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1.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101358, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358955

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) or Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) on growth performance, immunity, antioxidant capacity, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, and the cecal microflora in broiler chickens. In total, 360 male, 1-day-old Cobb 500 birds were randomly divided into 3 groups: the control group was fed a basal diet; the B. subtilis group was fed a basal diet supplemented with 1.5 × 109 CFU/kg B. subtilis; the B. licheniformis group was fed a basal diet supplemented with 1.5 × 109 CFU/kg B. licheniformis. Results showed that chickens supplemented with either B. subtilis or B. licheniformis had comparatively higher (P < 0.05) body weight and average daily gain, whereas no difference (P > 0.05) was observed in feed efficiency. Concentrations of serum IgA, IgY, and IgM, as well as anti-inflammatory IL-10 were significantly increased (P < 0.05), and proinflammatory IL-1ß and IL-6 were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) by B. subtilis or B. licheniformis supplementation. Moreover, chickens fed with diets supplemented by either B. subtilis or B. licheniformis had greater antioxidant capacity, indicated by the notable increases (P < 0.05) in glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase, along with decrease (P < 0.05) in malondialdehyde. Compared to the control group, levels of SCFA, excluding acetic and propionic acid, in cecal content had improved (P < 0.05) by adding B. licheniformis, and significant increase (P < 0.05) in acetic and butyric acid was observed with B. subtilis supplementation. Microbial analysis showed that both B. subtilis or B. licheniformis supplementation could increase butyrate-producing bacteria such as Alistipes and Butyricicoccus, and decrease pathogenic bacteria such as the Synergistetes and Gammaproteobacteria. In summary, dietary supplemented with B. subtilis or B. licheniformis improved growth performance, immune status, and antioxidant capacity, increased SCFA production, and modulated cecal microbiota in chickens. Moreover, B. licheniformis was more effective than B. subtilis with the same supplemental amount.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes , Bacillus subtilis , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Masculino
2.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 810-819, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518135

RESUMO

This study determined the effects of dietary supplementation of rhamnolipids (RLS) on the growth performance, gut morphology, immune function, intestinal volatile fatty acid, and microflora community in Linnan yellow broilers. A total of 480 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to groups for supplementation with one of the following for 56 d: no supplement (control), 30 mg/kg bacitracin (ANT), 500 mg/kg RLS, or 1,000 mg/kg RLS (RLS2). The RLS2 diet was found to improve the final BW and ADG on day 56. The RLS diet reduced jejunal crypt depth, increased jejunal villus length, and increased serum IgA, IgM, IgY, IL-1ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels. The RLS broilers had higher cecum concentrations of acetic acid, propionic acid, butyrate, isobutyric acid, valerate, and isovalerate. High-throughput sequencing indicated that RLS affected microbial quantity and diversity in the cecum. Bacterial richness was higher in the RLS broilers than the ANT broilers. The RLS broilers had higher relative abundances of Megasphaera hypermegale and Lachnospiraceae bacterium 19gly4 on day 28 and Clostridium spiroforme and Alistipes obesi on day 56. These results suggest that RLS supplementation improves growth performance, benefits the intestinal villus morphology, regulates host immune function, and raises intestinal volatile fatty acid content and the relative abundance of the gut microbiota in broiler chickens.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Glicolipídeos/administração & dosagem , Intestinos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bacteroidetes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/classificação , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Firmicutes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestinos/microbiologia , Distribuição Aleatória
3.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100875, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516466

RESUMO

This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary addition of α-glyceryl monolaurate (α-GML) on growth performance, immune function, volatile fatty acids production and cecal microbiota in broiler chickens. A total of 480 1-day-old yellow-feathered broilers were randomly assigned in equal numbers to 4 dietary treatments: basal diet (NCO) or supplementations with 30 mg/kg bacitracin (ANT), 500 mg/kg α-GML, or 1,000 mg/kg α-GML (GML2). And, each treatment contained 8 replicates with 15 chickens per replicate. After supplementation with α-GML, the total BW gain and average daily weight gain of broilers increased significantly (P < 0.05) compared with the broilers on the NCO diet. Moreover, compared with the NCO group, higher levels of immune globulin M and immune globulin Y were observed in both GML groups and the ANT group. Concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, and isovalerate in GML2 were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those in the NCO group on day 28. However, acetate, propionate, valerate, and isovalerate concentrations were reduced to significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those in the NCO group on day 56. The abundance and diversity of microbiota were found to be improved in broilers that were supplemented with GML, using operational taxonomic unit and diversity analyses. Furthermore, the GML treatments increased favorable microbiota, particularly acid-producing bacteria, on day 28 and, also, reduced opportunistic pathogens, such as Alistipes tidjanibacter and Bacteroides dorei by day 56. These results suggest that α-GML supplementation modulates cecal microbiota and broiler immunity and improves volatile fatty acid levels during the early growth stages of broilers.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Glicerídeos , Imunidade , Animais , Biodiversidade , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicerídeos/farmacologia , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Food Funct ; 11(10): 9216-9225, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030479

RESUMO

The prebiotics inulin (INU) and isomalto-oligosaccharide (IMO) influence intestinal health and immunity, but their effects on constipation are not clearly established. We evaluated the effects of INU and IMO in a rat model of diphenoxylate-induced constipation. Twenty-four male rats were divided into four groups: basal diet (Con), 40 mg kg-1 diphenoxylate (PCon), 20 g kg-1 INU and treated with 40 mg kg-1 diphenoxylate, and 20 g kg-1 IMO and treated with 40 mg kg-1 diphenoxylate. INU and IMO increased the number, weight, and water content of fecal pellets, and decreased the time to the first black stool in rats with constipation. Serum levels of the gastrointestinal motility-related hormones adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), motilin (MTL), and Substance P (SP) were higher and corticosterone (CORT), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were lower in rats treated with prebiotics than in untreated rats. Colon tissue levels of MTL and SP were increased, and VIP and CGRP were decreased by prebiotics. Furthermore, in rats with constipation, INU and IMO increased the colonic contents of short-chain fatty acids. The relative abundance of Bacteroidetes was lower in the prebiotics groups than in the Con and PCon groups. Lactobacillus was more abundant in the INU and IMO groups than in PCon rats. Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus intestinalis were more abundant in the IMO group than in the PCon group (P < 0.01), and L. intestinalis was more abundant in the INU group than in the PCon group (P < 0.01). In summary, INU and IMO improved constipation and altered the intestinal microbiota in a rat model of constipation.

5.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 104(4): 1096-1105, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724241

RESUMO

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of astragalus polysaccharides (Aps) and ginseng polysaccharide (Gps) on growth performance, liver function, immune function, TLR4 signalling pathways and intestinal barrier in weaned piglets challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In an experiment spanning 28 days, 180 weaned piglets were randomly divided into three treatment groups: basal diet (Con), basal diet supplemented with 800 mg/kg Gps (Gps) and basal diet supplemented with 800 mg/kg Aps (Aps). At the end of the experiment, 12 piglets of each group were selected; half (n = 6) were intraperitoneally injected with LPS and half with normal saline. Dietary supplementation with Aps and Gps significantly increased (p < .05) the average daily gain and feed conversion rate. Lipopolysaccharide challenge increased (p < .05) expression of serum urea nitrogen (BUN), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and tumour inflammatory factor-α (TNF-α), but decreased (p < .05) serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) level, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) expression. Lipopolysaccharide-challenged piglets fed with Aps or Gps had lower (p < .05) BUN, ALT, AST, IL-1ß and TNF-α levels and greater (p < .05) SOD, T-AOC and IgA levels. Lipopolysaccharide challenge increased (p < .05) the expression of TLR4, MyD88 and NF-κB, and LPS-challenged piglets fed diets supplemented with Aps or Gps increased TLR4 and MyD88 and decreased NF-κB expression. Lipopolysaccharide challenge reduced (p < .05) the jejunal villus height, and piglets fed with Aps or Gps had increased (p < .05) jejunal villus height. Supplementation with Aps or Gps enhanced the expression of occludin and claudin in challenged or unchallenged piglets. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with Aps or Gps enhanced piglet growth performance, alleviated liver dysfunction and reduced immunological stress caused by LPS, as well as increased the intestinal barrier function.


Assuntos
Astrágalo (Planta)/química , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Panax/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/química , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/imunologia
6.
IUBMB Life ; 71(2): 261-276, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30452117

RESUMO

Myofibroblast apoptosis is essential for normal resolution of wound repair, including cardiac infarction repair. Impaired cardiac myofibroblast (CMF) apoptosis is associated with excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, which could be responsible for pathological cardiac fibrosis. Conventionally, angiotensin II (Ang II), a soluble peptide, is implicated in fibrogenesis because it induces cardiac fibroblast (CFb) proliferation, differentiation, and collagen synthesis. However, the role of Ang II in regulation of CMF survival and apoptosis has not been fully clarified. In this report, we cultured neonatal rat CFbs, which transform into CMFs after passage 3 (6-8 days), and investigated the effects of Ang II on CMFs challenged by TNF-α combined with cycloheximide and the underlying mechanisms. Here, we show that Ang II rapidly activates MAPKs but not AKT in CMFs and confers apoptosis resistance, as evidenced by the inhibition of caspase-3 cleavage, early apoptotic cells and late apoptotic cells. This inhibitory effect of Ang II was reversed by blockade of AT1 or inactivation of ERK1/2 or RSK1 but not AT2, indicating that activation of the prosurvival AT1/ERK1/2/RSK1 signaling pathway mediates apoptosis resistance. TGF-ß, a latent fibrotic factor, was found to have no relation to Ang II-induced apoptosis resistance in our study. Furthermore, Ang II-mediated apoptosis resistance, which was conferred by activation of the AT1/ERK1/2/RSK1 signaling pathway, was also confirmed in human adult ventricular cardiac myofibroblasts. Collectively, our findings suggest a novel profibrotic mechanism of Ang II in which it promotes myofibroblast resistance to apoptosis in addition to classical mechanisms, providing a potential novel therapeutic approach by targeting prosurvival signaling pathways. © 2018 IUBMB Life, 71(1):261-276, 2019.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Miofibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/genética , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 90-kDa/genética , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 2 de Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Butadienos/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicloeximida/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Losartan/farmacologia , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Miocárdio/citologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miofibroblastos/citologia , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Nitrilas/farmacologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 90-kDa/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 90-kDa/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia
7.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 3260, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30671050

RESUMO

Several Bacillus strains exert beneficial effects on the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and host health. However, whether Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BA) can improve gut microbial dysbiosis and ameliorate colitis is unknown. Therefore, we conducted the present study to investigate the effects of BA administration on intestinal morphology, inflammatory response, and colonic microbial composition in a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Results showed that BA administration significantly ameliorated body weight loss, decreased disease activity index, and improved colonic tissue morphology in DSS-treated mice. In addition, levels of immunoglobulins, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines, were decreased after BA administration. Importantly, colonic microbiota profiling indicated a significant (p < 0.05) difference in beta-diversity between BA-administrated and DSS-treated mice, according to weighted principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) results. The relative abundance of the Firmicutes genus was increased, whereas that of Bacteroidetes was decreased by BA administration. Furthermore, phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) analysis showed that the most significantly changed pathways between the four groups of mice were carbohydrate, lipid, and amino acid metabolism. In conclusion, our results showed that BA administration has beneficial effects on DSS-induced colitis, suggesting that this strategy might be useful for the treatment of dysbiosis during ulcerative colitis. Further, the changes in metabolism, especially amino acid metabolism, might contribute to the beneficial effects of BA on the amelioration of DSS-induced colitis.

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