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Waste Manag Res ; : 734242X19893007, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856695


A newly developed static chamber method with a laser methane detector and a biogas analyser was proposed to measure the landfill gas emissions and methane (CH4) oxidation rates in landfill covers. The method relied on a laser methane detector for measuring CH4 concentration, avoiding gas samplings during test and hence the potential interference of gas compositions inside the chamber. All the measurements could be obtained on site. The method was applied to determine the landfill gas emissions and CH4 oxidation rates in a full-scale loess gravel capillary barrier cover constructed in landfill. Both laboratory calibration and in-situ tests demonstrated that fast (i.e. <20 min) and accurate measurements could be obtained by the proposed method. The method is capable of capturing the significant spatial and temporal variations of the landfill gas emissions and CH4 oxidation rates in landfill site.

Waste Manag ; 103: 159-168, 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887688


Vertical wells are conventionally used to lower leachate levels or pressures in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. However, they are not always efficient or even effective, and in some circumstances retro-fitted horizontal wells represent a potential alternative. However, horizontal wells can be difficult to install and there is a lack of data on their performance. This paper describes the trial construction and operation of three horizontal wells in a landfill at Tianziling, China. The trial was used to develop an improved well installation technique, and to demonstrate the viability of the approach in a typical Chinese landfill. Three wells, between 50 m and 56 m in length, were successfully installed using an improved casing-protected directional drilling method. Average leachate flow rates of two wells were 10.66 m3/day and 3.93 m3/day, respectively. After 74 days of drainage, the maximum leachate level drawdown around the highest flow well was 2.7 m and its distance of influence was up to 50 m. Building on the experience gained at Tianziling, a wellfield comprising twelve horizontal wells having a total length of 1000 m was installed at Xingfeng landfill. After 157 days of drainage, a total volume of ~24,000 m3 leachate had been discharged and the leachate level had been lowered to near the elevation of the horizontal wells. This paper indicates the effectiveness of horizontal wells in reducing leachate level in landfills containing MSW typical of that generated in China, and gives data on installation and performance that may be useful for the design and operation of such an approach.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(20): 20325-20343, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093916


In this study, integrate electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) tests were carried out in a large-scale (5.0 × 4.0 × 7.5 m) MSW landfill cell to investigate the possibility of detecting perched leachate mounds, leachate level, and gas accumulation zones at wet landfills. The resistivity of both bulk waste and waste components at different moisture states were measured and the three-phase volumetric relationships of the waste pile were analyzed to better interpret the ERT test results in the large-scale cell. The following observations were given: (1) The relationship between resistivity and volumetric moisture content (VMC) of waste sample can be reasonably fitted by Archie's law. The resistivity of waste components at a saturated state was all lower than 21 Ω m. (2) A significant amount of void gas was entrapped in the underwater waste, being 30.4-34.8% of the whole waste pile in volume. (3) Low-resistivity zones (< 5.0 Ω m) were observed in the waste pile being fully drained under a gravity condition, which was believed to be related to a perched leachate. (4) The average VMC values of the waste layer below and above the leachate level were in the ranges of 46.5-53.1% and 28.1-41.3%, respectively. (5) Irregular variations of high-resistivity zones (> 40 Ω m) observed in the underwater waste were associated with the accumulation and dissipation of gas pressure. It was found that the "gas-breaking value" in the gas accumulation zone was up to 10.5 kPa greater than the pore liquid pressure in the stable methanogenesis stage. These findings shone a light on the possibility of using the ERT method as an efficient tool for mapping the gas/leachate distribution and improving operations at wet landfills.

Gases/análise , Tomografia/métodos , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Eletricidade , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos
Waste Manag ; 68: 307-318, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28668602


The high food waste content (HFWC) MSW at a landfill has the characteristics of rapid hydrolysis process, large leachate production rate and fast gas generation. The liquid-gas interactions at HFWC-MSW landfills are prominent and complex, and still remain significant challenges. This paper focuses on the liquid-gas interactions of HFWC-MSW observed from a large-scale bioreactor landfill experiment (5m×5m×7.5m). Based on the connected and quantitative analyses on the experimental observations, the following findings were obtained: (1) The high leachate level observed at Chinese landfills was attributed to the combined contribution from the great quantity of self-released leachate, waste compression and gas entrapped underwater. The contribution from gas entrapped underwater was estimated to be 21-28% of the total leachate level. (2) The gas entrapped underwater resulted in a reduction of hydraulic conductivity, decreasing by one order with an increase in gas content from 13% to 21%. (3) The "breakthrough value" in the gas accumulation zone was up to 11kPa greater than the pore liquid pressure. The increase of the breakthrough value was associated with the decrease of void porosity induced by surcharge loading. (4) The self-released leachate from HFWC-MSW was estimated to contribute to over 30% of the leachate production at landfills in Southern China. The drainage of leachate with a high organic loading in the rapid hydrolysis stage would lead to a loss of landfill gas (LFG) potential of 13%. Based on the above findings, an improved method considering the quantity of self-released leachate was proposed for the prediction of leachate production at HFWC-MSW landfills. In addition, a three-dimensional drainage system was proposed to drawdown the high leachate level and hence to improve the slope stability of a landfill, reduce the hydraulic head on a bottom liner and increase the collection efficiency for LFG.

Eliminação de Resíduos , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Reatores Biológicos , China , Hidrologia
Waste Manag ; 63: 27-40, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28325705


A large-scale bioreactor experiment lasting for 2years was presented in this paper to investigate the biochemical, hydrological and mechanical behaviors of high food waste content (HFWC) MSW. The experimental cell was 5m in length, 5m in width and 7.5m in depth, filled with unprocessed HFWC-MSWs of 91.3 tons. In the experiment, a surcharge loading of 33.4kPa was applied on waste surface, mature leachate refilling and warm leachate recirculation were performed to improve the degradation process. In this paper, the measurements of leachate quantity, leachate level, leachate biochemistry, gas composition, waste temperature, earth pressure and waste settlement were presented, and the following observations were made: (1) 26.8m3 leachate collected from the 91.3 tons HFWC-MSW within the first two months, being 96% of the total amount collected in one year. (2) The leachate level was 88% of the waste thickness after waste filling in a close system, and reached to over 100% after a surcharge loading of 33.4kPa. (3) The self-weight effective stress of waste was observed to be close to zero under the condition of high leachate mound. Leachate drawdown led to a gain of self-weight effective stress. (4) A rapid development of waste settlement took place within the first two months, with compression strains of 0.38-0.47, being over 95% of the strain recorded in one year. The compression strain tended to increase linearly with an increase of leachate draining rate during that two months.

Alimentos , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Resíduos/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Reatores Biológicos , Hidrologia
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 33(4): 1389-96, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22720594


The amount of leachate generation rate in MSW landfills is often underestimated during design phase in China. A water balance model of a valley landfill, whose size is 400 m long, 500 m wide and 50 m thick, is created to investigate the influences of initial moisture content of waste on source and production of leachate. The 50 m thick waste mass is assumed to be 5 layers. Each layer is 10 m thick with a filling period of 2 years. The leachate mainly comes from precipitation and from squeezed pore water of waste. It is found that higher initial moisture content of waste leads to higher amounts of squeezed leachate and total leachate generation rate, and also results in a high ratio of squeezed leachate to total leachate generation rate. For the cases that the initial moisture contents of waste are 27%, 40%, 50%, and 60%, the amounts of total leachate generation rate are 272, 583, 823 and 1 063 m3 x d(-1), respectively, and the amounts of squeezed leachate are--144, 168, 408, and 647 m3 x d(-1), respectively. It is also found that when the initial moisture content of waste is greater than 50%, the squeezed leachate becomes the primary source of total leachate generation rate. However, the formula for predicting leachate generation rate used in the national code could not consider the contribution of squeezed leachate, this may cause a significant underestimation of leachate generation rate for the case having a high initial moisture content of waste. Based on the water balance analyses, a modified formula for predicting leachate generation rate, which includes the contribution of squeezed leachate is proposed. It is verified by consideration of the operational practices of two large-scale landfills in southern China.

Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Resíduos/análise , Água/análise , Previsões , Modelos Teóricos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise