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1.
Clin Biochem ; 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tranexamic acid is a drug used during open cardiac surgery to prevent blood loss. The blood levels of 10-100 µg/mL are reported to be in the therapeutic range and higher levels are linked to increased incidence of adverse effects. The aim of this study was to optimize and validate an LC-MS/MS method for serum tranexamic acid and measure its levels in patients from the DEPOSITION Pilot trial in order to prove the concept that topical administration will yield lower serum concentration. METHODS: The method development was carried out in several steps including sample preparation, and optimization of chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry parameters. Method validation including day-to-day precision with 4 QC levels, limit of detection, sample stability, carryover, and concentration-signal linearity was carried out. Ninety patient samples were analyzed using the validated method. RESULTS: Fast and efficient LC-MS/MS method for analysis of tranexamic acid in serum was developed. The run time was 7 min with the total time of one hour including the sample preparation. The method precision was acceptable (%CV = 10.5-12.6%) with no sample carryover observed. The matrix effect on the analytical sensitivity was negligible and the lower limit of detection was 0.5 µg/mL. The difference in the mean adjusted concentrations between topical (45 patients) and intravenous (45 patients) groups was statistically significant (0.1154 µg/mL/kg vs. 0.2542 µg/mL/kg, p < 0.0001) CONCLUSIONS: Rapid and simple LC-MS/MS method for analysis of tranexamic acid was optimized and validated. The laboratory has played a crucial role in proving the concept that topical administration yields significantly lower systemic levels of tranexamic acid, and thus decreases the risk of adverse outcomes in patients undergoing open cardiac surgery.

2.
Br J Anaesth ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adverse cardiovascular events are a leading cause of perioperative morbidity and mortality. The definitions of perioperative cardiovascular adverse events are heterogeneous. As part of the international Standardized Endpoints in Perioperative Medicine initiative, this study aimed to find consensus amongst clinical trialists on a set of standardised and valid cardiovascular outcomes for use in future perioperative clinical trials. METHODS: We identified currently used perioperative cardiovascular outcomes by a systematic review of the anaesthesia and perioperative medicine literature (PubMed/Ovid, Embase, and Cochrane Library). We performed a three-stage Delphi consensus-gaining process that involved 55 clinician researchers worldwide. Cardiovascular outcomes were first shortlisted and the most suitable definitions determined. These cardiovascular outcomes were then assessed for validity, reliability, feasibility, and clarity. RESULTS: We identified 18 cardiovascular outcomes. Participation in the three Delphi rounds was 100% (n=19), 71% (n=55), and 89% (n=17), respectively. A final list of nine cardiovascular outcomes was elicited from the consensus: myocardial infarction, myocardial injury, cardiovascular death, non-fatal cardiac arrest, coronary revascularisation, major adverse cardiac events, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, and atrial fibrillation. These nine cardiovascular outcomes were rated by the majority of experts as valid, reliable, feasible, and clearly defined. CONCLUSIONS: These nine consensus cardiovascular outcomes can be confidently used as endpoints in clinical trials designed to evaluate perioperative interventions with the goal of improving perioperative outcomes.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744208

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the behavior of restricted mean survival time (RMST) and designs of a two-state Markov microsimulation model through a 2 × 4 × 2 full factorial experiment. METHOD: By projecting patient-wise 15-year-post-trial survival, we estimated life-year-gained between an intervention and a control group using data from the Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies Study (COMPASS). Projections considered either in-trial events or post-trial medications. They were compared based on three factors: (i) choice of probability of death, (ii) lengths of cycle, and (iii) usage of half-a-cycle age correction. Three-way analysis of variance and post-hoc Tukey's Honest Significant Difference test compared means among factors. RESULTS: When both in-trial events and post-trial study medications were considered, monthly, quarterly, or semiannually were not different from one other in projected life-year-gained. However, the annual one was different from the others: mean and 95 percent confidence interval 252.2 (190.5-313.9) days monthly, 251.8 (192.0-311.6) quarterly, 249.1 (189.7-308.5) semiannually, and 240.8 (178.5-303.1) annually. The other two factors also impacted life-year-gained: background probability (269.1 [260.3-277.9] days projected with REACH-based-probabilities, 227.7 [212.6-242.8] with a USA life table); half-a-cycle age correction (245.5 [199.0-292] with correction and 251.4 [209.1-293.7] without correction). When not considering post-trial medications, only the choice of probability of death appeared to impact life-year-gained. CONCLUSION: For a large trial or cohort, to optimally project life-year-gained, one should consider using (i) annual projections, (ii) life table probabilities, (iii) in-trial events, and (iv) post-trial medication use.

4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(8): e2012749, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777060

RESUMO

Importance: Although the heart team approach is recommended in revascularization guidelines, the frequency with which heart team decisions differ from those of the original treating interventional cardiologist is unknown. Objective: To examine the difference in decisions between the heart team and the original treating interventional cardiologist for the treatment of patients with multivessel coronary artery disease. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional study, 245 consecutive patients with multivessel coronary artery disease were recruited from 1 high-volume tertiary care referral center (185 patients were enrolled through a screening process, and 60 patients were retrospectively enrolled from the center's database). A total of 237 patients were included in the final virtual heart team analysis. Treatment decisions (which comprised coronary artery bypass grafting, percutaneous coronary intervention, and medication therapy) were made by the original treating interventional cardiologists between March 15, 2012, and October 20, 2014. These decisions were then compared with pooled-majority treatment decisions made by 8 blinded heart teams using structured online case presentations between October 1, 2017, and October 15, 2018. The randomized members of the heart teams comprised experts from 3 domains, with each team containing 1 noninvasive cardiologist, 1 interventional cardiologist, and 1 cardiovascular surgeon. Cases in which all 3 of the heart team members disagreed and cases in which procedural discordance occurred (eg, 2 members chose coronary artery bypass grafting and 1 member chose percutaneous coronary intervention) were discussed in a face-to-face heart team review in October 2018 to obtain pooled-majority decisions. Data were analyzed from May 6, 2019, to April 22, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The Cohen κ coefficient between the treatment recommendation from the heart team and the treatment recommendation from the original treating interventional cardiologist. Results: Among 234 of 237 patients (98.7%) in the analysis for whom complete data were available, the mean (SD) age was 67.8 (10.9) years; 176 patients (75.2%) were male, and 191 patients (81.4%) had stenosis in 3 epicardial coronary vessels. A total of 71 differences (30.3%; 95% CI, 24.5%-36.7%) in treatment decisions between the heart team and the original treating interventional cardiologist occurred, with a Cohen κ of 0.478 (95% CI, 0.336-0.540; P = .006). The heart team decision was more frequently unanimous when it was concordant with the decision of the original treating interventional cardiologist (109 of 163 cases [66.9%]) compared with when it was discordant (28 of 71 cases [39.4%]; P < .001). When the heart team agreed with the original treatment decision, there was more agreement between the heart team interventional cardiologist and the original treating interventional cardiologist (138 of 163 cases [84.7%]) compared with when the heart team disagreed with the original treatment decision (14 of 71 cases [19.7%]); P < .001). Those with an original treatment of coronary artery bypass grafting, percutaneous coronary intervention, and medication therapy, 32 of 148 patients [22.3%], 32 of 71 patients [45.1%], and 6 of 15 patients [40.0%], respectively, received a different treatment recommendation from the heart team than the original treating interventional cardiologist; the difference across the 3 groups was statistically significant (P = .002). Conclusions and Relevance: The heart team's recommended treatment for patients with multivessel coronary artery disease differed from that of the original treating interventional cardiologist in up to 30% of cases. This subset of cases was associated with a lower frequency of unanimous decisions within the heart team and less concordance between the interventional cardiologists; discordance was more frequent when percutaneous coronary intervention or medication therapy were considered. Further research is needed to evaluate whether heart team decisions are associated with improvements in outcomes and, if so, how to identify patients for whom the heart team approach would be beneficial.

5.
Br J Anaesth ; 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to establish diagnostic criteria for bleeding independently associated with mortality after noncardiac surgery (BIMS) defined as bleeding during or within 30 days after noncardiac surgery that is independently associated with mortality within 30 days of surgery, and to estimate the proportion of 30-day postoperative mortality potentially attributable to BIMS. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of participants ≥45 yr old having inpatient noncardiac surgery at 12 academic hospitals in eight countries between 2007 and 2011. Cox proportional hazards models evaluated the adjusted relationship between candidate diagnostic criteria for BIMS and all-cause mortality within 30 days of surgery. RESULTS: Of 16 079 participants, 2.0% (315) died and 36.1% (5810) met predefined screening criteria for bleeding. Based on independent association with 30-day mortality, BIMS was identified as bleeding leading to a postoperative haemoglobin <70 g L-1, transfusion of ≥1 unit of red blood cells, or that was judged to be the cause of death. Bleeding independently associated with mortality after noncardiac surgery occurred in 17.3% of patients (2782). Death occurred in 5.8% of patients with BIMS (161/2782), 1.3% (39/3028) who met bleeding screening criteria but not BIMS criteria, and 1.1% (115/10 269) without bleeding. BIMS was associated with mortality (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.87; 95% confidence interval: 1.42-2.47). We estimated the proportion of 30-day postoperative deaths potentially attributable to BIMS to be 20.1-31.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Bleeding independently associated with mortality after noncardiac surgery (BIMS), defined as bleeding that leads to a postoperative haemoglobin <70 g L-1, blood transfusion, or that is judged to be the cause of death, is common and may account for a quarter of deaths after noncardiac surgery. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00512109.

6.
Can J Anaesth ; 67(11): 1497-1506, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767054

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Function describes an individual's ability to perform everyday activities. In the context of cardiac surgery, functional changes quantify the effect of surgery on one's day-to-day life. Decreases in regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2) measured using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been associated with postoperative cognitive decline but its relationship with function has not been studied. We sought to determine the feasibility of conducting a large observational study examining the relationship between decreases in rScO2 during cardiac surgery and postoperative functional decline. METHODS: We undertook a single-centre, pilot sub-study of the NeuroVISION-Cardiac Surgery pilot study, which included adults undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting on cardiopulmonary bypass; all patients enrolled in NeuroVISION-Cardiac Surgery were included. Function was evaluated at baseline, 30 days, and three months using the Standardized Assessment of Global activities in the Elderly (SAGE) scale. Blinded NIRS monitors were affixed for the duration of surgery. Our feasibility outcomes were to recruit one patient per week, obtain complete NIRS data in ≥ 90%, obtain SAGE at all time-points in ≥ 90%, and determine the time required for NIRS data to be transcribed into case report forms. RESULTS: 49/50 patients enrolled in NeuroVISION-Cardiac Surgery were recruited over 48 weeks (1.02 patients/week). Of the 49 included patients, 49 (100%) had complete NIRS data and 44 (90%) had complete SAGE data. The time required for NIRS data collection was a mean (standard deviation) of 5.5 (1.8) min per patient. CONCLUSION: This pilot study shows the feasibility of conducting a large observational study examining the relationship between decreases in cerebral saturation during cardiac surgery and postoperative functional decline. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04241289); registered 27 January 2020.

7.
Br J Anaesth ; 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnostic criteria for Bleeding Independently associated with Mortality after noncardiac Surgery (BIMS) have been defined as bleeding that leads to a postoperative haemoglobin <70 g L-1, leads to blood transfusion, or is judged to be the direct cause of death. Preoperative prediction guides for BIMS can facilitate informed consent and planning of perioperative care. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study of 16 079 participants aged ≥45 yr having inpatient noncardiac surgery at 12 academic hospitals in eight countries between 2007 and 2011, 17.3% (2782) experienced BIMS. An electronic risk calculator for BIMS was developed and internally validated by logistic regression with bootstrapping, and further simplified to a risk index. Decision curve analysis assessed the potential utility of each prediction guide compared with a strategy of identifying risk of BIMS based on preoperative haemoglobin <120 g L-1. RESULTS: With information about the type of surgery, preoperative haemoglobin, age, sex, functional status, kidney function, history of high-risk coronary artery disease, and active cancer, the risk calculator accurately predicted BIMS (bias-corrected C-statistic, 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.837-0.852). A simplified index based on preoperative haemoglobin <120 g L-1, open surgery, and high-risk surgery also predicted BIMS, but less accurately (C-statistic, 0.787; 95% confidence interval, 0.779-0.796). Both prediction guides could improve decision making compared with knowledge of haemoglobin <120 g L-1 alone. CONCLUSIONS: BIMS, defined as bleeding that leads to a postoperative haemoglobin <70 g L-1, leads to blood transfusion, or that is judged to be the direct cause of death, can be predicted by a simple risk index before surgery. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00512109.

8.
J Card Surg ; 35(10): 2754-2758, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720394

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The impact of sex on the outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is controversial. The majority of CABG studies are retrospectively collected clinical or registry data, women comprise only a minority, and the reported findings represent the male predominated cohort. This individual patient meta-analysis is aimed at evaluating sex-related differences in outcomes after CABG using high quality data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A systematic literature search will be performed to identify all CABG RCTs (minimum follow-up: 5 years). Detailed specification for the minimum deidentified patient records' data requirements will be provided to RCT primary contact to request their deidentified data for pooling. The pooled analysis will follow the prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO) and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses for individual patient data systematic reviews (PRISMA-IPD) recommendations and will compare sex-related outcomes after CABG. The main hypothesis is that outcomes after CABG are worse in women than in men. We will also test whether treatment effects for off-pump and the use of multiple arterial grafts are present within each sex, and also, whether there are differential treatment effects between sexes. The primary endpoint will be a composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, and repeat revascularization at long-term follow up. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval and participant consent for the study will be obtained locally by each study team if needed. Data will be disseminated and submitted to peer-reviewed scientific journals and meetings irrespective of study outcome.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Protocolos de Ensaio Clínico como Assunto , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Ponte de Artéria Coronária sem Circulação Extracorpórea , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reoperação , Fatores Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(1): 38-46, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delirium is common after cardiac surgery and is associated with adverse outcomes. Perioperative benzodiazepine use is associated with delirium and is common during cardiac surgery, which may increase the risk of postoperative delirium. We undertook a pilot study to inform the feasibility of a large randomised cluster crossover trial examining whether an institutional policy of restricted benzodiazepine administration during cardiac surgery (compared with liberal administration) would reduce delirium. METHODS: We conducted a two-centre, pilot, randomised cluster crossover trial with four 4 week crossover periods. Each centre was randomised to a policy of restricted or liberal use, and then alternated between the two policies during the remaining three periods. Our feasibility outcomes were adherence to each policy (goal ≥80%) and outcome assessment (one delirium assessment per day in the ICU in ≥90% of participants). We also evaluated the incidence of intraoperative awareness in one site using serial Brice questionnaires. RESULTS: Of 800 patients undergoing cardiac surgery during the trial period, 127/800 (15.9%) had delirium. Of these, 355/389 (91.3%) received benzodiazepines during the liberal benzodiazepine periods and 363/411 (88.3%) did not receive benzodiazepines during the restricted benzodiazepine periods. Amongst the 800 patients, 740 (92.5%) had ≥1 postoperative delirium assessment per day in the ICU. Of 521 patients screened for intraoperative awareness, one patient (0.2%), managed during the restricted benzodiazepine period (but who received benzodiazepine), experienced intraoperative awareness. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of a large, multicentre, randomised, cluster crossover trial examining whether an institutional policy of restricted vs liberal benzodiazepine use during cardiac surgery will reduce postoperative delirium. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03053869.


Assuntos
Anestesia em Procedimentos Cardíacos/métodos , Benzodiazepinas/administração & dosagem , Delírio/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Canadá , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Cross-Over , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto
10.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(9): 1058-1068, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381184

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the value of frailty to predict in-hospital major bleeding and determine its impact on mid-term mortality following transcatheter (TAVR) or surgical (SAVR) aortic valve replacement. BACKGROUND: Bleeding complications are harbingers of mortality and major morbidity in patients undergoing TAVR or SAVR. Despite the high prevalence of frailty in this population, little is known about its effects on bleeding risk. METHODS: A post hoc analysis was performed of the multinational FRAILTY-AVR (Frailty Aortic Valve Replacement) cohort study, which prospectively enrolled older adults ≥70 years of age undergoing TAVR or SAVR. Trained researchers assessed frailty using a questionnaire and physical performance battery pre-procedure and ascertained clinical data from the electronic health record. The primary endpoint was major or life-threatening bleeding during the index hospitalization, and the secondary endpoint was units of packed red blood cells transfused. RESULTS: The cohort consisted of 1,195 patients with a mean age of 81.3 ± 6.0 years. The incidence of life-threatening bleeding, major bleeding with a clinically apparent source, and major bleeding without a clinically apparent source was, respectively, 3%, 6%, and 9% in the TAVR group and 8%, 10%, and 31% in the SAVR group. Frailty measured using the Essential Frailty Toolset was an independent predictor of major bleeding and packed red blood cell transfusions in both groups. Major bleeding was associated with a 3-fold increase in 1-year mortality following TAVR (odds ratio: 3.40; 95% confidence interval: 2.22 to 5.21) and SAVR (odds ratio: 2.79; 95% confidence interval: 1.25 to 6.21). CONCLUSIONS: Frailty is associated with post-procedural major bleeding in older adults undergoing TAVR and SAVR, which is in turn associated with a higher risk for mid-term mortality.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/complicações , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Canadá , Transfusão de Eritrócitos , Feminino , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/mortalidade , França , Avaliação Geriátrica , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/mortalidade , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
11.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(13): 1593-1604, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241376

RESUMO

Compared with randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in medical specialties, RCTs in cardiac surgery face specific issues. Individual and collective equipoise, rapid evolution of the surgical techniques, as well as difficulties in obtaining funding, and limited education in clinical epidemiology in the surgical community are among the most important challenges in the design phase of the trial. Use of complex interventions and learning curve effect, differences in individual operators' expertise, difficulties in blinding, and slow recruitment make the successful completion of cardiac surgery RCTs particularly challenging. In fact, over the course of the last 20 years, the number of cardiac surgery RCTs has declined significantly. In this review, a team of surgeons, trialists, and epidemiologists discusses the most important challenges faced by RCTs in cardiac surgery and provides a list of suggestions for the successful design and completion of cardiac surgery RCTs.

12.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(3): e15548, 2020 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac and major vascular surgeries are common surgical procedures associated with high rates of postsurgical complications and related hospital readmission. In-hospital remote automated monitoring (RAM) and virtual hospital-to-home patient care systems have major potential to improve patient outcomes following cardiac and major vascular surgery. However, the science of deploying and evaluating these systems is complex and subject to risk of implementation failure. OBJECTIVE: As a precursor to a randomized controlled trial (RCT), this user testing study aimed to examine user performance and acceptance of a RAM and virtual hospital-to-home care intervention, using Philip's Guardian and Electronic Transition to Ambulatory Care (eTrAC) technologies, respectively. METHODS: Nurses and patients participated in systems training and individual case-based user testing at two participating sites in Canada and the United Kingdom. Participants were video recorded and asked to think aloud while completing required user tasks and while being rated on user performance. Feedback was also solicited about the user experience, including user satisfaction and acceptance, through use of the Net Promoter Scale (NPS) survey and debrief interviews. RESULTS: A total of 37 participants (26 nurses and 11 patients) completed user testing. The majority of nurse and patient participants were able to complete most required tasks independently, demonstrating comprehension and retention of required Guardian and eTrAC system workflows. Tasks which required additional prompting by the facilitator, for some, were related to the use of system features that enable continuous transmission of patient vital signs (eg, pairing wireless sensors to the patient) and assigning remote patient monitoring protocols. NPS scores by user group (nurses using Guardian: mean 8.8, SD 0.89; nurses using eTrAC: mean 7.7, SD 1.4; patients using eTrAC: mean 9.2, SD 0.75), overall NPS scores, and participant debrief interviews indicated nurse and patient satisfaction and acceptance of the Guardian and eTrAC systems. Both user groups stressed the need for additional opportunities to practice in order to become comfortable and proficient in the use of these systems. CONCLUSIONS: User testing indicated a high degree of user acceptance of Philips' Guardian and eTrAC systems among nurses and patients. Key insights were provided that informed refinement of clinical workflow training and systems implementation. These results were used to optimize workflows before the launch of an international RCT of in-hospital RAM and virtual hospital-to-home care for patients undergoing cardiac and major vascular surgery.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/cirurgia , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/normas , Hospitais/normas , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Interface Usuário-Computador , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Período Pós-Operatório
13.
Anesthesiology ; 132(4): 692-701, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The authors previously reported that perioperative aspirin and/or clonidine does not prevent a composite of death or myocardial infarction 30 days after noncardiac surgery. Moreover, aspirin increased the risk of major bleeding and clonidine caused hypotension and bradycardia. Whether these complications produce harm at 1 yr remains unknown. METHODS: The authors randomized 10,010 patients with or at risk of atherosclerosis and scheduled for noncardiac surgery in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to clonidine/aspirin, clonidine/aspirin placebo, clonidine placebo/aspirin, or clonidine placebo/aspirin placebo. Patients started taking aspirin or placebo just before surgery; those not previously taking aspirin continued daily for 30 days, and those taking aspirin previously continued for 7 days. Patients were also randomly assigned to receive clonidine or placebo just before surgery, with the study drug continued for 72 h. RESULTS: Neither aspirin nor clonidine had a significant effect on the primary 1-yr outcome, a composite of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction, with a 1-yr hazard ratio for aspirin of 1.00 (95% CI, 0.89 to 1.12; P = 0.948; 586 patients [11.8%] vs. 589 patients [11.8%]) and a hazard ratio for clonidine of 1.07 (95% CI, 0.96 to 1.20; P = 0.218; 608 patients [12.1%] vs. 567 patients [11.3%]), with effect on death or nonfatal infarction. Reduction in death and nonfatal myocardial infarction from aspirin in patients who previously had percutaneous coronary intervention at 30 days persisted at 1 yr. Specifically, the hazard ratio was 0.58 (95% CI, 0.35 to 0.95) in those with previous percutaneous coronary intervention and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.91to 1.16) in those without (interaction P = 0.033). There was no significant effect of either drug on death, cardiovascular complications, cancer, or chronic incisional pain at 1 yr (all P > 0.1). CONCLUSIONS: Neither perioperative aspirin nor clonidine have significant long-term effects after noncardiac surgery. Perioperative aspirin in patients with previous percutaneous coronary intervention showed persistent benefit at 1 yr, a plausible sub-group effect.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Clonidina/administração & dosagem , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Idoso , Analgésicos/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Clonidina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Assistência Perioperatória/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 68(3): 212-218, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the evidence for the efficacy and safety of intrapericardial tranexamic acid (TXA) in cardiac surgery. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE from 2000 to 2017 for randomized controlled trials that compared intrapericardial TXA to placebo. We performed a meta-analysis for the eligible trials that focused on chest tube drainage measured during the first 24 hours after surgery as a primary outcome. We also examined the secondary outcome measures of these trials such as the incidence of transfusion requirements following surgery and the evidence for any increase in complication rates. RESULTS: A total of seven randomized controlled trials (six on-pump and one off-pump) comparing topical application of TXA to placebo in 692 patients were eligible for the blood loss outcome data. These trials randomized 372 patients to receive TXA and 320 patients as controls. The use of intrapericardial TXA was associated with a considerable reduction in 24-hour blood loss in all seven studies and a weighted mean difference of -343.56 mL (95% confidence interval: -316.41, -370.72) significantly differed from zero (p = 0.005) with a heterogeneity of I 2 = 0%. The incidence of packed RBC transfusion in TXA patients was significantly lower in one study and was not significant but with trend in favor of TXA in five out of the six studies in which it was reported. In one trial, TXA was not detected in any patient and in another the studied groups were similar in postoperative complications, such as graft patency, myocardial infarction, cerebral infarction, atrial fibrillation, seizures, and infections. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this meta-analysis suggest that intrapericardial use of TXA in patients undergoing cardiac surgery can decrease postoperative bleeding without increasing the risk of postoperative seizures. Future large randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trials are needed to confirm these promising findings.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Adulto , Idoso , Antifibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Ácido Tranexâmico/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Cardiovasc Res ; 116(11): 1918-1924, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807773

RESUMO

AIMS: In the COMPASS trial, rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily (bid) plus acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) 100 mg once daily (od) performed better than ASA 100 mg od alone in reducing the rate of cardiovascular disease, stroke, or myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and peripheral artery disease (PAD). A Markov model was developed to assess the cost-effectiveness of rivaroxaban plus ASA vs. ASA alone over a lifetime horizon, from the UK National Health System perspective. METHODS AND RESULTS: The base case analysis assumed that patients entered the model in the event-free health state, with the possibility to experience ≤2 events, transitioning every three-month cycle, through acute and post-acute health states of MI, ischaemic stroke (IS), or intracranial haemorrhage (ICH), and death. Costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), life years-all discounted at 3.5%-and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted, as well as scenario analyses. In the model, patients on rivaroxaban plus ASA lived for an average of 14.0 years with no IS/MI/ICH, and gained 9.7 QALYs at a cost of £13 947, while those receiving ASA alone lived for an average of 12.7 years and gained 9.3 QALYs at a cost of £8126. The ICER was £16 360 per QALY. This treatment was cost-effective in 98% of 5000 iterations at a willingness-to-pay threshold of £30 000 per QALY. CONCLUSION: This Markov model suggests that rivaroxaban 2.5 mg bid plus ASA is a cost-effective alternative to ASA alone in patients with chronic CAD or PAD.

16.
Ann Intern Med ; 172(2): 96-104, 2020 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869834

RESUMO

Background: Preliminary data suggest that preoperative N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) may improve risk prediction in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. Objective: To determine whether preoperative NT-proBNP has additional predictive value beyond a clinical risk score for the composite of vascular death and myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) within 30 days after surgery. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: 16 hospitals in 9 countries. Patients: 10 402 patients aged 45 years or older having inpatient noncardiac surgery. Measurements: All patients had NT-proBNP levels measured before surgery and troponin T levels measured daily for up to 3 days after surgery. Results: In multivariable analyses, compared with preoperative NT-proBNP values less than 100 pg/mL (the reference group), those of 100 to less than 200 pg/mL, 200 to less than 1500 pg/mL, and 1500 pg/mL or greater were associated with adjusted hazard ratios of 2.27 (95% CI, 1.90 to 2.70), 3.63 (CI, 3.13 to 4.21), and 5.82 (CI, 4.81 to 7.05) and corresponding incidences of the primary outcome of 12.3% (226 of 1843), 20.8% (542 of 2608), and 37.5% (223 of 595), respectively. Adding NT-proBNP thresholds to clinical stratification (that is, the Revised Cardiac Risk Index [RCRI]) resulted in a net absolute reclassification improvement of 258 per 1000 patients. Preoperative NT-proBNP values were also statistically significantly associated with 30-day all-cause mortality (less than 100 pg/mL [incidence, 0.3%], 100 to less than 200 pg/mL [incidence, 0.7%], 200 to less than 1500 pg/mL [incidence, 1.4%], and 1500 pg/mL or greater [incidence, 4.0%]). Limitation: External validation of the identified NT-proBNP thresholds in other cohorts would reinforce our findings. Conclusion: Preoperative NT-proBNP is strongly associated with vascular death and MINS within 30 days after noncardiac surgery and improves cardiac risk prediction in addition to the RCRI. Primary Funding Source: Canadian Institutes of Health Research.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Período Pré-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Troponina T/sangue
17.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 57(1): 168-175, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180497

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Using data from the CORONARY trial (n = 4752), we evaluated the incidence and prognostic significance of myocardial infarction (MI) applying different definitions based on peak postoperative creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme and cardiac troponin levels. We then aimed to identify the peak cardiac troponin during the first 3 postoperative days that was independently associated with a 2-fold increase in 30-day mortality. METHODS: To combine different assays, we analysed cardiac troponins in multiples of their respective upper limit of normal (ULN). We identified the lowest threshold with a hazard ratio (HR) >2 for 30-day mortality independent of EuroSCORE and on- versus off-pump surgery. RESULTS: Depending on the definition used based on creatine kinase-MB, the incidence of MI after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) ranged from 0.6% to 19% and the associated HRs for 30-day mortality ranged from 2.7 to 6.9. Using cardiac troponin (1528 patients), the incidence of MI ranged from 1.7% to 13% depending on the definition used with HRs for 30-day mortality ranging from 5.1 to 7.2. The first cardiac troponin threshold we evaluated, 180xULN, was associated with an adjusted HR for 30-day mortality of 7.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.4-17.1] when compared to <130xULN. The next independent threshold was 130xULN with an adjusted HR for 30-day mortality of 7.8 (95% CI 2.3-26.1). The next cardiac troponin tested threshold (70xULN) did not meet criteria for significance. CONCLUSIONS: Our results illustrate that the incidence and prognosis of a post-CABG MI varies based on the definition used. Validated post-CABG MI diagnostic criteria formulated from their independent association with important clinical outcomes are needed.

20.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 158(2): e46-e47, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060737
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