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1.
Bioresour Technol ; 340: 125726, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426244

RESUMO

This study assesses the economic performance of a biorefinery producing xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) from miscanthus by autohydrolysis and purification based on a rigorous model developed in ASPEN Plus. Varied biorefinery capacities (50-250 oven dry metric ton (ODMT)/day) and three XOS content levels (80%, 90%, 95%) are analyzed. The XOS minimum selling price (XOS MSP) is varied between $3,430-$7,500, $4,030-$8,970, and $4,840-$10,640 per metric ton (MT) for 80%, 90%, and 95% content, respectively. The results show that increasing biorefinery capacity can significantly reduce the XOS MSP and higher purity leads to higher XOS MSP due to less yield, and higher capital and operating costs. This study also explores another system configuration to produce high-value byproducts, cellulose microfiber, by utilizing the cellulose to produce microfiber instead of combusting for energy recovery. The XOS MSP of cellulose microfiber case is $2,460-$7,040/MT and thus exhibits potential economic benefits over the other cases.


Assuntos
Celulose , Oligossacarídeos , Biomassa , Hidrólise , Lignina
2.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 55: 103188, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delayed diagnosis and noneffective treatment contribute to the shorter life expectancy in patients with progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS). Studies demonstrate the key role of autoimmunity in PMS, but the prognostic value of immune-associated factors remains unknown. Thus, this study aimed to develop an immune-associated gene (IAG) signature related to overall survival (OS) and conduct an immune cell infiltration analysis using PMS data. METHODS: The differentially expressed IAGs were identified based on gene expression profiles (from the Gene Expression Omnibus database) and IAGs (from the ImmPort database). Univariate and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO)-penalized Cox regression analyses were used to develop the IAG signature related to OS. Kaplan-Meier analyses were conducted, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to assess the performance. Additionally, the differential distribution of immune cells was identified by Wilcoxon rank-sum tests and correlations with IAGs were analyzed using Spearman correlation analyses. Moreover, univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to identify the independent prognostic factors to develop a prognostic nomogram. RESULTS: The training group, consisting of 57 PMS lesions and 52 control tissues, was obtained through batch normalization to remove the inter-batch difference. A total of 206 differentially expressed IAGs were identified, and 38 of them were associated with OS. Thereafter, a 4-IAG signature was constructed to calculate the risk score and thus classify PMS patients into high- and low-risk groups according to mean risk score. Patients in the high-risk group had a lower survival time than those in the low-risk group. The Kaplan-Meier plots and ROC curves demonstrated a good performance in both the training and internal validation groups. Additionally, five differentially abundant immune cell types were identified and their relationships with IAGs were analyzed. Finally, risk score, cortical region, and naive B cells were identified as independent prognostic factors, and a nomogram incorporating these factors was developed to predict the OS in PMS. CONCLUSION: The novel IAG signature may be a reliable tool for assisting neurologists in predicting the OS for PMS patients in clinical settings. These findings may facilitate personalized treatment and provide insights into the complex mechanism of PMS.

3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5574136, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250087

RESUMO

Background: The pathogenic variant, POU class 4 transcription factor 3 (POU4F3), is reported to cause autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL). Previously, we have examined a four-generation midfrequency sensorineural hearing loss (MFSNHL) family (no. 6126) and established POU4F3 c.602T>C (p.Leu201Pro) as a potential disease-causing variant. Objectives: We explored the structural and functional alterations that the c.602T>C (p.Leu201Pro) variant enforces on the POU4F3 protein. Methods: We utilized wild-type (WT) and mutant (MUT) POU4F3 c.602T>C plasmid incorporation into HeLa cells to assess functional changes, by immunofluorescence and luciferase assays. To predict protein structural alterations in the MUT versus WT POU4F3, we also generated 3D structures to compare both types of POU4F3 proteins. Results: The WT POU4F3 is ubiquitously present in the nucleus, whereas the MUT form of POU4F3 exhibits a more restricted nuclear presence. This finding is different from other publications, which report a cytoplasmic localization of the MUT POU4F3. We also demonstrated that, as opposed to WT POU4F3, the MUT POU4F3 had 40% reduced luciferase activity. Conclusions: The reduced nuclear presence, combined with reduced transcriptional activity, suggests that the POU4F3 c.602T>C variant alters cellular activity and may contribute to the pathogenicity of POU4F3-related hearing loss. It, also, provides more evidence of the pathophysiological characteristics of MFSNHL.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Genes Dominantes , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Fator de Transcrição Brn-3C/genética , Transcrição Genética , Sequência de Bases , Células HeLa , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/química , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Proteínas Mutantes/química , Proteínas Mutantes/genética , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico , Fator de Transcrição Brn-3C/química
4.
ACS Nano ; 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041913

RESUMO

Dislocations in ionic solids are topological extended defects that modulate composition, strain, and charge over multiple length scales. As such, they provide an extra degree of freedom to tailor ionic and electronic transport beyond limits inherent in bulk doping. Heterogeneity of transport paths as well as the ability to dynamically reconfigure structure and properties through multiple stimuli lend dislocations to particular potential applications including memory, switching, non-Ohmic electronics, capacitive charge storage, and single-atom catalysis. However, isolating, understanding, and predicting causes of modified transport behavior remain a challenge. In this Perspective, we first review existing reports of dislocation-modified transport behavior in oxides, as well as synthetic strategies and multiscale characterization routes to uncover processing-structure-property relationships. We outline a vision for future research, suggesting outstanding questions, tasks, and opportunities. Advances in this field will require highly interdisciplinary, convergent computational-experimental approaches, covering orders of magnitude in length scale, and spanning fields from microscopy and machine learning to electro-chemo-mechanics and point defect chemistry to transport-by-design and advanced manufacturing.

5.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(5): 545-549, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33871390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes infectious symptoms including fever, cough, respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms, and even loss of smell/taste and to date had caused 489 000 people to be infected with 32 000 deaths. This article aims to develop some strategies in dealing with the COVID-19 epidemic to prevent nosocomial infection and ensure the safety of healthcare workforce and employees. METHODS: This is a prospectively registered and retrospective descriptive study investigating the clinical characteristics, results of diagnostic tests, and patients' disposition from February 1, 2020, to April 30, 2020, at a tertiary medical center in Northern Taiwan. RESULTS: There is no nosocomial spreading of SARS-CoV-2 in our facility. The following strategies were followed: information transparency; epidemic prevention resources planning by authorities; multidisciplinary cooperation; informative technologies; immigration quarantine policies; travel restrictions; management of diversion/subdivision; self-health monitoring; social distancing; screening of travel, occupation, contact, and cluster (TOCC) history; traffic control bundling (TCB); training of using personal protective equipment; real-name visiting management; and employee care. The patients' basic characteristics and diagnostic results were gathered. Of the 3832 cases, about 25.9% had travel history. Most of them were traveling to Asia (419 people/time, 10.9%) and from China (256 people/time, 6.7%). Meanwhile, healthcare personnel accounted for 316 people/time (8.3%) and cleaning personnel, 6 people/time (0.16%). The 36 cases who care or have contact with confirmed cases have negative results from the COVID-19 test. The most frequent symptoms were fever and upper respiratory infection followed by gastrointestinal symptoms. CONCLUSION: The above strategies were followed. Patients were stratified based on the risk of TOCC history assessment to ensure the safety of healthcare personnel and patients' appropriate and timely medical services.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Recursos em Saúde , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
6.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3662-3665, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018795

RESUMO

Bell's palsy impairs the symmetry of facial appearance and movement. Detailed examination of facial muscle activities should be important for the diagnosis and treatment of the Bell's palsy. In this study, facial muscle activities in normal and Bell's palsy conditions were measured using a high-density (HD) electromyography (EMG) technique. The EMG signals during active tasks (four different facial expressions) and resting task were collected with a HD array of EMG electrodes from forehead and cheek muscles. To visualize facial EMG activities, the EMG maps were reconstructed from the HD-EMG recordings. The two-dimension (2D) correlation coefficients between right and left sides of facial EMG maps were calculated to evaluate the symmetry of facial muscle activities during these tasks. Our experimental results showed that the 2D correlation coefficients during active tasks were different significantly (P<0.01) between the healthy group(n=4) and Bell's palsy group(n=3). These results demonstrated that the synchronism of facial muscle activities during active tasks in healthy subjects is greater than that in the Bell's palsy subjects. This pilot study suggested that HD-EMG would be a potential technique to assess abnormal asymmetric activities of facial muscles for Bell's palsy.


Assuntos
Paralisia de Bell , Paralisia Facial , Paralisia de Bell/diagnóstico , Eletromiografia , Face , Paralisia Facial/diagnóstico , Humanos , Projetos Piloto
7.
Toxics ; 8(4)2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050540

RESUMO

The efficacy of hemoperfusion (HP) in patients with acute paraquat poisoning (PQ) remains controversial. We conducted a multi-center retrospective study to include acute PQ-poisoned patients admitted to two tertiary medical centers between 2005 and 2015. We used the Severity Index of Paraquat Poisoning (SIPP) to stratify the severity of PQ-poisoned patients. The indication to start HP was a positive result for the semiquantitative urine PQ test and presentation to the hospital was within 24 h. Early HP was defined as the first session of HP performed within five hours of PQ ingestion. A total of 213 patients (100 HP group, 113 non-HP group) were eligible for the study. The overall 60-day mortality of poisoned patients was 75.6% (161/213). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed no statistically significant difference in 60-day survival between HP and non-HP groups (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.84-1.63, p = 0.363). Further subgroup analysis in the HP group showed early HP (95%CI: 0.54-1.69, p = 0.880), and multiple secessions of HP (95%CI: 0.56-1.07, p = 0.124) were not significantly related to better survival. Among acute PQ-poisoned patients, this study found that HP was not associated with increased 60-day survival. Furthermore, neither early HP nor multiple secessions of HP were associated with survival.

8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 681, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this case report was to report a case of Cryptococcus laurentii infection in the left knee of a previously healthy 29 year old male patient. CASE PRESENTATION: After an initial misdiagnosis and 7 months of failed treatment, the patient received nearly a month of treatment with voriconazole (200 mg IV q12 h) and knee irrigation with amphotericin B until the infection was controlled. The treatment continued with fluconazole for nearly 7 months and approximately 5 weeks of antibiotic treatment for a skin bacterial coinfection. In the end, the patient's symptoms disappeared completely, the left knee recovered well, and there was no recurrence of infection. CONCLUSION: The key points of successful treatment in this case were the thorough debridement, the adequate course of knee irrigation with antifungal drugs and more than 6 months of oral antifungal drugs that were able to eradicate the infection.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Criptococose/tratamento farmacológico , Criptococose/microbiologia , Joelho/microbiologia , Administração Oral , Adulto , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Artrite Infecciosa/microbiologia , Criptococose/cirurgia , Cryptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Desbridamento , Erros de Diagnóstico , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Infecção Focal/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Focal/microbiologia , Infecção Focal/cirurgia , Humanos , Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Joelho/cirurgia , Masculino , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Voriconazol/uso terapêutico
9.
Tob Induc Dis ; 18: 68, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818031

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The current study aimed to investigate the effects of electronic cigarettes on insulin sensibility in ApoE gene knockout mice. METHODS: In total, 48 male ApoE gene knockout mice were randomly divided into four exposure groups: 1) electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) containing 12 mg/mL of nicotine, 2) e-cigarette without nicotine (0mg), 3) traditional cigarette (cigarette), and 4) fresh air (control). The first three groups were exposed to the associated smoke for 18 weeks. The body weight was recorded regularly in the four groups. After the last exposure, the concentrations of lipids, hs-CRP and TNF-α in serum were detected and the effect of electronic cigarettes on insulin tolerance was measured. RESULTS: The levels of serum lipid, hs-CRP and TNF-α in the e-cigarette, 0mg and cigarette groups were significantly increased compared with those in the control group (p<0.05). Also, the insulin tolerance in the e-cigarette, 0mg and cigarette groups was significantly decreased compared to that in the control group (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Electronic cigarettes showed comparable effects to traditional cigarettes in influencing the metabolic functions in ApoE gene knockout mice.

10.
Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol ; 2020: 1368942, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399123

RESUMO

Streptococcus agalactiae colonization in pregnant women can cause postpartum intrauterine infections and life-threatening neonatal infections. To formulate strategies for the prevention and treatment of S. agalactiae infections, we performed a comprehensive analysis of antibiotic resistance and a molecular-based epidemiological investigation of S. agalactiae in this study. Seventy-two S. agalactiae strains, collected from pregnant women, were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility tests; then, the screened erythromycin and clindamycin nonsusceptible isolates were used for macrolides and clindamycin resistance genes detection, respectively. Detection of resistance genes, serotyping, and determination of virulence genes were performed by polymerase chain reaction. The clonal relationships among the colonized strains were evaluated by multilocus sequence typing. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) mass peak analysis was performed to discriminate the specific sequence types (STs). In our study, 69.4% and 47.2% of the strains were nonsusceptible to erythromycin and clindamycin, respectively; the multidrug resistance rate was 66.7%. All erythromycin nonsusceptible strains harbored resistance genes, whereas only 52.9% of the clindamycin nonsusceptible strains possessed the linB gene. Erythromycin resistance was mainly mediated by the ermB or mefA/E genes. Four serotypes were identified, and the most common serotype was serotype III (52.8%), followed by Ib (22.2%), Ia (18.0%), and II (4.2%). All the strains were divided into 18 STs that were assigned to nine clonal complexes. Most of the major STs were distributed into specific serotypes, including ST19/serotype III, ST17/serotype III, ST485/serotype Ia, ST862/serotype III, and ST651/serotype III. Analysis of virulence genes yielded seven clusters, of which bca-cfb-scpB-lmb (61.6%) was the predominant virulence gene cluster. Among all ST strains distributed in this region, only the ST17 strains had a mass peak at 7620 Da. The outcomes of this study are beneficial for the epidemiological comparison of colonized S. agalactiae in different regions and may be helpful for developing the strategies for the prevention of S. agalactiae infection in Guangzhou. Furthermore, our results show that MALDI-TOF MS can be used for the rapid identification of the ST17 strains.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382307

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the quality of methodologies used in previous systematic reviews (SRs) and compare efficacy of different acupuncture therapies for allergic rhinitis. Methods: Seven electronic databases were searched for systematic reviews (SRs) performed on different acupuncture therapies for allergic rhinitis from inception to 15 November 2019. The AMSTAR2 instrument was employed to assess the methodological quality of included SRs. Eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were selected from the included systematic reviews. We also included recent RCTs published by 15 November 2019. Cochrane risk of bias tool was utilized to determine risk of bias of the included RCTs. Pairwise meta-analyses were performed using the random-effects model. Network meta-analysis of the included RCTs was carried out using frequentist framework. Results: We identified 2 SRs with low quality and 18 SRs with very low quality, both of which contained 33 eligible RCTs (n = 3769). Most of these studies had unclear risk of bias. On the basis of ranking probability, NMA analysis showed that acupuncture at the sphenopalatine ganglion acupoint (OR: 1.31, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.61) had the highest probability of improving global allergic rhinitis symptoms, followed by San-Fu-Tie (OR: 1.17, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.27), manual acupuncture (OR:1.15, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.24) compared with conventional western medicine treatment. Moreover, direct comparison of the follow-up period showed that the clinical outcomes of acupuncture and related therapies at three-month (OR:1.34, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.55), six-month (OR: 1.31, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.57), and twelve-month (OR: 1.30, 95%CI 1.11 to 1.53) follow-up were better than those of traditional western medicine. Conclusion: These results indicate that for patients with allergic rhinitis who are unresponsive to conventional western medicine or cannot tolerate the side effects, acupuncture at the sphenopalatine ganglion acupoint is an effective alternative therapy. Further studies are advocated to deeply explore methodological quality of SRs by incorporating high-quality RCTs.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32256643

RESUMO

Background: Acupuncture has been found to be an effective treatment for functional dyspepsia (FD). Currently, several types of acupuncture have been developed but it is not clear which type is suitable for FD. Currently, doctors often rely on experience to decide which form of acupuncture to apply. Herein, we employed network meta-analysis (NMA) to compare the effectiveness of various methods of acupuncture in the treatment of functional dyspepsia. Methods: We searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of acupuncture treatments for functional dyspepsia in seven databases; PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Wanfang database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database, Chinese Science and Technique Journals (CQVIP), and Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) from the date of database inception to October 10, 2019. Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to analyze the risk of bias of the included RCTs. Pairwise meta-analyses were performed with RevMan 5.3 and the network meta-analysis of the included RCTs was performed using the frequentist framework. Results: A total of 35 studies involving 3301 patients and 10 interventions were eligible for this study. NMA results showed that five types of acupuncture (manual acupuncture, acupoint application, moxibustion, acupoint catgut embedding, and warm acupuncture alone) all were superior to prokinetics (itopride, mosapride, and domperidone) and sham acupuncture in terms of improving the symptoms of functional dyspepsia. Specifically, manual acupuncture and electroacupuncture were more effective in improving the MOS 36 Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) compared to itopride and sham acupuncture, and electroacupuncture was the best among the three acupuncture therapies (acupuncture, electroacupuncture, and acupoint catgut embedding). Moxibustion and manual acupuncture were more effective in improving Nepean Dyspepsia Life Quality Index (NDLQI) compared to itopride, domperidone, and sham acupuncture; moxibustion ranks first among the three acupuncture therapies (acupuncture, electroacupuncture, moxibustion). Conclusions: These results showed that manual acupuncture alone was the most effective therapy for FD. It should, therefore, be considered as an alternative treatment for FD patients who are unresponsive to prokinetics or intolerant to the adverse effects of prokinetics. We recommend further multiple centers and high-quality RCT studies to confirm the present findings.

13.
Cancer Sci ; 111(4): 1093-1102, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020720

RESUMO

The signaling of interleukin (IL)-23 and its receptor (IL-23R) play a crucial role in the development of cancers. However, the clinical significance of human serum soluble IL-23R (sIL-23R) and its relationship with IL-23 are still not explored in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In our study, sIL-23R was first identified in the serum of NSCLC patients, but not in healthy controls, by proteomics. The IL-23R mRNA and protein were upregulated in NSCLC cell lines and tissues tested by quantitative PCR, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. The levels of sIL-23R, IL-23, and IL-17 in 195 NSCLC patients' serum were determined by ELISA, and high levels of sIL-23R were significantly associated with advanced N stage (P = .039), clinical stage (P = .007), and poor 5-year survival rate. In vitro, sIL-23R was shown binding to IL-23 and the balance could affect patients' N and T stage, overall survival, and downstream cytokine IL-17 in a potential antagonistic relationship. Although sIL-23R, IL-23, and IL-17 were all associated with poor prognosis, only the sIL-23R/IL-23 ratio (hazard ratio, 1.945; 95% confidence interval, 1.147-3.299; P = .014) was found to be an independent factor for prognosis. Therefore, we identified fragments of soluble cytokine receptor of IL-23R with affinity ability to its natural ligand IL-23 in NSCLC patients' serum. The balance between the 2 antagonists can work as a potential prognostic serum marker.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/sangue , Interleucina-23/sangue , Prognóstico , Receptores de Interleucina/sangue , Células A549 , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Interleucina-17/sangue , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Células Th17/metabolismo
14.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(1): 624-630, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697226

RESUMO

A novel Vogesella strain, YM-1T, was recovered from human urine in PR China in 2017. Cells of strain YM-1T were Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, aerobic, motile, non-spore-forming and poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate-accumulating. The strain contained C16:1ω6c/C 16:1ω7c, C16:0 and C18:0ω7c as major fatty acids; phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified phospholipid as major polar lipids; and ubiquinone-8 as the predominant respiratory quinone. Comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that this strain had highest similarities to Vogesella perlucida DS-28T (98.8 %) and Vogesella mureinivorans 389T (98.1 %). The results of phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the novel strain was clustered and well separated with V. perlucida DS-28T and V. mureinivorans 389T within the genus Vogesella. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) and amino acid identity (AAI) analyses showed that this strain was not identified as V. perlucida DS-28T or V. mureinivorans 389T, with values well below the threshold limit for species demarcation (ANI <88.1 %, AAI <88.6 %). Based on the above results, strain YM-1T is proposed to be a novel species of the genus Vogesella with the name Vogesella urethralis sp. nov. (YM-1T=NBRC 113779=CGMCC 1.17135).


Assuntos
Betaproteobacteria/classificação , Filogenia , Urina/microbiologia , Bactérias Aeróbias/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Betaproteobacteria/isolamento & purificação , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Humanos , Hidroxibutiratos/metabolismo , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , Poliésteres/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ubiquinona/química
15.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 27(1): 104, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tourniquet is the most widely used and effective first-aid equipment for controlling hemorrhage of injured limb in battlefield. However, time-out application of tourniquets leads to ischemic-necrosis of skeletal muscles and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Regional hypothermia (RH) on wounded limb can relieve the injury on local tissue and distant organs. We aimed to investigate the protective effects of RH on rabbits' limbs injured by a steel-ball combined with hemorrhagic-shock, and then employed tourniquet over-time, tried to identify the optimal treatment RH. METHODS: Thirty rabbits were randomly divided into 5 groups. All rabbits were anesthetized, intubated femoral artery and vein in right-hind limbs. Sham operation group (Sham): only femoral arteriovenous cannula in right-hind limb. None RH group (NRH): rabbits were intubated as Sham group, then the soft tissues of rabbits' left-hinds were injured by a steel-ball shooting, and were exsanguinated until shock, then bundled with rubber tourniquets for 4 h. Three RH subgroups: rabbits were injured as mentioned above, the injured limbs were bundled with rubber tourniquets and treated with different temperature (5 ± 1 °C, 10 ± 1 °C, and 20 ± 1 °C, respectively) for 4 h. The injury severity of lung and regional muscle was assessed by histologic examination. Activity of adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in muscle, inflammatory cytokines, myoglobin, creatine kinase-MM (CK-MM), Heme, Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), lactic acid (Lac), and lectrolyte ion in serum were detected. RESULTS: Following with RH treatment, the injury of lung and local muscle tissue was alleviated evidencing by mitigation of histopathological changes, significant decrease of water-content and MDA content, and increase of ATPase activity. Lower level of Lac, Potassium (K+), inflammatory cytokines, Heme, CK-MM, myoglobin content, and higher level of Calcium (Ca2+), HO-1 content were shown in RH treatment. 10 °C was the most effective RH to increase ATPase activity, and decrease MDA, myoglobin, CK-MM content. CONCLUSION: Transient RH (4 h) had a "long-term mitigation effects" (continued for 6 h) on time-out application of tourniquet with the fluid resuscitation and core temperature maintenance, and the most effective temperature for reducing the side effects on tourniquet time-out application was 10 °C.


Assuntos
Hipotermia Induzida , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Animais , Gasometria , Citocinas/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Pulmão/patologia , Lesão Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Coelhos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/etiologia , Choque Hemorrágico/complicações , Torniquetes
16.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 1610, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447788

RESUMO

Enterobacter cloacae has recently emerged as one of the most common carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. The emergence and spread of metallo-ß-lactamase-producing E. cloacae have posed an immediate threat globally. Here, we investigated the molecular characteristics of 84 carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter cloacae (CREL) collected from three tertiary hospitals in China between 2012 and 2016. Species identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed using a VITEK-2 system. Carbapenems, polymyxins B, and tigecycline were tested by broth microdilution method. The carbapenem in activation method (CIM) and cefoxitin three-dimensional test were used to detect carbapenemase and AmpC ß-lactamase, respectively. Isolates were screened for ß-lactam resistance genes by PCR, and expression of ompC and ompF was determined by qRT-PCR. Genetic relatedness was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), while selected isolates were subjected to whole-genome sequencing. Among the 84 CREL isolates, 50 (59.5%) were detected as carbapenemase producers. NDM-1 was the dominant carbapenemase (80.0%), followed by IMP-26 (8.0%) and IMP-4 (6.0%). Notably, we identified the first NDM-1 and IMP-1 co-producing E. cloacae, carrying plasmids of several incompatibility (Inc) groups, including IncHI2, IncHI2A, and IncN. Most isolates showed decreased expression of ompC and/or ompF, and contained a broad distribution of ESBLs and AmpC ß-lactamases. These findings suggested that different molecular mechanisms, including carbapenemase, ESBL and/or AmpC plus loss of porins, have contributed to carbapenem resistance. The bla NDM-1-harboring plasmids contained highly conserved gene environment around bla NDM-1 (bla NDM-1-ble MBL-trpF-dsbD-cutA1-groES-groEL), which could be associated with the potential dissemination of bla NDM-1. IMP-type MBL was located within a variety of integrons and usually contained various gene cassettes encoding multidrug resistance. These isolates produced 54 different pulsotypes, and were classified into 42 STs by MLST. Nineteen bla NDM-1-positive E. cloacae isolates obtained from Ningxia had the same pulsotype (PFGE type 1), belonging to ST78 within clonal complex 74 (CC74). The plasmid-based replicon typing indicated that IncX3 plasmids mediated the dissemination of bla NDM-1 among these homologous strains. This is the first report on the outbreak of NDM-1-producing E. cloacae ST78 with contribution of IncX3 plasmids in Northwestern China. There's an immediate need to intensify surveillance attentively to prevent and control the further spread of NDM-1 in China.

17.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 553: 148-155, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202051

RESUMO

Electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) from water splitting is a promising way to promote the utilization of renewable energy. Designing and fabricating electrocatalysts with low cost, high catalytic activity and robust stability is desirable. In response, we prepared carbon shells encapsulating ultrafine ß-Mo2C nanoparticles with N and P dual-doping as advanced electrocatalyst used for HER in both acidic and alkaline mediums. This paper gives a discussion on element doping and porosity which have influence on the HER performance. As introducing heteroatoms into carbon matrix to create active sites and enhance electron transfer capacity, the as-prepared electrocatalyst exhibits high catalytic activity with low overpotential of 117 mV and 121 mV to achieve current density of 10 mA cm-2 in acidic and alkaline solutions. Due to the strategy of carbon shells encapsulating, the catalyst presents robust stability for a long time at various applied potential. Furthermore, the design idea of using multiple strategies preparing catalysts may serve some inspiration to fabricate advanced electrocatalysts.

18.
Adv Emerg Nurs J ; 41(2): 163-171, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033664

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between changes in prehospital blood pressure (BP) and the incidence of early neurological deterioration (END) after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) in patients who arrive at the emergency department (ED) with a normal Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score. Records of consecutive adults with SICH transported by ambulance and treated in our ED from January 2015 to December 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. The study cohort included all patients with SICH occurring within the previous 6 hr who had a normal GCS score on ED arrival. Detailed information was retrieved from our hospital's intracerebral hemorrhage databank and then cross-checked in the medical and nursing charts to confirm completeness and accuracy. Early neurological deterioration was defined as a decrease of 2 or more points in the GCS score within 6 hr after ED arrival. The change in prehospital BP was defined as the BP on ED arrival minus the initial on-scene BP. An association between a change in prehospital BP and the occurrence of END was assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses (multiple logistic regression analysis). Of the 168 patients evaluated, 36 (21.4%) developed END. Factors associated with END on univariate analysis were regular antiplatelet agent use, shorter elapsed time, on-scene systolic blood pressure (SBP), prehospital SBP increase of 15 mmHg or more, intraventricular extension of the hematoma, and the presence of 3 or more noncontrast computed tomographic signs of hematoma expansion. After adjusting for other covariates, an increase in prehospital SBP of 15 mmHg or more was significantly associated with a higher risk of END. In patients with SICH who arrive at the ED with a normal GCS score, an increase in the prehospital SBP of more than 15 mmHg is associated with a higher incidence of END.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Progressão da Doença , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 668: 485-499, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852224

RESUMO

Among all the recent improvements in the railway industry, ground vibration remains an important showstopper in metropolitan cities. In some particular cases, significant levels of vibration are felt by residents. The role of engineers is to propose mitigation solutions and to ensure that they are efficient in the long-term. This paper presents a numerical study of a large-scale building close to underground networks. A two-step time-frequency prediction method for train-induced vibrations of a superstructure is proposed in this work. In the first step, the spatial train-track coupled dynamic model in time domain is established and then simulated to obtain the vertical and lateral rail supporting forces (fastener forces). In the second step, the discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) of fastener forces are taken as the external loads of a finite element (FE) model of the track-tunnel-soil-building system to solve the building vibrations. On this basis, train-induced vibrations of the large-scale building are predicted under different train operation conditions, and two relevant standards are adopted to evaluate the building vibrations. Further, a base isolation measure, that consists in installing steel springs between the superstructure and the base, is employed to mitigate excessive building vibration. Results show that the underground train and track interaction could result in over-limit building vibrations. The train moving with a higher speed will deteriorate track vibration level and leads to more serious extent of over-limit vibrations of the larger-scale building. The base isolation measure can effectively reduce the excessive building vibrations, and also ensures the train-induced vibrations of the building to satisfy the relevant standard requirements under the worst train operation conditions.

20.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 539: 646-653, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616195

RESUMO

Transition-metal cobalt-based chalcogenides have wide application in the fields of energy conversion and storage. Suitable morphologies can effectively improve the surface area and performance of the materials. Herein, we reported a simple and controlled strategy to fabricate the CoSe2 with various shapes and applied these in water splitting. We successfully synthesized the spheres, wires and rods of CoSe2 via facile hydrothermal process through regulating the addition of NH4F to alter the morphologies of samples. Among these samples, the as-prepared CoSe2 spheres have urchin-like morphology with highly hollow structure, leading to large specific surface area and a great number of channels for promoting mass transfer efficiency. Therefore, the CoSe2 spheres as electrocatalyst exhibits excellent oxygen evolution reaction and hydrogen evolution reaction performance in alkaline and acidic conditions, respectively. Electrochemical measurement illustrated that the CoSe2 spheres as electrocatalyst shown small overpotential and superior stability, which could be a promising candidate of effective electrocatalyst.

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