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1.
Plant Dis ; 104(5): 1455-1464, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196419

RESUMO

Leaf (brown) rust (LR) and stripe (yellow) rust (YR), caused by Puccinia triticina and P. striiformis f. sp. tritici, respectively, significantly reduce wheat production worldwide. Disease-resistant wheat varieties offer farmers one of the most effective ways to manage these diseases. The common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Arableu#1, developed by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center and released as Deka in Ethiopia, shows susceptibility to both LR and YR at the seedling stage but a high level of adult plant resistance (APR) to the diseases in the field. We used 142 F5 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from Apav#1 × Arableu#1 to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for APR to LR and YR. A total of 4,298 genotyping-by-sequencing markers were used to construct a genetic linkage map. The study identified four LR resistance QTLs and six YR resistance QTLs in the population. Among these, QLr.cim-1BL.1/QYr.cim-1BL.1 was located in the same location as Lr46/Yr29, a known pleiotropic resistance gene. QLr.cim-1BL.2 and QYr.cim-1BL.2 were also located on wheat chromosome 1BL at 37 cM from Lr46/Yr29 and may represent a new segment for pleiotropic resistance to both rusts. QLr.cim-7BL is likely Lr68 given its association with the tightly linked molecular marker cs7BLNLRR. In addition, QLr.cim-3DS, QYr.cim-2AL, QYr.cim-4BL, QYr.cim-5AL, and QYr.cim-7DS are probably new resistance loci based on comparisons with published QTLs for resistance to LR and YR. Our results showed the diversity of minor resistance QTLs in Arableu#1 and their role in conferring near-immune levels of APR to both LR and YR, when combined with the pleiotropic APR gene Lr46/Yr29.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Triticum , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Etiópia , Humanos , Doenças das Plantas
2.
Phytopathology ; 110(4): 892-899, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850832

RESUMO

The durum wheat lines Heller#1 and Dunkler from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Global Wheat Program showed moderate and stable adult plant resistance to leaf rust under high disease pressure over field environments in northwestern Mexico. Leaf rust phenotyping was performed on two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations derived from crosses of Heller#1 and Dunkler with the susceptible parent Atred#2, conducted under artificially induced Puccinia triticina epidemics in 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016. The Atred#2 × Heller#1 and Atred#2 × Dunkler populations were genotyped by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) platforms and diversity arrays technology markers, respectively. Four leaf rust resistance quantitative trait loci were detected simultaneously in the two RIL populations: Lr46, QLr.cim-2BC, QLr.cim-5BL, and QLr.cim-6BL based on phenotypic data across all four crop seasons. They explained 11.7 to 46.8%, 7.2 to 26.1%, 8.4 to 24.1%, and 12.4 to 28.5%, respectively, of the phenotypic variation for leaf rust resistance in Atred#2 × Heller#1 and 16.3 to 56.6%, 6.7 to 15.7%, 4.1 to 10.1%, and 5.1 to 20.2% of the variation in the Atred#2 × Dunkler population. Only the resistance allele of QLr.cim-2BC was from the susceptible parent Atred#2, and resistance alleles at other loci came from the resistant parents Heller#1 and Dunkler. The SNP markers closely linked to Lr46 and QLr.cim-2BC were converted to kompetitive allele specific PCR markers for use in marker-assisted selection to improve leaf rust resistance through crosses with Heller#1 and Dunkler sources.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Triticum , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Resistência à Doença , Humanos , México , Doenças das Plantas
3.
Phytopathology ; 109(1): 120-126, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30070970

RESUMO

Stripe rust is a major disease constraint of wheat production worldwide. Resistance to stripe rust was analyzed using 131 F6 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between synthetic derived wheat line Soru#1 and wheat cultivar Naxos. The phenotype was evaluated in Mexico and Norway at both seedling and adult plant stages. Linkage groups were constructed based on 90K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), sequence-tagged site, and simple sequence repeat markers. Two major resistance loci conferred by Soru#1 were detected and located on chromosomes 1BL and 4DS. The 1BL quantitative trait loci explained 15.8 to 40.2 and 51.1% of the phenotypic variation at adult plant and seedling stages, respectively. This locus was identified as Yr24/Yr26 based on the flanking markers and infection types. Locus 4DS was flanked by molecular markers D_GB5Y7FA02JMPQ0_238 and BS00108770_51. It explained 8.4 to 27.8 and 5.5% of stripe rust variation at the adult plant and seedling stages, respectively. The 4DS locus may correspond to known resistance gene Yr28 based on the resistance source. All RILs that combine Yr24/Yr26 and Yr28 showed significantly reduced stripe rust severity in all four environments compared with the lines with only one of the genes. SNP marker BS00108770_51 was converted into a breeder-friendly kompetitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction marker that will be useful to accelerate Yr28 deployment in wheat breeding programs.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genes de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , México , Noruega , Fenótipo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum/microbiologia
4.
Theor Appl Genet ; 131(8): 1793-1806, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29855671

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: A complete set wheat-R. ciliaris disomic addition lines (DALs) were characterized and the homoeologous groups and genome affinities of R. ciliaris chromosomes were determined. Wild relatives are rich gene resources for cultivated wheat. The development of alien addition chromosome lines not only greatly broadens the genetic diversity, but also provides genetic stocks for comparative genomics studies. Roegneria ciliaris (genome ScScYcYc), a tetraploid wild relative of wheat, is tolerant or resistant to many abiotic and biotic stresses. To develop a complete set of wheat-R. ciliaris disomic addition lines (DALs), we undertook a euplasmic backcrossing program to overcome allocytoplasmic effects and preferential chromosome transmission. To improve the efficiency of identifying chromosomes from Sc and Yc, we established techniques including sequential genomic in situ hybridization/fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and molecular marker analysis. Fourteen DALs of wheat, each containing one pair of R. ciliaris chromosomes pairs, were characterized by FISH using four repetitive sequences [pTa794, pTa71, RcAfa and (GAA)10] as probes. One hundred and sixty-two R. ciliaris-specific markers were developed. FISH and marker analysis enabled us to assign the homoeologous groups and genome affinities of R. ciliaris chromosomes. FHB resistance evaluation in successive five growth seasons showed that the amphiploid, DA2Yc, DA5Yc and DA6Sc had improved FHB resistance, indicating their potential value in wheat improvement. The 14 DALs are likely new gene resources and will be phenotyped for more agronomic performances traits.


Assuntos
Cruzamentos Genéticos , Genes de Plantas , Triticum/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Melhoramento Vegetal
5.
Front Plant Sci ; 8: 1450, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28878791

RESUMO

Growing resistant wheat varieties is a key method of minimizing the extent of yield losses caused by the globally important wheat leaf rust (LR) and stripe rust (YR) diseases. In this study, a population of 186 F8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between a synthetic wheat derivative (PI610750) and an adapted common wheat line (cv. "UC1110") were phenotyped for LR and YR response at both seedling and adult plant stages over multiple seasons. Using a genetic linkage map consisting of single sequence repeats and diversity arrays technology markers, in combination with inclusive composite interval mapping analysis, we detected a new LR adult plant resistance (APR) locus, QLr.cim-2DS, contributed by UC1110. One co-located resistance locus to both rusts, QLr.cim-3DC/QYr.cim-3DC, and the known seedling resistance gene Lr26 were also mapped. QLr.cim-2DS and QLr.cim-3DC showed a marginally significant interaction for LR resistance in the adult plant stage. In addition, two previously reported YR APR loci, QYr.ucw-3BS and Yr48, were found to exhibit stable performances in rust environments in both Mexico and the United States and showed a highly significant interaction in the field. Yr48 was also observed to confer intermediate seedling resistance against Mexican YR races, thus suggesting it should be re-classified as an all-stage resistance gene. We also identified 5 and 2 RILs that possessed all detected YR and LR resistance loci, respectively. With the closely linked molecular markers reported here, these RILs could be used as donors for multiple resistance loci to both rusts in wheat breeding programs.

6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1659: 137-149, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28856647

RESUMO

Leaf rust, stripe rust, and stem rust pose a significant threat to global wheat production. Growing rust resistant cultivars is the most efficient and environment friendly method to reduce yield losses. Genetic analysis is undertaken to identify genes and study their roles in conferring rust resistance in a given wheat background. This chapter summarizes the protocol for genetic analysis of rust resistance at both seedling and adult plant stages. Additionally, it examines statistical analysis and related software to characterize quantitative trait loci (QTL) linked with rust resistance.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia , Cromossomos de Plantas , Resistência à Doença , Genes de Plantas , Genômica/métodos , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Fenótipo , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/microbiologia , Software , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Front Plant Sci ; 8: 1212, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28798752

RESUMO

CIMMYT wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) lines Francolin#1 and Quaiu#3 displayed effective and stable adult plant resistance (APR) to Chinese Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici isolates in the field. To elucidate their genetic basis of resistance, two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations of their crosses with Avocet, the susceptible parent, were phenotyped in Zhengzhou and Shangqiu in the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 cropping seasons. These populations were also genotyped with SSR (simple sequence repeat markers) and DArT (diversity arrays technology) markers. Two common significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) on wheat chromosomes 1BL and 4BL were detected in both populations by joint and individual inclusive composite interval mapping, explaining 20.3-28.7% and 9.6-15.9% of the phenotypic variance in Avocet × Francolin#1 and 4.8-11.5% and 10.8-18.9% in Avocet × Quaiu#3, respectively. Additional QTL were mapped on chromosomes 1DL and 5BL in Avocet × Francolin#1 and on 2DL and 6BS in Avocet × Quaiu#3. Among these, QPm.heau-1DL is probably a novel APR gene contributing 6.1-8.5% of total phenotypic variance. The QTL on 1BL corresponds to the pleiotropic multi-pathogen resistance gene Yr29/Lr46/Pm39, whereas the QTL on 2DL maps to a similar region where stripe rust resistance gene Yr54 is located. The QTL identified can potentially be used for the improvement of powdery mildew and rust resistance in wheat breeding.

8.
Theor Appl Genet ; 130(7): 1415-1430, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28393303

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Genomic prediction for seedling and adult plant resistance to wheat rusts was compared to prediction using few markers as fixed effects in a least-squares approach and pedigree-based prediction. The unceasing plant-pathogen arms race and ephemeral nature of some rust resistance genes have been challenging for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding programs and farmers. Hence, it is important to devise strategies for effective evaluation and exploitation of quantitative rust resistance. One promising approach that could accelerate gain from selection for rust resistance is 'genomic selection' which utilizes dense genome-wide markers to estimate the breeding values (BVs) for quantitative traits. Our objective was to compare three genomic prediction models including genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP), GBLUP A that was GBLUP with selected loci as fixed effects and reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces-markers (RKHS-M) with least-squares (LS) approach, RKHS-pedigree (RKHS-P), and RKHS markers and pedigree (RKHS-MP) to determine the BVs for seedling and/or adult plant resistance (APR) to leaf rust (LR), stem rust (SR), and stripe rust (YR). The 333 lines in the 45th IBWSN and the 313 lines in the 46th IBWSN were genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing and phenotyped in replicated trials. The mean prediction accuracies ranged from 0.31-0.74 for LR seedling, 0.12-0.56 for LR APR, 0.31-0.65 for SR APR, 0.70-0.78 for YR seedling, and 0.34-0.71 for YR APR. For most datasets, the RKHS-MP model gave the highest accuracies, while LS gave the lowest. GBLUP, GBLUP A, RKHS-M, and RKHS-P models gave similar accuracies. Using genome-wide marker-based models resulted in an average of 42% increase in accuracy over LS. We conclude that GS is a promising approach for improvement of quantitative rust resistance and can be implemented in the breeding pipeline.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Basidiomycota , Marcadores Genéticos , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum/microbiologia
9.
Theor Appl Genet ; 130(3): 609-619, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28004134

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: New leaf rust adult plant resistance (APR) QTL QLr.cim - 6BL was mapped and confirmed the known pleotropic APR gene Lr46 effect on leaf rust in durum wheat line Bairds. CIMMYT-derived durum wheat line Bairds displays an adequate level of adult plant resistance (APR) to leaf rust in Mexican field environments. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population developed from a cross of Bairds with susceptible parent Atred#1 was phenotyped for leaf rust response at Ciudad Obregon, Mexico, during 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016 under artificially created epidemics of Puccinia triticina (Pt) race BBG/BP. The RIL population and its parents were genotyped with the 50 K diversity arrays technology (DArT) sequence system and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A genetic map comprising 1150 markers was used to map the resistance loci. Four significant quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected on chromosomes 1BL, 2BC (centromere region), 5BL and 6BL. These QTLs, named Lr46, QLr.cim-2BC, QLr.cim-5BL and QLr.cim-6BL, respectively, explained 13.5-60.8%, 9.0-14.3%, 2.8-13.9%, and 11.6-29.4%, respectively, of leaf rust severity variation by the inclusive composite interval mapping method. All of these resistance loci were contributed by the resistant parent Bairds, except for QLr.cim-2BC, which came from susceptible parent Atred#1. Among these, the QTL on chromosome 1BL was the known pleiotropic APR gene Lr46, whereas QLr.cim-6BL, a consistently detected locus, should be a new leaf rust resistance locus in durum wheat. The mean leaf rust severity of RILs carrying all four QTLs ranged from 8.0 to 17.5%, whereas it ranged from 10.9 to 38.5% for three QTLs (Lr46 + 5BL + 6BL) derived from the resistant parent Bairds. Two RILs with four QTLs combinations can be used as sources of complex APR in durum wheat breeding.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Genes de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Basidiomycota , Mapeamento Cromossômico , DNA de Plantas/genética , Ligação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Repetições de Microssatélites , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum/microbiologia
10.
Plant Sci ; 252: 222-229, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27717458

RESUMO

Mining of new genetic resources is of paramount importance to combat the alarming spread of stripe rust disease and breakdown of major resistance genes in wheat. We conducted a genome wide association study on 352 un-utilized Afghan wheat landraces against stripe rust resistance in eight locations. High level of disease variation was observed among locations and a core-set of germplasm showed consistence performance. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) decayed rapidly (R2≈0.16 at 0cM) due to germplasm peerless diversity. The mixed linear model resulted in ten marker-trait associations (MTAs) across all environments representing five QTL. The extensively short LD blocks required us to repeat the analysis with less diverse subset of 220 landraces in which R2 decayed below 0.2 at 0.3cM. The subset GWAS resulted in 36 MTAs clustered in nine QTL. The subset analysis validated three QTL previously detected in the full list analysis. Overall, the study revealed that stripe rust epidemics in the geographical origin of this germplasm through time have permitted for selecting novel resistance loci.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum/microbiologia
11.
Theor Appl Genet ; 129(10): 1975-84, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27422445

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Powdery mildew resistance gene Pm55 was physically mapped to chromosome arm 5VS FL 0.60-0.80 of Dasypyrum villosum . Pm55 is present in T5VS·5AL and T5VS·5DL translocations, which should be valuable resources for wheat improvement. Powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici is a major wheat disease worldwide. Exploiting novel genes effective against powdery mildew from wild relatives of wheat is a promising strategy for controlling this disease. To identify novel resistance genes for powdery mildew from Dasypyrum villosum, a wild wheat relative, we evaluated a set of Chinese Spring-D. villosum disomic addition and whole-arm translocation lines for reactions to powdery mildew. Based on the evaluation data, we concluded that the D. villosum chromosome 5V controls post-seedling resistance to powdery mildew. Subsequently, three introgression lines were developed and confirmed by molecular and cytogenetic analysis following ionizing radiation of the pollen of a Chinese Spring-D. villosum 5V disomic addition line. A homozygous T5VS·5AL translocation line (NAU421) with good plant vigor and full fertility was further characterized using sequential genomic in situ hybridization, C-banding, and EST-STS marker analysis. A dominant gene permanently named Pm55 was located in chromosome bin 5VS 0.60-0.80 based on the responses to powdery mildew of all wheat-D. villosum 5V introgression lines evaluated at both seeding and adult stages. This study demonstrated that Pm55 conferred growth-stage and tissue-specific dependent resistance; therefore, it provides a novel resistance type for powdery mildew. The T5VS·5AL translocation line with additional softness loci Dina/Dinb of D. villosum provides a possibility of extending the range of grain textures to a super-soft category. Accordingly, this stock is a new source of resistance to powdery mildew and may be useful in both resistance mechanism studies and soft wheat improvement.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Genes Dominantes , Genes de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Poaceae/genética , Triticum/genética , Ascomicetos , Cromossomos de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Mapeamento Físico do Cromossomo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Translocação Genética , Triticum/microbiologia
12.
Front Plant Sci ; 7: 991, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27458472

RESUMO

Current trends in population growth and consumption patterns continue to increase the demand for wheat, a key cereal for global food security. Further, multiple abiotic challenges due to climate change and evolving pathogen and pests pose a major concern for increasing wheat production globally. Triticeae species comprising of primary, secondary, and tertiary gene pools represent a rich source of genetic diversity in wheat. The conventional breeding strategies of direct hybridization, backcrossing and selection have successfully introgressed a number of desirable traits associated with grain yield, adaptation to abiotic stresses, disease resistance, and bio-fortification of wheat varieties. However, it is time consuming to incorporate genes conferring tolerance/resistance to multiple stresses in a single wheat variety by conventional approaches due to limitations in screening methods and the lower probabilities of combining desirable alleles. Efforts on developing innovative breeding strategies, novel tools and utilizing genetic diversity for new genes/alleles are essential to improve productivity, reduce vulnerability to diseases and pests and enhance nutritional quality. New technologies of high-throughput phenotyping, genome sequencing and genomic selection are promising approaches to maximize progeny screening and selection to accelerate the genetic gains in breeding more productive varieties. Use of cisgenic techniques to transfer beneficial alleles and their combinations within related species also offer great promise especially to achieve durable rust resistance.

13.
J Periodontol ; 87(7): 809-19, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26923474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemotherapeutic agents (ChAs) are considered an integral part of current treatment protocols for the decontamination of titanium implants with peri-implantitis, based on their antimicrobial effect. Despite the proven antimicrobial effect of ChAs on titanium-bound biofilms, previous studies have elucidated an unexpected disassociation between bacterial reduction and biologically acceptable treatment outcomes. In this study, the authors hypothesize that ChAs residues alter titanium physicochemistry and thus compromise cellular response to decontaminated surfaces. METHODS: Grit-blasted acid-etched titanium disks were contaminated with multispecies microcosm biofilms grown from in vivo peri-implant plaque samples. To simulate implant decontamination, the contaminated disks were burnished with 0.12% chlorhexidine, 20% citric acid, 24% EDTA/1.5% NaOCl, or sterile saline and assessed surface physicochemical properties. Sterile untreated surfaces were the controls. The biologic effects of decontamination were assessed via cell proliferation and differentiation assays. RESULTS: Bacterial counts after decontamination confirmed that the ChAs were antimicrobial. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy invariably detected elemental contaminants associated with each ChA molecule or salt that significantly altered wettability compared with controls. Notably, all surfaces with ChA residues showed some cytotoxic effect compared with controls (P <0.05). Increased cell counts were consistently found in the saline-treated group compared with chlorhexidine (P = 0.03). Interestingly, no association was found between antimicrobial effect and cell counts (P >0.05). CONCLUSIONS: ChA-specific residues left on the titanium surfaces altered titanium physical properties and adversely affected the osteoblastic response irrespective of their observed antimicrobial effect. Chlorhexidine may compromise the biocompatibility of titanium surfaces, and its use is not recommended to detoxify implants. Sterile saline, citric acid, and NaOCl-EDTA may be proposed for use in the treatment of peri-implantitis. Contrary to previous studies that recommended the selection of ChAs for the decontamination of titanium implants according to their antimicrobial effects, the present study demonstrated that the restoration of the biocompatibility of contaminated titanium surfaces is also contingent on the preservation of titanium material properties.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Implantes Dentários , Peri-Implantite/tratamento farmacológico , Titânio , Humanos , Propriedades de Superfície
14.
Nat Genet ; 47(12): 1494-8, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26551671

RESUMO

As there are numerous pathogen species that cause disease and limit yields of crops, such as wheat (Triticum aestivum), single genes that provide resistance to multiple pathogens are valuable in crop improvement. The mechanistic basis of multi-pathogen resistance is largely unknown. Here we use comparative genomics, mutagenesis and transformation to isolate the wheat Lr67 gene, which confers partial resistance to all three wheat rust pathogen species and powdery mildew. The Lr67 resistance gene encodes a predicted hexose transporter (LR67res) that differs from the susceptible form of the same protein (LR67sus) by two amino acids that are conserved in orthologous hexose transporters. Sugar uptake assays show that LR67sus, and related proteins encoded by homeoalleles, function as high-affinity glucose transporters. LR67res exerts a dominant-negative effect through heterodimerization with these functional transporters to reduce glucose uptake. Alterations in hexose transport in infected leaves may explain its ability to reduce the growth of multiple biotrophic pathogen species.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Phytopathology ; 105(7): 872-84, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26120730

RESUMO

Race Ug99 (TTKSK) of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, detected in Uganda in 1998, has been recognized as a serious threat to food security because it possesses combined virulence to a large number of resistance genes found in current widely grown wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties and germplasm, leading to its potential for rapid spread and evolution. Since its initial detection, variants of the Ug99 lineage of stem rust have been discovered in Eastern and Southern African countries, Yemen, Iran, and Egypt. To date, eight races belonging to the Ug99 lineage are known. Increased pathogen monitoring activities have led to the identification of other races in Africa and Asia with additional virulence to commercially important resistance genes. This has led to localized but severe stem rust epidemics becoming common once again in East Africa due to the breakdown of race-specific resistance gene SrTmp, which was deployed recently in the 'Digalu' and 'Robin' varieties in Ethiopia and Kenya, respectively. Enhanced research in the last decade under the umbrella of the Borlaug Global Rust Initiative has identified various race-specific resistance genes that can be utilized, preferably in combinations, to develop resistant varieties. Research and development of improved wheat germplasm with complex adult plant resistance (APR) based on multiple slow-rusting genes has also progressed. Once only the Sr2 gene was known to confer slow rusting APR; now, four more genes-Sr55, Sr56, Sr57, and Sr58-have been characterized and additional quantitative trait loci identified. Cloning of some rust resistance genes opens new perspectives on rust control in the future through the development of multiple resistance gene cassettes. However, at present, disease-surveillance-based chemical control, large-scale deployment of new varieties with multiple race-specific genes or adequate levels of APR, and reducing the cultivation of susceptible varieties in rust hot-spot areas remains the best stem rust management strategy.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Triticum/microbiologia , Basidiomycota/patogenicidade , Evolução Biológica , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Genes de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas , Triticum/genética
16.
Dent Mater ; 31(4): 382-90, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25649496

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a method for quantifying leakage in composite resin restorations after curing, using non-destructive X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and image segmentation. METHODS: Class-I cavity preparations were made in 20 human third molars, which were divided into 2 groups. Group I was restored with Z100 and Group II with Filtek LS. Micro-CT scans were taken for both groups before and after they were submerged in silver nitrate solution (AgNO3 50%) to reveal any interfacial gap and leakage at the tooth restoration interface. Image segmentation was carried out by first performing image correlation to align the before- and after-treatment images and then by image subtraction to isolate the silver nitrate penetrant for precise volume calculation. Two-tailed Student's t-test was used to analyze the results, with the level of significance set at p<0.05. RESULTS: All samples from Group I showed silver nitrate penetration with a mean volume of 1.3 ± 0.7mm(3). In Group II, only 2 out of the 10 restorations displayed infiltration along the interface, giving a mean volume of 0.3 ± 0.3mm(3). The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p<0.05). The infiltration showed non-uniform patterns within the interface. SIGNIFICANCE: We have developed a method to quantify the volume of leakage using non-destructive micro-CT, silver nitrate infiltration and image segmentation. Our results confirmed that substantial leakage could occur in composite restorations that have imperfections in the adhesive layer or interfacial debonding through polymerization shrinkage. For the restorative systems investigated in this study, this occurred mostly at the interface between the adhesive system and the tooth structure.


Assuntos
Resinas Compostas/química , Infiltração Dentária/diagnóstico por imagem , Restauração Dentária Permanente , Nitrato de Prata/química , Microtomografia por Raio-X/métodos , Colagem Dentária , Preparo da Cavidade Dentária , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Dente Serotino/diagnóstico por imagem
17.
Theor Appl Genet ; 128(3): 549-61, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25613742

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Two new co-located resistance loci, QLr.cim - 1AS/QYr.cim - 1AS and QLr.cim - 7BL/YrSuj , in combination with Lr46 / Yr29 and Lr67/Yr46 , and a new leaf rust resistance quantitative trait loci, conferred high resistance to rusts in adult plant stage. The tall Indian bread wheat cultivar Sujata displays high and low infection types to leaf rust and stripe rust, respectively, at the seedling stage in greenhouse tests. It was also highly resistant to both rusts at adult plant stage in field trials in Mexico. The genetic basis of this resistance was investigated in a population of 148 F5 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross Avocet × Sujata. The parents and RIL population were characterized in field trials for resistance to leaf rust during 2011 at El Batán, and 2012 and 2013 at Ciudad Obregón, Mexico, and for stripe rust during 2011 and 2012 at Toluca, Mexico; they were also characterized three times for stripe rust at seedling stage in the greenhouse. The RILs were genotyped with diversity arrays technology and simple sequence repeat markers. The final genetic map was constructed with 673 polymorphic markers. Inclusive composite interval mapping analysis detected two new significant co-located resistance loci, QLr.cim-1AS/QYr.cim-1AS and QLr.cim-7BL/YrSuj, on chromosomes 1AS and 7BL, respectively. The chromosomal position of QLr.cim-7BL overlapped with the seedling stripe rust resistance gene, temporarily designated as YrSuj. Two previously reported pleiotropic adult plant resistance genes, Lr46/Yr29 and Lr67/Yr46, and a new leaf rust resistance quantitative trait loci derived from Avocet were also mapped in the population. The two new co-located resistance loci are expected to contribute to breeding durable rust resistance in wheat. Closely linked molecular markers can be used to transfer all four resistance loci simultaneously to modern wheat varieties.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Resistência à Doença/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum/genética , Cruzamento , Mapeamento Cromossômico , DNA de Plantas/genética , Ligação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Triticum/classificação , Triticum/microbiologia
18.
Theor Appl Genet ; 127(4): 781-9, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24408377

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: We demonstrate that Lr67/Yr46 has pleiotropic effect on stem rust and powdery mildew resistance and is associated with leaf tip necrosis. Genes are designated as Sr55, Pm46 and Ltn3 , respectively. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) accession RL6077, known to carry the pleiotropic slow rusting leaf and yellow rust resistance genes Lr67/Yr46 in Thatcher background, displayed significantly lower stem rust (P. graminis tritici; Pgt) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis tritici; Bgt) severities in Kenya and in Norway, respectively, compared to its recurrent parent Thatcher. We investigated the resistance of RL6077 to stem rust and powdery mildew using Avocet × RL6077 F6 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from two photoperiod-insensitive F3 families segregating for Lr67/Yr46. Greenhouse seedling tests were conducted with Mexican Pgt race RTR. Field evaluations were conducted under artificially initiated stem rust epidemics with Pgt races RTR and TTKST (Ug99 + Sr24) at Ciudad Obregon (Mexico) and Njoro (Kenya) during 2010-2011; and under natural powdery mildew epiphytotic in Norway at Ås and Hamar during 2011 and 2012. In Mexico, a mean reduction of 41 % on stem rust severity was obtained for RILs carrying Lr67/Yr46, compared to RILs that lacked the gene, whereas in Kenya the difference was smaller (16 %) but significant. In Norway, leaf tip necrosis was associated with Lr67/Yr46 and RILs carrying Lr67/Yr46 showed a 20 % reduction in mean powdery mildew severity at both sites across the 2 years of evaluation. Our study demonstrates that Lr67/Yr46 confers partial resistance to stem rust and powdery mildew and is associated with leaf tip necrosis. The corresponding pleiotropic, or tightly linked, genes, designated as Sr55, Pm46, and Ltn3, can be utilized to provide broad-spectrum durable disease resistance in wheat.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Genes de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Caules de Planta/microbiologia , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Marcadores Genéticos , Homozigoto , Endogamia , Noruega , Fenótipo , Plântula/genética , Plântula/microbiologia , Triticum/imunologia
19.
Theor Appl Genet ; 125(6): 1253-62, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22806327

RESUMO

Stripe rust and leaf rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Erikss. and P. triticina, respectively, are devastating fungal diseases of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Chinese wheat cultivar Bainong 64 has maintained acceptable adult-plant resistance (APR) to stripe rust, leaf rust and powdery mildew for more than 10 years. The aim of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci/locus (QTL) for resistance to the two rusts in a population of 179 doubled haploid (DH) lines derived from Bainong 64 × Jingshuang 16. The DH lines were planted in randomized complete blocks with three replicates at four locations. Stripe rust tests were conducted using a mixture of currently prevalent P. striiformis races, and leaf rust tests were performed with P. triticina race THTT. Leaf rust severities were scored two or three times, whereas maximum disease severities (MDS) were recorded for stripe rust. Using bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, five independent loci for APR to two rusts were detected. The QTL on chromosomes 1BL and 6BS contributed by Bainong 64 conferred resistance to both diseases. The loci identified on chromosomes 7AS and 4DL had minor effects on stripe rust response, whereas another locus, close to the centromere on chromosome 6BS, had a significant effect only on leaf rust response. The loci located on chromosomes 1BL and 4DL also had significant effects on powdery mildew response. These were located at the same positions as the Yr29/Lr46 and Yr46/Lr67 genes, respectively. The multiple disease resistance locus for APR on chromosome 6BS appears to be new. All three genes and their closely linked molecular markers could be used in breeding wheat cultivars with durable resistance to multiple diseases.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Imunidade Vegetal , Triticum/genética , Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Basidiomycota/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cruzamento , China , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Resistência à Doença , Genes de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Haploidia , Repetições de Microssatélites , Fenótipo , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/imunologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum/imunologia , Triticum/microbiologia
20.
Theor Appl Genet ; 124(8): 1475-86, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22297565

RESUMO

The common wheat cultivar Parula possesses a high level of slow rusting, adult plant resistance (APR) to all three rust diseases of wheat. Previous mapping studies using an Avocet-YrA/Parula recombinant inbred line (RIL) population showed that APR to leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) in Parula is governed by at least three independent slow rusting resistance genes: Lr34 on 7DS, Lr46 on 1BL, and a previously unknown gene on 7BL. The use of field rust reaction and flanking markers identified two F(6) RILs, Arula1 and Arula2, from the above population that lacked Lr34 and Lr46 but carried the leaf rust resistance gene in 7BL, hereby designated Lr68. Arula1 and Arula2 were crossed with Apav, a highly susceptible line from the cross Avocet-YrA/Pavon 76, and 396 F(4)-derived F(5) RILs were developed for mapping Lr68. The RILs were phenotyped for leaf rust resistance for over 2 years in Ciudad Obregon, Mexico, with a mixture of P. triticina races MBJ/SP and MCJ/SP. Close genetic linkages with several DNA markers on 7BL were established using 367 RILs; Psy1-1 and gwm146 flanked Lr68 and were estimated at 0.5 and 0.6 cM, respectively. The relationship between Lr68 and the race-specific seedling resistance gene Lr14b, located in the same region and present in Parula, Arula1 and Arula2, was investigated by evaluating the RILs with Lr14b-avirulent P. triticina race TCT/QB in the greenhouse. Although Lr14b and Lr68 homozygous recombinants in repulsion were not identified in RILs, γ-irradiation-induced deletion stocks that lacked Lr68 but possessed Lr14b showed that Lr68 and Lr14b are different loci. Flanking DNA markers that are tightly linked to Lr68 in a wide array of genotypes can be utilized for selection of APR to leaf rust.


Assuntos
Marcadores Genéticos , Triticum/genética , Alelos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Deleção de Genes , Genes de Plantas , Ligação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Haplótipos , Homozigoto , Modelos Genéticos , Modelos Estatísticos , Mutação , Necrose , Fenótipo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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