total fat mass. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of data from the participants in the Multiethnic Cohort Study, we found extensive differences among ethnic/racial groups in the propensity to store fat intra-abdominally. This observation should be considered by clinicians in the prevention and early detection of metabolic disorders.

12.
J Nutr ; 148(12): 1931-1937, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30239866

RESUMO

Background: Natural abundance stable isotope ratios are candidate biomarkers of dietary intake that have not been evaluated in a controlled feeding study in a US population. Objectives: Our goals were to evaluate dietary associations with serum carbon (CIR), nitrogen (NIR), and sulfur (SIR) isotope ratios in postmenopausal women, and to evaluate whether statistical models of dietary intake that include multiple isotopes and participant characteristics meet criteria for biomarker evaluation. Methods: Postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative (n = 153) were provided a 2-wk controlled diet that approximated each individual's habitual food intake. Dietary intakes of animal protein, fish/seafood, red meat, poultry, egg, dairy, total sugars, added sugars, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), and corn products were characterized during the feeding period with the use of the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R). The CIR, NIR, and SIR were measured in sera collected from fasting women at the beginning and the end of the feeding period. Linear models based on stable isotope ratios and participant characteristics predicted dietary intake. The criterion used for biomarker evaluation was R2 ≥ 0.36, based on the study's power to detect true associations with R2 ≥ 0.50. Results: The NIR was associated with fish/seafood intake and met the criterion for biomarker evaluation (R2 = 0.40). The CIR was moderately associated with intakes of red meat and eggs, but not to the criterion for biomarker evaluation, and was not associated with intake of sugars (total, added, or SSB). A model of animal protein intake based on the NIR, CIR, and participant characteristics met the criterion for biomarker evaluation (R2 = 0.40). Otherwise, multiple isotopes did not improve models of intake, and improvements from including participant characteristics were modest. Conclusion: Serum stable isotope ratios can, with participant characteristics, meet biomarker criteria as measures of fish/seafood and animal protein intake in a sample of postmenopausal women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000611.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measurement reliability and biological stability need to be considered when developing sampling protocols for population-based fecal microbiome studies. METHODS: Stool samples were collected biannually over a two-year period and sequenced for the V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene in 50 participants from the Multiethnic Cohort Study. We evaluated the temporal stability of the fecal microbiome on a community level with permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA), as well as on taxa and diversity measures with intraclass correlation coefficients. RESULTS: Inter-individual differences were the predominant source of fecal microbiome variation, and variation within individual was driven more by changing abundances than the complete loss or introduction of taxa. Phyla and diversity measures were reliable over the two years. Most genera were stable over time, although those with low abundances tended to be more dynamic. Reliability was lower among participants who used antibiotics, with the greatest difference seen in samples taken within one month of reported use. CONCLUSIONS: The fecal microbiome as a whole is stable over a two-year period, although certain taxa may exhibit more temporal variability. IMPACT: When designing large epidemiologic studies, a single sample is sufficient to capture the majority of the variation in the fecal microbiome from 16S rRNA gene sequencing, while multiple samples may be needed for rare or less abundant taxa.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30130151

RESUMO

A two-day workshop organized by NIH and USDA included 16 presentations focused on the role of diet in alterations of the human gastrointestinal microbiome, primarily that of the colon. Although thousands of projects have been funded by United States federal funding agencies to study the intestinal microbiome of humans and a variety of animal models, only a minority address dietary effects and a small subset are described in sufficient detail to allow reproduction of a study. While there are standards being developed for many aspects of microbiome studies such as sample collection, nucleic acid extraction, data handling, etc., none have been proposed for the dietary component. It is important to the research enterprise to foster both rigor in design and reproducibility of published studies. Speakers addressed the influence of the structure of fermentable carbohydrate on the microbiota, the variables to consider in design of studies using animals, in vitro models, and human subjects. For all types of studies, strengths and weaknesses of various designs were highlighted and for human studies, comparisons between controlled feeding and observational designs were discussed. In the absence of clearly superior dietary approaches for specific research questions, the main recommendation is to describe dietary ingredients and treatments in as much detail as possible to allow reproduction by other scientists.

15.
Dig Dis Sci ; 63(10): 2722-2728, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29862484

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Certain food additives may promote the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD), but thus far the evaluation of food additive exposures in humans has been limited. The objective of this study was to quantify food additive exposures in children with CD. METHODS: In a trial for bone health in CD, children were followed over 24 months with evaluation of disease characteristics, dietary intake, and body composition. At baseline, participants completed three 24-h dietary recalls. Foods were categorized, and the ingredient list for each item was evaluated for the presence of select food additives: polysorbate-80, carboxymethylcellulose, xanthan gum, soy lecithin, titanium dioxide, carrageenan, maltodextrin, and aluminosilicates. The frequency of exposures to these food additives was described for study participants and for food categories. RESULTS: At study baseline, 138 participants, mean age 14.2 ± 2.8 years, 95% having inactive or mild disease, were enrolled and dietary recalls were collected. A total of 1325 unique foods were recorded. Mean exposures per day for xanthan gum was 0.96 ± 0.72, carrageenan 0.58 ± 0.63, maltodextrin 0.95 ± 0.77, and soy lecithin 0.90 ± 0.74. The other additives had less than 0.1 exposures per day. For the 8 examined food additives, participants were exposed to a mean (SD) of 3.6 ± 2.1 total additives per recall day and a mean (SD) of 2.4 ± 1.0 different additives per day. CONCLUSION: Children with CD frequently consume food additives, and the impact on disease course needs further study.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Aditivos Alimentares/classificação , Análise de Alimentos , Adolescente , Composição Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico , Doença de Crohn/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Aditivos Alimentares/efeitos adversos , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidade do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estatística como Assunto , Estados Unidos
16.
Cancer Res ; 78(16): 4790-4799, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29921691

RESUMO

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs' (NSAID) use has consistently been associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer; however, studies showed inconsistent results on which cohort of individuals may benefit most. We performed multivariable logistic regression analysis to systematically test for the interaction between regular use of NSAIDs and other lifestyle and dietary factors on colorectal cancer risk among 11,894 cases and 15,999 controls. Fixed-effects meta-analyses were used for stratified analyses across studies for each risk factor and to summarize the estimates from interactions. Regular use of any NSAID, aspirin, or nonaspirin NSAIDs was significantly associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer within almost all subgroups. However, smoking status and BMI were found to modify the NSAID-colorectal cancer association. Aspirin use was associated with a 29% lower colorectal cancer risk among never-smokers [odds ratios (OR) = 0.71; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.64-0.79], compared with 19% and 17% lower colorectal cancer risk among smokers of pack-years below median (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.71-0.92) and above median (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.74-0.94), respectively (P interaction = 0.048). The association between any NSAID use and colorectal cancer risk was also attenuated with increasing BMI (P interaction = 0.075). Collectively, these results suggest that obese individuals and heavy smokers are unlikely to benefit as much as other groups from the prophylactic effect of aspirin against colorectal cancer.Significance: Obesity and heavy smoking attenuate the benefit of aspirin use for colorectal cancer prevention. Cancer Res; 78(16); 4790-9. ©2018 AACR.

17.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0197686, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29889838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Large and giant dog breeds have a high risk for gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) which is an acute, life-threatening condition. Previous work by our group identified a strong risk of GDV linked to specific alleles in innate and adaptive immune genes. We hypothesize that variation in the genes of the immune system act through modulation of the gut microbiome, or through autoimmune mechanisms, or both, to predispose dogs to this condition. Here, we investigate whether differences in the canine fecal microbiome are associated with GDV and are linked to previously identified risk alleles. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Fecal samples from healthy Great Danes (n = 38), and dogs with at least one occurrence of GDV (n = 37) were collected and analyzed by paired-end sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Dietary intake and temperament were estimated from a study-specific dietary and temperament questionnaire. Dogs with GDV had significantly more diverse fecal microbiomes than healthy control dogs. Alpha diversity was significantly increased in dogs with GDV, as well as dogs with at least one risk allele for DRB1 and TRL5. We found no significant association of dietary intake and GDV. Dogs with GDV showed a significant expansion of the rare lineage Actinobacteria (p = 0.004), as well as a significantly greater abundance of Firmicutes (p = 0.004) and a significantly lower abundance of Bacteroidetes (p<0.004). There was a significant difference in the abundance of 10 genera but after correction for multiple comparisons, none were significant. Bacterial phyla were significantly different between controls and dogs with GDV and at least one risk allele for DRB1 and TRL5. Actinobacteria were significantly higher in dogs with GDV and with one risk allele for DRB1 and TLR5 but not DLA88 genes. Furthermore, Collinsella was significantly increased in dogs with at least one risk allele for DRB1 and TLR5. Logistic regression showed that a model which included Actinobacteria, at least one risk allele,and temperament, explained 29% of the variation in risk of GDV in Great Danes. CONCLUSIONS: The microbiome in GDV was altered by an expansion of a minor lineage and was associated with specific alleles of both innate and adaptive immunity genes. These associations are consistent with our hypothesis that immune genes may play a role in predisposition to GDV by altering the gut microbiome. Further research will be required to directly test the causal relationships of immune genes, the gut microbiome and GDV.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Alelos , Animais , Cruzamento , Doenças do Cão/genética , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Cães , Feminino , Dilatação Gástrica/genética , Dilatação Gástrica/imunologia , Dilatação Gástrica/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Variação Genética , Sistema Imunitário/microbiologia , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Fatores de Risco , Volvo Gástrico/genética , Volvo Gástrico/imunologia , Volvo Gástrico/microbiologia
18.
Metabolism ; 83: 197-204, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29458053

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The effects of diets high in refined grains on biliary and colonic bile acids have been investigated extensively. However, the effects of diets high in whole versus refined grains on circulating bile acids, which can influence glucose homeostasis and inflammation through activation of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5), have not been studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis from a randomized controlled crossover feeding trial (NCT00622661) in 80 healthy adults (40 women/40 men, age 18-45 years) from the greater Seattle Area, half of which were normal weight (BMI 18.5-25.0 kg/m2) and half overweight to obese (BMI 28.0-39.9 kg/m2). Participants consumed two four-week controlled diets in randomized order: 1) a whole grain diet (WG diet), designed to be low in glycemic load (GL), high in whole grains, legumes, and fruits and vegetables, and 2) a refined grain diet (RG diet), designed to be high GL, high in refined grains and added sugars, separated by a four-week washout period. Quantitative targeted analysis of 55 bile acid species in fasting plasma was performed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations of glucose, insulin, and CRP were measured in fasting serum. Linear mixed models were used to test the effects of diet on bile acid concentrations, and determine the association between plasma bile acid concentrations and HOMA-IR and CRP. Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05 was used to control for multiple testing. RESULTS: A total of 29 plasma bile acids were reliably detected and retained for analysis. Taurolithocholic acid (TLCA), taurocholic acid (TCA) and glycocholic acid (GCA) were statistically significantly higher after the WG compared to the RG diet (FDR < 0.05). There were no significant differences by BMI or sex. When evaluating the association of bile acids and HOMA-IR, GCA, taurochenodeoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), 5ß­cholanic acid­3ß,12α­diol, 5­cholanic acid­3ß­ol, and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) were statistically significantly positively associated with HOMA-IR individually, and as a group, total, 12α­hydroxylated, primary and secondary bile acids were also significant (FDR < 0.05). When stratifying by BMI, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), cholic acid (CA), UDCA, 5ß-cholanic acid-3ß, deoxycholic acid, and total, 12α-hydroxylated, primary and secondary bile acid groups were significantly positively associated with HOMA-IR among overweight to obese individuals (FDR < 0.05). When stratifying by sex, GCA, CDCA, TCA, CA, UDCA, GDCA, glycolithocholic acid (GLCA), total, primary, 12α­hydroxylated, and glycine-conjugated bile acids were significantly associated with HOMA-IR among women, and CDCA, GDCA, and GLCA were significantly associated among men (FDR < 0.05). There were no significant associations between bile acids and CRP. CONCLUSIONS: Diets with comparable macronutrient and energy composition, but differing in carbohydrate source, affected fasting plasma bile acids differently. Specifically, a diet characterized by whole grains, legumes, and fruits and vegetables compared to a diet high in refined grains and added sugars led to modest increases in concentrations of TLCA, TCA and GCA, ligands for FXR and TGR5, which may have beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis.

19.
ISME J ; 12(7): 1631-1641, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29434315

RESUMO

The mechanisms by which obesity increases cancer risk are unclear, but some lines of evidence suggest that gut microbial communities (GMC) may contribute to chronic inflammation in obese individuals through raised systemic levels of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). We evaluated associations of the GMC in stool with plasma LPS-binding protein (LBP, a measure of LPS) and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in 110 premenopausal women in the United States. Diet was assessed using 3-day food records and GMCs were evaluated using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. OTUs were identified at 97% sequence similarity. Taxonomic classification and functional genes were imputed from 16S rRNA genes, and alpha and beta diversity were assessed using the Shannon index and MRPP, respectively. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to assess the relation between LBP, specific bacterial genera identified with indicator species analysis, and CRP. Dietary fat intake, particularly saturated fat, and CRP were positively associated with increased LBP. GMC beta diversity, but not alpha diversity, was statistically significantly different between groups using unweighted Unifrac. Several taxa, particularly those in the Clostridia class, were more prevalent in women with low LBP, while Bacteroides were more prevalent in those with high LBP. Genes associated with gram-negative cell wall material synthesis were also associated with LBP and CRP. In contrast, Phascolarctobacterium was associated with lower concentrations of LBP and CRP. We found distinct differences between tertiles of LBP regarding the diversity and composition of the microbiome, as well as differences in functional genes that potentially activate LBP.

20.
Cancer Causes Control ; 29(1): 115-123, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29189972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an endotoxin found on the outer cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, increases inflammatory response signaling and may play a role in the pathogenesis of several adverse outcomes, including inflammatory bowel diseases, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. While LPS is hypothesized to be associated with colorectal carcinogenesis, there are relatively few human studies which have examined this association. METHODS: We examined the association between colorectal cancer (CRC) and plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), a marker of LPS, in 1,638 participants (819 CRC cases and 819 controls) matched on multiple factors, including age, sex, and race/ethnicity, from the Multiethnic Cohort study. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: Compared to individuals whose LBP concentrations were in the lowest quartile, the ORs associated with second, third, and fourth quartiles were 1.23 (95% CI 0.91-1.67), 1.36 (95% CI 1.01-1.83), and 1.01 (95% CI 0.73-1.39), respectively, (p trend = 0.66). No differences were observed by BMI, fiber intake, saturated fat intake, cancer site, or cancer stage. CONCLUSIONS: This study did not find an overall statistically significant association between LBP (as a marker of LPS exposure) and CRC. Further prospective studies with multiple LBP measurements are needed to validate current findings.

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