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1.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 737641, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34659168

RESUMO

Species of genus Shewanella are among the most frequently identified psychrotrophic bacteria. Here, we have studied the cellular properties, growth dynamics, and stress conditions of cold-active Shewanella strain #4, which was previously isolated from Baltic Sea ice. The cells are rod-shaped of ~2µm in length and 0.5µm in diameter, and they grow between 0 and 25°C, with an optimum at 15°C. The bacterium grows at a wide range of conditions, including 0.5-5.5% w/v NaCl (optimum 0.5-2% w/v NaCl), pH 5.5-10 (optimum pH 7.0), and up to 1mM hydrogen peroxide. In keeping with its adaptation to cold habitats, some polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as stearidonic acid (18:4n-3), eicosatetraenoic acid (20:4n-3), and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3), are produced at a higher level at low temperature. The genome is 4,456kb in size and has a GC content of 41.12%. Uniquely, strain #4 possesses genes for sialic acid metabolism and utilizes N-acetyl neuraminic acid as a carbon source. Interestingly, it also encodes for cytochrome c3 genes, which are known to facilitate environmental adaptation, including elevated temperatures and exposure to UV radiation. Phylogenetic analysis based on a consensus sequence of the seven 16S rRNA genes indicated that strain #4 belongs to genus Shewanella, closely associated with Shewanella aestuarii with a ~97% similarity, but with a low DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) level of ~21%. However, average nucleotide identity (ANI) analysis defines strain #4 as a separate Shewanella species (ANI score=76). Further phylogenetic analysis based on the 92 most conserved genes places Shewanella strain #4 into a distinct phylogenetic clade with other cold-active marine Shewanella species. Considering the phylogenetic, phenotypic, and molecular characterization, we conclude that Shewanella strain #4 is a novel species and name it Shewanella glacialimarina sp. nov. TZS-4T, where glacialimarina means sea ice. Consequently, S. glacialimarina TZS-4T constitutes a promising model for studying transcriptional and translational regulation of cold-active metabolism.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30098552

RESUMO

Basic and applied virus research requires specimens that are purified to high homogeneity. Thus, there is much interest in the efficient production and purification of viruses and their subassemblies. Advances in the production steps have shifted the bottle neck of the process to the purification. Nonetheless, the development of purification techniques for different viruses is challenging due to the complex biological nature of the infected cell cultures as well as the biophysical and -chemical differences in the virus particles. We used bacteriophage ϕ6 as a model virus in our attempts to provide a new purification method for enveloped viruses. We compared asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4)-based virus purification method to the well-established ultracentrifugation-based purification of ϕ6. In addition, binding of ϕ6 virions to monolithic anion exchange columns was tested to evaluate their applicability in concentrating the AF4 purified specimens. Our results show that AF4 enables one-hour purification of infectious enveloped viruses with specific infectivity of ~1 × 1013 PFU/mg of protein and ~65-95% yields. Obtained purity was comparable with that obtained using ultracentrifugation, but the yields from AF4 purification were 2-3-fold higher. Importantly, high quality virus preparations could be obtained directly from crude cell lysates. Furthermore, when used in combination with in-line light scattering detectors, AF4 purification could be coupled to simultaneous quality control of obtained virus specimen.


Assuntos
Bacteriófago phi 6/isolamento & purificação , Fracionamento por Campo e Fluxo/métodos , Vírion/isolamento & purificação , Pseudomonas syringae/virologia , Ultracentrifugação , Ensaio de Placa Viral , Cultura de Vírus
3.
Extremophiles ; 21(6): 1119-1132, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29019077

RESUMO

Viruses come in various shapes and sizes, and a number of viruses originate from extremities, e.g. high salinity or elevated temperature. One challenge for studying extreme viruses is to find efficient purification conditions where viruses maintain their infectivity. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) is a gentle native chromatography-like technique for size-based separation. It does not have solid stationary phase and the mobile phase composition is readily adjustable according to the sample needs. Due to the high separation power of specimens up to 50 µm, AF4 is suitable for virus purification. Here, we applied AF4 for extremophilic viruses representing four morphotypes: lemon-shaped, tailed and tailless icosahedral, as well as pleomorphic enveloped. AF4 was applied to input samples of different purity: crude supernatants of infected cultures, polyethylene glycol-precipitated viruses and viruses purified by ultracentrifugation. All four virus morphotypes were successfully purified by AF4. AF4 purification of culture supernatants or polyethylene glycol-precipitated viruses yielded high recoveries, and the purities were comparable to those obtained by the multistep ultracentrifugation purification methods. In addition, we also demonstrate that AF4 is a rapid monitoring tool for virus production in slowly growing host cells living in extreme conditions.


Assuntos
Vírus de Archaea/química , Cromatografia/métodos , Vírus de Archaea/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal
4.
J Chromatogr A ; 1469: 108-119, 2016 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27697294

RESUMO

Detailed biochemical and biophysical characterization of viruses requires viral preparations of high quantity and purity. The optimization of virus production and purification is an essential, but laborious and time-consuming process. Asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (AF4) is an attractive alternative method for virus purification because it is a rapid and gentle separation method that should preserve viral infectivity. Here we optimized the AF4 conditions to be used for purification of a model virus, bacteriophage PRD1, from various types of starting materials. Our results show that AF4 is well suited for PRD1 purification as monitored by virus recovery and specific infectivity. Short analysis time and high sample loads enabled us to use AF4 for preparative scale purification of PRD1. Furthermore, we show that AF4 enables the rapid real-time analysis of progeny virus production in infected cells.


Assuntos
Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Bacteriófago PRD1/isolamento & purificação , Fracionamento por Campo e Fluxo/métodos , Salmonella typhimurium/virologia , Proteínas Virais/análise , Vírion/isolamento & purificação
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