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1.
Plant Sci ; 312: 111060, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620427

RESUMO

Phosphate starvation (-Pi)-induced root hair is crucial for enhancing plants' Pi absorption. Proline-rich extensin-like receptor kinase 13 (PERK13) is transcriptionally induced by -Pi and co-expressed with genes associated with root hair growth. However, how PERK13 participates in -Pi-induced root hair growth remains unclear. Here, we found that PERK13 was transcriptionally responsive to Pi, nitrogen, and iron deficiencies. Loss of PERK13 function (perk13) enhanced root hair growth under Pi/nitrogen limitation. Similar phenotype was also observed in transgenic lines overexpressing PERK13 (PERK13ox). Under -Pi, both perk13 and PERK13ox showed prolonged root hair elongation and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Deletion analysis showed, in PERK13ox, the extracellular domain was indispensable for PERK13 in -Pi-induced root hair growth. Different transcription profiles were observed under -Pi between perk13 and PERK13ox with the jasmonate zim-domain genes being repressed in perk13 and genes involved in cell wall remodeling being increased in PERK13ox. Taken together, we demonstrated that PERK13 participates in -Pi-induced root hair growth probably via regulating root hair elongation and the generation of ROS. Our study also suggested PERK13 probably being a vital hub coupling the environmental cues and root hair growth, and might play dual roles in -Pi-induced root hair growth via different processes.

2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 749266, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621279

RESUMO

Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a major complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Corticosteroid is the first-line treatment for aGVHD, but its response rate is only approximately 50%. At present, no uniformly accepted treatment for steroid-refractory aGVHD (SR-aGVHD) is available. Blocking interleukin-2 receptors (IL-2Rs) on donor T cells using pharmaceutical antagonists alleviates SR-aGVHD. This meta-analysis aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of four commercially available IL-2R antagonists (IL-2RAs) in SR-aGVHD treatment. A total of 31 studies met the following inclusion criteria (1): patients of any race, any sex, and all ages (2); those diagnosed with SR-aGVHD after HSCT; and (3) those using IL-2RA-based therapy as the treatment for SR-aGVHD. The overall response rate (ORR) at any time after treatment with basiliximab and daclizumab was 0.81 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74-0.87)] and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.56-0.82), respectively, which was better than that of inolimomab 0.54 (95% CI: 0.39-0.68) and denileukin diftitox 0.56 (95% CI: 0.35-0.76). The complete response rate (CRR) at any time after treatment with basiliximab and daclizumab was 0.55 (95% CI: 0.42-0.68) and 0.42 (95%CI: 0.29-0.56), respectively, which was better than that of inolimomab 0.30 (95% CI: 0.16-0.51) and denileukin diftitox 0.37 (95% CI: 0.24-0.52). The ORR and CRR were better after 1-month treatment with basiliximab and daclizumab than after treatment with inolimomab and denileukin diftitox. The incidence of the infection was higher after inolimomab treatment than after treatment with the other IL-2RAs. In conclusion, the efficacy and safety of different IL-2RAs varied. The response rate of basiliximab was the highest, followed by that of daclizumab. Prospective, randomized controlled trials are needed to compare the efficacy and safety of different IL-2RAs.

3.
Phytochemistry ; 192: 112960, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598045

RESUMO

Seven undescribed condensation derivatives of 4-isopropylbenzaldehyde with acetophenone, including one 1,3,5-trisubstituted pentane-1,5-dione, two 1,3,4,5,7-pentasubstituted heptane-1,7-diones and four 1,2,3,4,5-pentasubstituted cyclohexanols, together with two known flavonoids, were obtained from the red alga Laurencia tristicha. The relative configurations were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic data analysis of MS, 1D and 2D NMR, while the absolute configurations were determined by comparing the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism spectra. All the isolates were proven to be naturally occurring in the red alga by LC-MS analysis, and these 1,3,5-trisubstituted-pentane-1,5-dione, 1,3,4,5,7-pentasubstituted-heptane-1,7-diones and 1,2,3,4,5-pentasubstituted-cyclohexanols were reported from natural sources for the first time. The proposed biogenetic pathway of the isolates was also discussed.

4.
Lancet Haematol ; 8(10): e688-e699, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-dose dexamethasone is the standard initial treatment for patients with immune thrombocytopenia, but many patients still relapse and require further treatments. All-trans retinoic acid has been shown to exert immunomodulatory effects and promote thrombopoiesis, and so we aimed to assess the activity and safety of all-trans retinoic acid plus high-dose dexamethasone as a first-line treatment for newly diagnosed patients with immune thrombocytopenia. METHODS: This multicentre, open-label, randomised, controlled, phase 2 trial was done at six different tertiary medical centres in China. Eligible participants were adults (aged >18 years) with treatment-naive, newly diagnosed, primary immune thrombocytopenia who had either a platelet count of less than 30 × 109 platelets per L or a platelet count of less than 50 × 109 platelets per L and clinically significant bleeding. We randomly assigned (1:1) participants to receive either all-trans retinoic acid (10 mg orally twice daily for 12 weeks) plus high-dose dexamethasone (40 mg/day intravenously for 4 consecutive days) or high-dose dexamethasone alone using a central, web-based randomisation system. If patients did not respond by day 14, the 4-day course of dexamethasone was repeated. The primary endpoint was 6-month sustained response, defined as the maintenance of a platelet count of at least 30 × 109 platelets per L and at least 2-times higher than the baseline count and the absence of bleeding, with no need for rescue medication at this time. The primary endpoint was analysed by intention-to-treat and safety was assessed in all participants who received at least one dose of the study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04217148, and is now completed. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1, 2020, and June 30, 2020, 132 patients were randomly assigned to either all-trans retinoic acid plus high-dose dexamethasone (n=66) or high-dose dexamethasone alone (n=66). Three patients did not receive their allocated treatment, leaving 129 in the safety analysis set. At 6 months, a significantly higher proportion of participants in the all-trans retinoic acid plus high-dose dexamethasone group (45 [68%] of 66) than in the high-dose dexamethasone monotherapy group (27 [41%] of 66) had a sustained response (OR 3·095, 95% CI 1·516-6·318; p=0·0017). The most common adverse events were dry skin (31 [48%] of 64 patients), headaches (12 [19%]), and insomnia (12 [19%]) in the combination group, and insomnia (ten [15%] of 65 patients) and anxiety or mood disorders (eight [12%]) in the monotherapy group. Both treatments were well tolerated and no grade 4 or worse adverse events occurred. There were no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: The combination of all-trans retinoic acid and high-dose dexamethasone was safe and active in newly diagnosed patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia, providing a sustained response. This regimen represents a potential first-line treatment in this setting, but further studies are needed to validate its efficacy and safety. FUNDING: The Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Beijing Natural Science Foundation, the National Key Research and Development Program of China, and the Foundation for Innovative Research Groups of the National Natural Science Foundation of China.


Assuntos
Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/tratamento farmacológico , Tretinoína/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560321

RESUMO

Since the outset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the gut microbiome in COVID-19 has garnered substantial interest, given its significant roles in human health and pathophysiology. Accumulating evidence is unveiling that the gut microbiome is broadly altered in COVID-19, including the bacterial microbiome, mycobiome, and virome. Overall, the gut microbial ecological network is significantly weakened and becomes sparse in patients with COVID-19, together with a decrease in gut microbiome diversity. Beyond the existence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the gut microbiome of patients with COVID-19 is also characterized by enrichment of opportunistic bacteria, fungi, and eukaryotic viruses, which are also associated with disease severity and presentation. Meanwhile, a multitude of symbiotic bacteria and bacteriophages are decreased in abundance in patients with COVID-19. Such gut microbiome features persist in a significant subset of patients with COVID-19 even after disease resolution, coinciding with 'long COVID' (also known as post-acute sequelae of COVID-19). The broadly-altered gut microbiome is largely a consequence of SARS-CoV-2 infection and its downstream detrimental effects on the systemic host immunity and the gut milieu. The impaired host immunity and distorted gut microbial ecology, particularly loss of low-abundance beneficial bacteria and blooms of opportunistic fungi including Candida, may hinder the re-assembly of the gut microbiome post COVID-19. Future investigation is necessary to fully understand the role of the gut microbiome in host immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as the long-term effect of COVID-19 on the gut microbiome in relation to the host health after the pandemic.

6.
Blood Adv ; 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507352

RESUMO

Transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA) is a potentially life-threatening complication following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Information on markers for early prognostication remains limited, and no predictive tools for TA-TMA are available. We attempt to develop and validate a prognostic model for TA-TMA. A total of 507 patients who developed TA-TMA following allo-HSCT were retrospectively identified and separated into a derivation cohort and a validation cohort according to the time of transplantation to perform external temporal validation. Patient age (OR 2.371, 95% CI 1.264-4.445), anemia (OR 2.836, 95% CI 1.566-5.138), severe thrombocytopenia (OR 3.871, 95% CI 2.156-6.950), elevated total bilirubin (OR 2.716, 95% CI 1.489-4.955) and proteinuria (OR 2.289, 95% CI 1.257-4.168) were identified as independent prognostic factors for the 6-month outcome of TA-TMA. A risk score model termed BATAP (Bilirubin, Age, Thrombocytopenia, Anemia, Proteinuria) was then constructed according to the regression coefficients. The validated c-statistics were 0.816 (95% CI 0.766-0.867) and 0.756 (95% CI 0.696-0.817) in the internal and external validation, respectively. Calibration plots indicated that the model-predicted probabilities correlated well with the actual observed frequencies. This predictive model may facilitate the prognostication of TA-TMA and contribute to the early identification of high-risk patients.

7.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 145, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526099

RESUMO

The consensus recommendations in 2018 from The Chinese Society of Hematology (CSH) on indications, conditioning regimens and donor selection for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) facilitated the standardization of clinical practices of allo-HSCT in China and progressive integration with the world. There have been new developments since the initial publication. To integrate recent developments and further improve the consensus, a panel of experts from the CSH recently updated the consensus recommendations, which are summarized as follows: (1) there is a new algorithm for selecting appropriate donors for allo-HSCT candidates. Haploidentical donors (HIDs) are the preferred donor choice over matched sibling donors (MSDs) for patients with high-risk leukemia or elderly patients with young offspring donors in experienced centers. This replaces the previous algorithm for donor selection, which favored MSDs over HIDs. (2) Patients with refractory/relapsed lymphoblastic malignancies are now encouraged to undergo salvage treatment with novel immunotherapies prior to HSCT. (3) The consensus has been updated to reflect additional evidence for the application of allo-HSCT in specific groups of patients with hematological malignancies (intermediate-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML), favorable-risk AML with positive minimal residual disease, and standard-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia). (4) The consensus has been updated to reflect additional evidence for the application of HSCT in patients with nonmalignant diseases, such as severe aplastic anemia and inherited diseases. (5) The consensus has been updated to reflect additional evidence for the administration of anti-thymocyte globulin, granulocyte colony-stimulating factors and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide in HID-HSCT.

8.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt B): 127137, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560486

RESUMO

Most natural polymers exhibit limited functional groups, which is not favourable for the adsorption of various ions and their utilisation. To overcome this drawback, a novel in-situ-doped nano-calcium carbonate (CaCO3) chitin hydrogel was synthesised as an efficient adsorbent for Cu (II) and Cd (II) ions. Scanning electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller results revealed that the synthesised CaCO3/chitin hydrogel exhibited loose macropores and mesopores. Subsequently, Fourier transform infrared, Raman, and X-ray diffraction characterisation characterisation proved that chitin was successfully doped with nano-CaCO3. The mechanical properties of CaCO3/chitin hydrogel were superior to those of the unmodified chitin hydrogel and could efficiently adsorb Cu (II) and Cd (II) ions in water. The effect of pH, initial concentration, adsorbent dosage, and temperature was assessed to determine the adsorption properties of the hydrogel. Under suitable experimental conditions, the maximum adsorption rate of the CaCO3/chitin hydrogel was approximately 96%. The time-dependent adsorption kinetics followed a quasi-second order model, and the adsorption process followed the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacities of Cu (II) and Cd (II) according to the Langmuir curve were 194.61 and 191.58 mg/g, respectively. Compared with the binary competitive system, the material exhibited a specific selectivity to the adsorption of Cu (II). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that nitrogen and oxygen atoms were involved in chelation with the metal ions. The successful compounding of calcium carbonate nanoparticles provided more active adsorption sites for the gel. The novel material exhibited excellent adsorption effects on Cu (II) and Cd (II) ions when applied to a water sample. Thus, the novel material exhibits excellent potential for application. The Cu (II) and Cd (II)ion removal efficiencies after five successive adsorption cycles were higher than 90%, which indicated that the composite material exhibited excellent stability and reproducibility.

9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(16): 4103-4110, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467720

RESUMO

In this study, the colonization, diversity and relative abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi(AMF) in the roots of Panax quinquefolius in different habitats of Shandong province were analyzed by staining-microscopy and high-throughput sequencing. The data were analyzed by bioinformatics tools and statistical software. The results showed that the roots of P. quinquefolius in different habitats were colonized by AMF with different rates and intensities. The AMF in roots of P. quinquefolius belong to three genera, three families, three orders, one class and one phylum. At the level of order, the AMF mainly included Paraglomerales(52.48%), Glomerales(25.60%) and Archaeosporales(3.08%). At the level of family, the AMF were dominated by Paraglomeraceae(52.48%), Glomeraceae(18.94%) and Claroideoglomeraceae(3.05%). At the level of genus, Paraglomus(51.46%), Glomus(20.01%) and Claroideoglomus(3.52%) accounted for a large proportion, of which Paraglomus and Glomus were dominant. Cluster analysis showed that the AMF in roots of P. quinquefolius with close geographical locations could be clustered together. In this study, the diversity and dominant germplasm resources of AMF in roots of P. quinquefolius cultivated in the main producing areas were identified, which provi-ded basic data for revealing the quality formation mechanism of P. quinquefolius medicinal materials from the perspective of environment.


Assuntos
Glomeromycota , Micorrizas , Panax , Fungos , Humanos , Micorrizas/genética , Raízes de Plantas , Microbiologia do Solo
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(15): 3814-3823, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472254

RESUMO

Volatile oil is the main effective component and an important quality indicator of Artemisia argyi leaves. In this study, 100 germplasm resources of A. argyi were collected from all the related habitats in China. The total volatile oils in A. argyi leaves were extracted by steam distillation and the content was determined by GC-MS. The result demonstrated that the content of total volatile oils was in the range of 0.53%-2.55%, with the average of 1.43%. A total of 39 chemical constituents were identified from the volatile oils, including 13 shared by the 100 germplasm resources. Clustering analysis of the 39 constituents showed that the 100 A. argyi samples were categorized into groups Ⅰ(9), Ⅱ(2), Ⅲ(66) and Ⅳ(23), and group Ⅲ had the most volatile medicinal components, with the highest content. Five principal components(PCs) were extracted from 13 shared constituents, which explained 73.454% of the total variance. PC1, PC2, and PC3 mainly reflected the pharmacological activity of volatile oils and the rest two the aroma information. The volatile oils identified in this study lay a foundation for variety breeding of and rational utilization of volatile oils in A. argyi leaves.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Óleos Voláteis , Destilação , Melhoramento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta
11.
J Vet Med Sci ; 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470981

RESUMO

A novel avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) variant, designated as GX-NN160421, was isolated from vaccinated chicken in Guangxi, China, in 2016. Based on analysis of the S1 gene sequence, GX-NN160421 belonged to the New-type 1 (GVI-1) strain. More importantly, three consecutive nucleotides (AAC) deletions were found in the highly conserved structure gene N. The serotype of GX-NN160421 was different from those of the commonly used vaccine strains. The mortality of the GX-NN160421 strain was 3.33%, which contrasted with 50% mortality in the clinical case, but high levels of virus shedding lasted at least 21 days. In conclusion, the first novel genotype IBV variant with three-nucleotide-deletion in the N gene was identified, and this unique variant is low virulent but with a long time of virus shedding, indicating the continuing evolution of IBV and emphasizing the importance of limiting exposure to novel IBV strains as well as extensive monitoring of new IBVs.

12.
Mol Cancer ; 20(1): 103, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Constitutive activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling plays a key role in the development and progression of colorectal carcinoma (CRC). However, the underlying mechanisms of excessive activation of NF-κB signaling remain largely unknown. METHODS: We used high throughput RNA sequencing to identify differentially expressed circular RNAs (circRNAs) between normal human intestinal epithelial cell lines and CRC cell lines. The identification of protein encoded by circPLCE1 was performed using LC-MS. The function of novel protein was validated in vitro and in vivo by gain or loss of function assays. Mechanistic results were concluded by immunoprecipitation analyses. RESULTS: A novel protein circPLCE1-411 encoded by circular RNA circPLCE1 was identified as a crucial player in the NF-κB activation of CRC. Mechanistically, circPLCE1-411 promoted the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of the critical NF-κB regulator RPS3 via directly binding the HSP90α/RPS3 complex to facilitate the dissociation of RPS3 from the complex, thereby reducing NF-κB nuclear translocation in CRC cells. Functionally, circPLCE1 inhibited tumor proliferation and metastasis in CRC cells, as well as patient-derived xenograft and orthotopic xenograft tumor models. Clinically, circPLCE1 was downregulated in CRC tissues and correlated with advanced clinical stages and poor survival. CONCLUSIONS: circPLCE1 presents an epigenetic mechanism which disrupts NF-κB nuclear translocation and serves as a novel and promising therapeutic target and prognostic marker.

13.
Blood Adv ; 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448835

RESUMO

Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a rare but fatal central nervous system complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). However, factors that are predictive of early mortality in patients who develop ICH after undergoing allo-HSCT have not been systemically investigated. From January 2008 to June 2020, 70 allo-HSCT patients with ICH diagnosis formed the derivation cohort. Forty-one allo-HSCT patients with ICH diagnosis were collected from 12 other medical centers during the same period, and they comprised the external validation cohort. We used these 2 cohorts to develop and validate a grading scale that enables the prediction of 30-day mortality from ICH in all-HSCT patients. Four predictors, lactate dehydrogenase level, albumin level, white blood cell count and disease status, were retained in the multivariable logistic regression model, and a simplified grading scale, termed the LAWS score, was developed. The LAWS score was adequately calibrated (Hosmer-Lemeshow test, p>0.05) in both cohorts. It had good discrimination power in both the derivation cohort (C-statistic of 0.859, 95% CI 0.776-0.945) and the external validation cohort (C-statistic of 0.795, 95% CI 0.645-0.945). The LAWS score is the first scoring system capable of predicting the 30-day mortality from ICH in allo-HSCT patients. It showed good performance in identifying allo-HSCT patients at increased risk of early mortality after ICH diagnosis. We anticipate that it would help risk-stratify allo-HSCT patients with ICH and facilitate future studies on developing individualized and novel interventions for patients within different LAWS risk groups.

14.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 206(2): 196-207, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382213

RESUMO

Elderly individuals exhibit unbalanced bone marrow (BM) effector T cell subset differentiation, such as increased T helper type 1 (Th1) and T cytotoxic type 1 (Tc1) cell frequencies, but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Endothelial cells (ECs), which are instructive components of the BM microenvironment, exhibit the phenotype of semi-professional antigen-presenting cells and regulate T cell recruitment and activation. Thus, we compared the frequency and function of BM ECs, especially their capacity to regulate effector T cell subsets, between young and elderly healthy individuals, and explored the underlying mechanism of this immunomodulatory discrepancy. Although the young and elderly EC percentages were comparable, young ECs showed fewer reactive oxygen species and better migratory and tube-forming abilities than elderly ECs. Notably, increased T cell activation molecules and inflammatory cytokines were found in elderly ECs which regulated T cells to differentiate into more proinflammatory T cells, including Th1 and Tc1 cells, than young ECs.

15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 687961, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335589

RESUMO

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a pathology in which chemokines and their receptors play essential roles in directing the migration of alloreactive donor T cells into GVHD organs, thereby leading to further target tissue damage. Currently, acute GVHD (aGVHD) remains a major cause of high morbidity and mortality in patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT). The identification of immune cells that correlate with aGVHD is important and intriguing. To date, the involvement of innate-like γδ T cells in the pathogenesis of aGVHD is unclear. Herein, we found that primary human γδ T cells did not directly trigger allogeneic reactions. Instead, we revealed that γδ T cells facilitated the migration of CD4 T cells via the SDF-1-CXCR4 axis. These results indicate indirect regulation of γδ T cells in the development of aGVHD rather than a direct mechanism. Furthermore, we showed that the expression of CXCR4 was significantly elevated in γδ T cells and CD4 and CD8 T cells in recipients who experienced grades II-IV aGVHD after alloHCT. Consistently, CXCR4-expressing γδ T cells and CD4 T cells were induced in the target organs of mice suffering aGVHD. The depletion of γδ T cells in transplant grafts and treatment with AMD3100, an inhibitor of CXCR4 signaling, delayed the onset of aGVHD and prolonged survival in mice. Taken together, these findings suggest a role for γδ T cells in recruiting alloreactive CD4 T cells to target tissues through the expression of CXCR4. Our findings may help in understanding the mechanism of aGVHD and provide novel therapeutic targets.

16.
J Genet Genomics ; 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419617

RESUMO

The FUT2 loss-of-function mutations are highly prevalent and are associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To investigate the impact of FUT2 loss-of-function mutation on the gut microbiota in patients with IBD, 81 endoscopically confirmed IBD patients were genotyped and divided into 3 groups: homozygous for functional FUT2 genes (SeSe), with one copy of non-functional FUT2 gene (Sese), or homozygous for non-functional FUT2 genes (sese). Escherichia, which attaches to fucosylated glycoconjugates, was the only abundant genus exhibiting decreased abundance in sese patients. Compared with SeSe or Sese patients, sese patients exhibited higher abundance in CD8+ inducing Alistipe and Phascolarctobacterium and Th17 inducing Erysipelotrichaceae UCG-003. Counter-intuitively, butyrate-producing bacteria were more abundant in sese patients. Consistently, metabolomics analysis found higher levels of butyrate in sese patients. Our data support the hypothesis that FUT2 loss-of-function mutation participates in the IBD pathogenesis by decreasing binding sites for adherent bacteria and thus altering the gut microbiota. Decreased abundances of adherent bacteria may allow the overgrowth of bacteria that induce inflammatory T cells, leading to intestinal inflammation. As FUT2 loss-of-function mutations are highly prevalent, the identification of T cell inducing bacteria in sese patients could be valuable for the development of personalized microbial intervention for IBD.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433917

RESUMO

Between 2008 and 2019, 58,914 hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCTs) were reported to the Chinese Blood and Marrow Transplantation Registry Group (CBMTRG) throughout China. In this report, we focus on 2019 data and describe current trends in HSCT in China. There was continued growth in transplant activity in China, with a rapid increase in haploidentical HSCT. In 2019, a total of 12,323 cases of HSCT were reported from 149 transplant teams, 78% (9597 cases) were allogeneic HSCTs. Haploidentical donor (HID) HSCT accounted for 60% (5771 cases) of allogeneic HSCT. The most common indications for allogeneic HSCT for malignant disease were acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (37%) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (24%), and the largest proportion of non-malignant diseases comprised aplastic anemia (AA) (13%). Multiple stem cell source composed 70% of HID and 28% of MSD, which was typical in China. The BuCy based regimen (59%) was the most popular conditioning regimen for allogeneic HSCT, followed by the BuFlu based regimen (23%) and TBI-based regimen (12%). This survey clearly shows comprehensive information about the current state and recent trends for HSCT in China. Further efforts should be made to obtain detailed information.

18.
Am J Hematol ; 96(11): 1407-1419, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350623

RESUMO

Idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating diseases (IIDDs) of the central nervous system (CNS) are rare but serious neurological complications of haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT). However, the risk factors and a method to predict the prognosis of post-transplantation CNS IIDDs are not available. This retrospective study first reviewed data from 4532 patients who received haplo-HSCT during 2008-2019 in our center, and 184 patients (4.1%) with IIDDs after haplo-HSCT were identified. Grades II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) (p < 0.001) and chronic GVHD (cGVHD) (p = 0.009) were identified as risk factors for developing IIDDs after haplo-HSCT. We then divided the 184 IIDD patients into a derivation cohort and validation cohort due to transplantation time to develop and validate a model for predicting the prognosis of IIDDs. In the multivariate analysis of the derivation cohort, four candidate predictors were entered into the final prognostic model: cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, IgG synthesis (IgG-syn) and spinal cord lesions. The prognostic model had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.864 (95% CI: 0.803-0.925) in the internal validation cohort and 0.871 (95% CI: 0.806-0.931) in the external validation cohort. The calibration plots showed a high agreement between the predicted and observed outcomes. Decision curve analysis indicated that IIDD patients could benefit from the clinical application of the prognostic model. The identification of IIDD patients after allo-HSCT who have a poor prognosis might allow timely treatment and improve patient survival and outcomes.

19.
J Hazard Mater ; 422: 126913, 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419841

RESUMO

Increasing cadmium (Cd) pollution severely affects plant growth and development, posing risks to human health via food chains. The Cd toxicity could be mitigated by improving Fe nutrient in plants. IMA1 and IMA3, two novel small peptides functionally epistatic to the key transcription factor bHLH39 but independent of bHLH104, were recently identified as the newest additions to the Fe regulatory cascade, but their roles in Cd uptake and toxicity remain not addressed. Here, the functions of two IMAs and two transcription factors related to Cd tolerance were verified. Overexpression of either bHLH39 or bHLH104 in Arabidopsis showed weak roles in Cd tolerance, but overexpression of IMAs, which activates the Fe-deficient response, significantly enhanced Cd tolerance, showing greater root elongation, biomass and chlorophyll contents. The Cd contents did not show significant difference among the overexpression lines. Further investigations revealed that the tolerance of transgenic plants to Cd mainly depended on higher Fe accumulation, which decreased the MDA contents and enhanced root elongation under Cd exposure, finally contributing to attenuating Cd toxicity. Taken together, the results suggest that increasing Fe accumulation is promising for improving plant tolerance to Cd toxicity and that IMAs are potential candidates for solving Cd toxicity problem.

20.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 381, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phosphate (Pi) deficiency severely affects crop growth and productivity, including wheat, therefore it is necessary to develop cultivars with enhanced Pi-deficiency tolerance. However, the underlying mechanism of Pi-deficiency tolerance in wheat is still elusive. Two contrasting wheat cultivars, low-Pi tolerant Kenong199 (KN199) and low-Pi sensitive Chinese Spring (CS) were used to reveal adaptations in response to Pi deficiency at the morphological, physiological, metabolic, and molecular levels. RESULTS: KN199 was more tolerant to Pi deficiency than CS with significantly increased root biomass and R/S ratio. Root traits, the total root length, total root surface area, and total root volume, were remarkably enhanced by Pi deficiency in KN199. The shoot total P and soluble Pi concentrations of KN199 were significantly higher than those of CS, but not in roots. In KN199, high Pi level in shoots is a higher priority than that in roots under Pi deficiency. It was probably due to differentially regulation in the miR399-mediated signaling network between the shoots of the two cultivars. The Pi deficiency-induced root architecture adaptation in KN199 was attributed to the regulation of the hormone-mediated signaling (ethylene, gibberellin, and jasmonates). The expression of genes associated with root development and Pi uptake was enhanced in KN199. Some primary metabolites (amino acids and organic acids) were significantly accumulated in roots of KN199 under Pi deficiency. CONCLUSIONS: The low-Pi tolerant wheat cultivar KN199 possessed greater morphological and primary metabolic adaptations in roots than CS under Pi deficiency. The adaption and the underlying molecular mechanisms in wheat provide a better understanding of the Pi-deficiency tolerance and the strategies for improving Pi efficiency in wheat.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Fosfatos/deficiência , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Plântula/metabolismo
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