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1.
Genome Biol ; 23(1): 13, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association study (GWAS) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are known to preferentially co-locate to active regulatory elements in tissues and cell types relevant to disease aetiology. Further characterisation of associated cell type-specific regulation can broaden our understanding of how GWAS signals may contribute to disease risk. RESULTS: To gain insight into potential functional mechanisms underlying GWAS associations, we developed FORGE2 ( https://forge2.altiusinstitute.org/ ), which is an updated version of the FORGE web tool. FORGE2 uses an expanded atlas of cell type-specific regulatory element annotations, including DNase I hotspots, five histone mark categories and 15 hidden Markov model (HMM) chromatin states, to identify tissue- and cell type-specific signals. An analysis of 3,604 GWAS from the NHGRI-EBI GWAS catalogue yielded at least one significant disease/trait-tissue association for 2,057 GWAS, including > 400 associations specific to epigenomic marks in immune tissues and cell types, > 30 associations specific to heart tissue, and > 60 associations specific to brain tissue, highlighting the key potential of tissue- and cell type-specific regulatory elements. Importantly, we demonstrate that FORGE2 analysis can separate previously observed accessible chromatin enrichments into different chromatin states, such as enhancers or active transcription start sites, providing a greater understanding of underlying regulatory mechanisms. Interestingly, tissue-specific enrichments for repressive chromatin states and histone marks were also detected, suggesting a role for tissue-specific repressed regions in GWAS-mediated disease aetiology. CONCLUSION: In summary, we demonstrate that FORGE2 has the potential to uncover previously unreported disease-tissue associations and identify new candidate mechanisms. FORGE2 is a transparent, user-friendly web tool for the integrative analysis of loci discovered from GWAS.

2.
Bioresour Technol ; 344(Pt B): 126261, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728353

RESUMO

Lignocellulose has been considered a potential feedstock for biohydrogen production. Recently, a novel closed-loop concept of biochar approach was developed for enhanced lignocellulosic biohydrogen production. This study therefore targets to analyze the environmental impacts of the three existing lignocellulosic biohydrogen production processes, and evaluate the environmental performance of applying biochar in each process at this early stage of technological development. The results suggest that biochar dosing shows better environmental performance for all impact categories, especially in the consolidate bioprocessing case. Electricity consumption was found to be the dominant cause of environmental impact over the life cycle, while by-products generation was also found to have an effect on the life-cycle impacts. Future research focuses on the biohydrogen production scale, the electricity generation scheme transition towards renewable and cleaner energetic systems, and recovery the by-products to the maximum extent, that will make lignocellulosic biohydrogen production more environmentally sustainable.


Assuntos
Hidrogênio , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Animais , Carvão Vegetal , Fermentação , Lignina
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23664, 2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34880297

RESUMO

Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL) is an aggressive malignancy that has been etiologically linked to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, with EBV gene transcripts identified in almost all cases. However, the humoral immune response to EBV in NKTCL patients has not been well characterized. We examined the antibody response to EBV in plasma samples from 51 NKTCL cases and 154 controls from Hong Kong and Taiwan who were part of the multi-center, hospital-based AsiaLymph case-control study. The EBV-directed serological response was characterized using a protein microarray that measured IgG and IgA antibodies against 202 protein sequences representing the entire EBV proteome. We analyzed 157 IgG antibodies and 127 IgA antibodies that fulfilled quality control requirements. Associations between EBV serology and NKTCL status were disproportionately observed for IgG rather than IgA antibodies. Nine anti-EBV IgG responses were significantly elevated in NKTCL cases compared with controls and had ORshighest vs. lowest tertile > 6.0 (Bonferroni-corrected P-values < 0.05). Among these nine elevated IgG responses in NKTCL patients, three IgG antibodies (all targeting EBNA3A) are novel and have not been observed for other EBV-associated tumors of B-cell or epithelial origin. IgG antibodies against EBNA1, which have consistently been elevated in other EBV-associated tumors, were not elevated in NKTCL cases. We characterize the antibody response against EBV for patients with NKTCL and identify IgG antibody responses against six distinct EBV proteins. Our findings suggest distinct serologic patterns of this NK/T-cell lymphoma compared with other EBV-associated tumors of B-cell or epithelial origin.

4.
Environ Mol Mutagen ; 2021 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34894159

RESUMO

Diesel engine exhaust (DEE) is classified as a Group 1 human carcinogen. Using a targeted proteomics approach, we aimed to identify proteins associated with DEE and characterize these markers to understand the mechanisms of DEE-induced carcinogenicity. In this cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study, we measured elemental carbon (EC) using a personal air monitor and quantified 1317 targeted proteins in the serum using the SOMAScan assay (SOMALogic, Boulder, CA) among 19 diesel-exposed workers and 19 unexposed controls. We used linear regressions to identify proteins associated with DEE and examined their exposure-response relationship across levels of EC using linear trend tests. We further examined pathway enrichment of DEE-related proteins using MetaCore. Occupational exposure to DEE was associated with altered levels of 22 serum proteins (permutation p-value<0.01). Of these, 13 proteins (CXCL11, HAPLN1, FLT4, CD40LG, PES1, IGHE.IGK..IGL, TNFSF9, PGD, NAGK, CCL25, CCL4L1, PDXK, and PLA2G1B) showed an exposure-response relationship with EC (p-trend <0.01), with serum levels of all but PLA2G1B declining with increasing air levels of EC. For instance, CXCL11 showed the most significant association with DEE (ß = -0.25; permutation p-value=0.00004), where mean serum levels were 4121.1, 2356.7, and 2298.8 relative fluorescent units among the unexposed, lower exposed (median, range: 56.9, 40.2-62.1µg/m3 ), and higher exposed (median, range: 72.9, 66.9-107.7µg/m3 ) groups, respectively (p-trend=0.0005). Pathway analysis suggested that these proteins play a role in inflammation and immunoregulation. Our study suggests that DEE exposure is associated with altered serum proteins, which play a role in inflammation and immune regulation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
Neoplasma ; 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34846157

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the expression of the spindle assembly checkpoint kinase tyrosine/threonine kinase (TTK) in triple-positive breast cancer (TPBC) and its effect on TPBC cells. We analyzed the status of TTK in 69 TPBC samples using immunohistochemistry. The correlation between TTK and clinicopathological parameters was analyzed using a chi-squared test. The prognostic value of TTK was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival curves. We analyzed the role of TTK in the invasion and proliferation of TPBC cells in vitro and in vivo. The mean age of the 69 patients with TPBC enrolled in this study was 53 years (range: 29-86 years). TTK expression was positively correlated with tumor size (P = 0.034), p53 status (P = 0.023), TNM stage (P = 0.023), and Ki-67 index (P < 0.001). The Kaplan-Meier curves revealed that TTK expression was correlated with poor disease-free survival (P = 0.001) and overall survival (P = 0.050). Multivariate proportional hazard regression analyses showed that TTK and TNM staging were significant independent predictors of disease-free survival (P = 0.007 and P = 0.034, respectively). Additionally, TTK knockdown inhibited the invasion and proliferation of the BT474 TPBC cell line. The findings of this study indicate that TTK overexpression is associated with cancer progression and prognosis in patients with TPBC, whereas TTK knockdown inhibits the invasion and proliferation of TPBC cells. Thus, TTK might serve as a prognostic marker for TPBC.

6.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838392

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Portal hypertension due to cirrhosis is common among patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to compare the outcomes of partial hepatectomy in patients with HCC and clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH) with or without concurrent splenectomy and esophagogastric devascularization (CSED). PATIENTS AND METHODS: From a multicenter database, patients with HCC and CSPH who underwent curative-intent hepatectomy were identified. Postoperative morbidity and mortality, and long-term overall survival (OS) were compared in patients with and without CSED before and after propensity score matching (PSM). RESULTS: Of the 358 enrolled patients, 86 patients underwent CSED. Before PSM, the postoperative 30-day morbidity and mortality rates were comparable between the CSED and non-CSED group (both P > 0.05). Using PSM, 81 pairs of patients were created. In the PSM cohort, the 5-year OS rate of the CSED group were significantly better than the non-CSED group (52.9% vs. 36.5%, P= 0.046). The former group had a significantly lower rate of variceal bleeding on follow-up (7.4% vs. 21.7%, P= 0.014). On multivariate analysis, CSED was associated with significantly better OS (HR: 0.39, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Hepatectomy and CSED can safely be performed in selected patients with HCC and CSPH, which could improve postoperative prognosis by preventing variceal bleeding, and prolonging long-term survival.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762494

RESUMO

Background: Temozolomide (TMZ) resistance plays a critical role in the treatment of glioma. This research tries to explore how circRNAs affect the chemosensitivity of glioma cells. Materials and Methods: In this study, the authors performed gene sequencing and selected circRNAs specifically expressed in TMZ-R cells and used them as target genes for subsequent studies. By knocking out the target gene, the authors clarify its effect on TMZ-R glioma proliferation, invasion, migration, and cell apoptosis; and through tumor-burdened animals, the authors explore the effect of the target gene in an in vivo environment. Results: In this research, the authors revealed that circ-GLIS3 was significantly upregulated in TMZ-R glioma cells. Functionally, knocking down circ-GLIS3 could inhibit proliferation, invasion, and migration abilities of TMZ-R glioma cells. Moreover, downregulation of circ-GLIS3 could induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, while miR-548m inhibition and MED31 mRNA could reverse this progress. In the in vivo condition, silencing of circ-GLIS3 could induce cell apoptosis and suppressed tumor growth. Mechanistically, circ-GLIS3 positively upregulated MED31 expression by sponging miR-548m. Conclusions: All these research findings demonstrate that circ-GLIS3 accelerates TMZ-R glioma progression through the miR-548m/MED31 axis.

8.
Front Genet ; 12: 743738, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721530

RESUMO

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA modification can alter gene expression and function by regulating RNA splicing, stability, translocation, and translation. It is involved in various types of cancer. However, its role in gliomas is not well known. This study aimed to determine the prognostic value of the m6A RNA methylation regulator in gliomas and investigate the underlying mechanisms of the aberrant expression of m6A-related genes.mRNA expression profiles and clinical information of 448 glioma samples were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas and cBioportal. The expression of m6A-related genes in normal controls and low-grade glioma and glioblastoma was obtained from Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis. Further, m6A-related gene expression and its relationship with prognosis were obtained through The Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA). Multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed, and a nomogram was built with potential risk factors based on a multivariate Cox analysis to predict survival probability. Online tools such as Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, STRING, Cytoscape, and Molecular Complex Detection were applied for bioinformatics analysis and to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the aberrant expression of m6A-related genes. The multivariate Cox regression analysis found that higher expression levels of YTHDC2 and insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3, also called IMP3) were independent negative and positive prognostic factors for overall survival (OS), respectively. Data from the CGGA database showed that IGF2BP3 expression increased when the tumor grade increased. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the predictive specificity and sensitivity. The area under the ROC curve indicated that the OS prediction was 0.92 (1-year) and 0.917 (3-years), indicating that m6A-related genes could predict patient survival. In addition, IGF2BP3 was closely related to the shorter survival period of patients. Copy number variation and DNA methylation, but not somatic mutations, might contribute to the abnormal upregulation of IGF2BP3 in gliomas. Significantly altered genes were identified, and the protein-protein interaction network was constructed. Based on the data presented, our study identified several m6A-related genes, especially IGF2BP3, that could be potential prognostic biomarkers of gliomas. The study unveiled the potential regulatory mechanism of IGF2BP3 in gliomas.

9.
Biotechnol Biofuels ; 14(1): 220, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemicellulose acts as one factor contributing to the recalcitrance of lignocellulose that prevents cellulases to degrade the cellulose efficiently even in low quantities. Supplement of hemicellulases can enhance the performance of commercial cellulases in the enzymatic hydrolyses of lignocellulose. Kluyveromyce marxianus is an attractive yeast for cellulosic ethanol fermentation, as well as a promising host for heterologous protein production, since it has remarkable thermotolerance, high growth rate, and broad substrate spectrum etc. In this study, we attempted to coordinately express multiple hemicellulases in K. marxianus through a 2A-mediated ribosome skipping to self-cleave polyproteins, and investigated their capabilities for saccharification and ethanol production from corncobs. RESULTS: Two polycistronic genes IMPX and IMPαX were constructed to test the self-cleavage of P2A sequence from the Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus (FMDV) in K. marxianus. The IMPX gene consisted of a ß-mannanase gene M330 (without the stop codon), a P2A sequence and a ß-xylanase gene Xyn-CDBFV in turn. In the IMPαX gene, there was an additional α-factor signal sequence in frame with the N-terminus of Xyn-CDBFV. The extracellular ß-mannanase activities of the IMPX and IMPαX strains were 21.34 and 15.50 U/mL, respectively, but the extracellular ß-xylanase activity of IMPαX strain was much higher than that of the IMPX strain, which was 136.17 and 42.07 U/mL, respectively. Subsequently, two recombinant strains, the IXPαR and IMPαXPαR, were constructed to coordinately and secretorily express two xylantic enzymes, Xyn-CDBFV and ß-D-xylosidase RuXyn1, or three hemicellulolytic enzymes including M330, Xyn-CDBFV and RuXyn1. In fed-batch fermentation, extracellular activities of ß-xylanase and ß-xylosidase in the IXPαR strain were 1664.2 and 0.90 U/mL. Similarly, the IMPαXPαR strain secreted the three enzymes, ß-mannanase, ß-xylanase, and ß-xylosidase, with the activities of 159.8, 2210.5, and 1.25 U/mL, respectively. Hemicellulolases of both strains enhanced the yields of glucose and xylose from diluted acid pretreated (DAP) corncobs when acted synergistically with commercial cellulases. In hybrid saccharification and fermentation (HSF) of DAP corncobs, hemicellulases of the IMPαXPαR strain increased the ethanol yield by 8.7% at 144 h compared with the control. However, both ethanol and xylose yields were increased by 12.7 and 18.2%, respectively, at 120 h in HSF of aqueous ammonia pretreated (AAP) corncobs with this strain. Our results indicated that coordinate expression of hemicellulolytic enzymes in K. marxianus promoted the saccharification and ethanol production from corncobs. CONCLUSIONS: The FMDV P2A sequence showed high efficiency in self-cleavage of polyproteins in K. marxianus and could be used for secretory expression of multiple enzymes in the presence of their signal sequences. The IMPαXPαR strain coexpressed three hemicellulolytic enzymes improved the saccharification and ethanol production from corncobs, and could be used as a promising strain for ethanol production from lignocelluloses.

10.
Carcinogenesis ; 42(11): 1326-1336, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606590

RESUMO

Benzene is a recognized hematotoxin and leukemogen; however, its mechanism of action in humans remain unclear. To provide insight into the processes underlying benzene hematotoxicity, we performed high-resolution metabolomic profiling of plasma collected from a cross-sectional study of 33 healthy workers exposed to benzene (median 8-h time-weighted average exposure; 20 ppma), and 25 unexposed controls in Shanghai, China. Metabolic features associated with benzene were identified using a metabolome-wide association study (MWAS) that tested for the relationship between feature intensity and benzene exposure. MWAS identified 478 mass spectral features associated with benzene exposure at false discovery rate < 20%. Comparison to a list of 13 known benzene metabolites and metabolites predicted using a multi-component biotransformation algorithm showed five metabolites were detected, which included the known metabolites phenol and benzene diolepoxide. Metabolic pathway enrichment identified 41 pathways associated with benzene exposure, with altered pathways including carnitine shuttle, fatty acid metabolism, sulfur amino acid metabolism, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and branched chain amino acid metabolism. These results suggest disruption to fatty acid uptake, energy metabolism and increased oxidative stress, and point towards pathways related to mitochondrial dysfunction, which has previously been linked to benzene exposure in animal models and human studies. Taken together, these results suggest benzene exposure is associated with disruption of mitochondrial pathways, and provide promising, systems biology biomarkers for risk assessment of benzene-induced hematotoxicity in humans.

11.
J Transl Genet Genom ; 5: 200-217, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622145

RESUMO

Aim: Recessive genetic variation is thought to play a role in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) etiology. Runs of homozygosity (ROH), defined based on long, continuous segments of homozygous SNPs, can be used to estimate both measured and unmeasured recessive genetic variation. We sought to examine genome-wide homozygosity and NHL risk. Methods: We used data from eight genome-wide association studies of four common NHL subtypes: 3061 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), 3814 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 2784 follicular lymphoma (FL), and 808 marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) cases, as well as 9374 controls. We examined the effect of homozygous variation on risk by: (1) estimating the fraction of the autosome containing runs of homozygosity (FROH); (2) calculating an inbreeding coefficient derived from the correlation among uniting gametes (F3); and (3) examining specific autosomal regions containing ROH. For each, we calculated beta coefficients and standard errors using logistic regression and combined estimates across studies using random-effects meta-analysis. Results: We discovered positive associations between FROH and CLL (ß = 21.1, SE = 4.41, P = 1.6 × 10-6) and FL (ß = 11.4, SE = 5.82, P = 0.02) but not DLBCL (P = 1.0) or MZL (P = 0.91). For F3, we observed an association with CLL (ß = 27.5, SE = 6.51, P = 2.4 × 10-5). We did not find evidence of associations with specific ROH, suggesting that the associations observed with FROH and F3 for CLL and FL risk were not driven by a single region of homozygosity. Conclusion: Our findings support the role of recessive genetic variation in the etiology of CLL and FL; additional research is needed to identify the specific loci associated with NHL risk.

12.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664266

RESUMO

Colonization of specific bacteria in the human mouth was reported to be associated with gastric cancer risk. However, previous studies were limited by retrospective study designs and low taxonomic resolutions. We performed a prospective case-control study nested within three cohorts to investigate the relationship between oral microbiome and gastric cancer risk. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing was employed to characterize the microbiome in prediagnostic buccal samples from 165 cases and 323 matched controls. Associations of overall microbial richness and abundance of microbial taxa, gene families and metabolic pathways with gastric cancer risk were evaluated via conditional logistic regression. Analyses were performed within each cohort, and results were combined by meta-analyses. We found that overall microbial richness was associated with decreased gastric cancer risk, with an odds ratio (OR) per standard deviation (SD) increase in Simpson's reciprocal index of 0.77 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.61-0.99). Nine taxa, 38 gene families and six pathways also showed associations with gastric cancer risk at P < .05. Neisseria mucosa and Prevotella pleuritidis were enriched, while Mycoplasma orale and Eubacterium yurii were depleted among cases with ORs and 95% CIs per SD increase in centered log-ratio transformed taxa abundance of 1.31 (1.03-1.67), 1.26 (1.00-1.57), 0.74 (0.59-0.94) and 0.80 (0.65-0.98), respectively. The top two gene families (P = 3.75 × 10-4 and 3.91 × 10-4 ) and pathways (P = 1.75 × 10-3 and 1.53 × 10-3 ) associated with gastric cancer were related to the decreased risk and are involved in hexitol metabolism. Our study supports the hypothesis that oral microbiota may play a role in gastric cancer etiology.

13.
Chemistry ; 27(67): 16722-16734, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632663

RESUMO

Helical architectures with controllable helical sense bias have recently attracted considerable interest for mimicking biological helices and developing novel chiral materials. Coordination polymers (CPs), composed of metal ion nodes and organic linkers, are intriguing systems showing tunable structures and functions. However, CPs with helical morphologies have rarely been explored so far. Particularly, chirality inversion through external stimulus has not been achieved in helical CPs. In this work, we carried out an in-depth investigation on the self-assembly of 1D gadolinium(III) phosphonate CPs using GdX3 (X=Cl, Br, I) and Gd(RSO3 ) (R=CH3 , C6 H5 , CF3 ) as metal sources and R-(1-phenylethylamino)methyl phosphonic acid (R-pempH2 ) as ligand. Superhelices were formed by precise control of the interchain interactions through different intercalated anions. Furthermore, the twisting direction of superhelices could be controlled by synergistic effect of anions and pH. This study may provide a new route to fabricate helical nanostructures of CPs with a desirable chiral sense and help understand the inner mechanism of the self-assembly process of macroscopic helical structures of molecular systems.

14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(42): 17587-17598, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644503

RESUMO

Nanotubular materials have garnered considerable attention since the discovery of carbon nanotubes. Although the layer-to-tube rolling up mechanism has been well recognized in explaining the formation of many inorganic nanotubes, it has not been generally applied to coordination polymers (CPs). To uncover the key factors that determine the rolling-up of layered CPs, we have chosen the Co/R-, S-Xpemp [Xpemp = (4-X-1-phenylethylamino)methylphosphonic acid, X = H, F, Cl, Br] systems and study how the weak interactions influence the formation of layered or tubular structures. Four pairs of homochiral isostructural compounds R-, S-Co(Xpemp)(H2O)2 [X = H (1H), F (2F), Cl (3Cl), Br (4Br)] were obtained with tubular structures. The inclusion of 3,3'-azobipyridine (ABP) guest molecules led to compounds R-, S-[Co(Xpemp)(H2O)2]4·ABP·H2O with layered structures when X was Cl (5Cl) and Br (6Br), but tubular compounds 1H and 2F when X was H and F. Layered structures were also obtained for racemic compounds meso-Co(Xpemp)(H2O)2 [X = F (7F), Cl (8Cl), Br (9Br)] using racemic XpempH2 as the reaction precursor, but not when X = H. A detailed study on R-6Br revealed that layer-to-tube transformation occurred upon removal of ABP under hydrothermal conditions, forming R-4Br with a tubular structure. Similar layer-to-tube conversion did not occur in organic solvents. The results demonstrate that weak interlayer interactions are a prerequisite but not sufficient for the rolling-up of the layers. In the present cases, water also provides a driving force in the layer-to-tube transformation. The experimental results were rationalized by theoretical calculations.

15.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 444, 2021 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-grade glioma has a poor prognosis, and GSCs can have pivotal roles in glioma pathology. This study investigated GSC exosome-containing circRNA mechanisms affecting the malignant progression of glioma. METHODS: In this study, we identified differentially expressed circRNAs and constructed a circRNA-miRNA-mRNA regulatory network through circRNA sequencing/bioinformatics analysis. Then, we identified circRNAs that were upregulated in GSC23 cells and employed them as downstream targets in subsequent investigations. Such investigations included downstream target knockout to assess any influence on A172 cell proliferation, invasion, migration and apoptosis. In addition, in vivo investigations using tumor-bearing animals evaluated the in vivo influences of the selected targets. RESULTS: This study identified circ-Serpine2/miR-124-3p/KIF20A as a regulatory pathway in glioma. Our in vitro analysis confirmed that circ-Serpine2 could upregulate KIF20A by sponging miR-124-3p, consequently promoting A172 cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Such a signaling channel could also inhibit glioma cell apoptosis. Additionally, our research indicated that circ-Serpine2 inhibited glioma apoptosis and promoted in vivo tumor progression. CONCLUSION: Circ-Serpine2 exacerbated the malignant progression of glioma mediated by the miR-124-3p/KIF20A nexus, thus providing novel predictive/prognostic biomarkers and drug targets against glioma.


Assuntos
Glioma , MicroRNAs , Animais , Proliferação de Células/genética , Biologia Computacional , Glioma/genética , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Serpina E2 , Células-Tronco
16.
Chem Sci ; 12(38): 12619-12630, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34703547

RESUMO

Chiral transcription from the molecular level to the macroscopic level by self-organization has been a topic of considerable interest for mimicking biological systems. Homochiral coordination polymers (CPs) are intriguing systems that can be applied in the construction of artificial helical architectures, but they have scarcely been explored to date. Herein, we propose a new strategy for the generation of superhelices of 1D CPs by introducing flexible cyclohexyl groups on the side chains to simultaneously induce interchain van der Waals interactions and chain misalignment due to conformer interconversion. Superhelices of S- or R-Tb(cyampH)3·3H2O (S-1H, R-1H) [cyampH2 = S- or R-(1-cyclohexylethyl)aminomethylphosphonic acid] were obtained successfully, the formation of which was found to follow a new type of "chain-twist-growth" mechanism that had not been described previously. The design strategy used in this work may open a new and general route to the hierarchical assembly and synthesis of helical CP materials.

17.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since several lines of evidence suggest that estrogens may be involved in lung carcinogenesis, it has been hypothesized that intake of phytoestrogens, similar in molecular structure to mammalian estrogens, may be associated with lung cancer development. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively evaluate the association between phytoestrogen exposure and lung cancer risk in never-smoking females. DESIGN: We conducted a nested case-control study within a population-based prospective cohort study of adult females. A total of 478 incident lung cancer cases and their individually matched controls were identified among never-smoking females after a mean follow-up of 15.6 years. Habitual intake of and internal exposure to phytoestrogens were assessed by repeated dietary surveys and urinary biomarkers, respectively. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lung cancer were estimated in conditional logistic regression models. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders, a moderate intake of dietary isoflavones was inversely associated with lung cancer risk in never-smoking females, with OR for the second quartile vs lowest quartile of intake being 0.52 (95% CI: 0.35, 0.76). Further increasing intake did not convey additional benefits, with ORs (95% CI) for the third and fourth quartiles being 0.53 (0.36, 0.78) and 0.47 (0.31, 0.72), respectively (P-overall < 0.001 and P-nonlinearity = 0.006). A similar association shape was seen when exposure to isoflavones was assessed by urinary biomarkers. ORs (95% CI) for the second, third and fourth quartiles vs lowest quartile of urinary isoflavone excretion were 0.57 (0.39, 0.83), 0.64 (0.44, 0.92) and 0.60 (0.41, 0.86), respectively. The inverse association plateaued beyond the second quartile, with P-overall = 0.04 and P-nonlinearity = 0.15. Urinary excretion of gut-microbiota-derived metabolites of lignans was not related to lung cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that moderately increasing intake of isoflavone-rich foods is associated with lower risk of lung cancer in never-smoking females.

18.
Nat Genet ; 53(9): 1348-1359, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493867

RESUMO

Lung cancer in never smokers (LCINS) is a common cause of cancer mortality but its genomic landscape is poorly characterized. Here high-coverage whole-genome sequencing of 232 LCINS showed 3 subtypes defined by copy number aberrations. The dominant subtype (piano), which is rare in lung cancer in smokers, features somatic UBA1 mutations, germline AR variants and stem cell-like properties, including low mutational burden, high intratumor heterogeneity, long telomeres, frequent KRAS mutations and slow growth, as suggested by the occurrence of cancer drivers' progenitor cells many years before tumor diagnosis. The other subtypes are characterized by specific amplifications and EGFR mutations (mezzo-forte) and whole-genome doubling (forte). No strong tobacco smoking signatures were detected, even in cases with exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke. Genes within the receptor tyrosine kinase-Ras pathway had distinct impacts on survival; five genomic alterations independently doubled mortality. These findings create avenues for personalized treatment in LCINS.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Genoma/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/genética , Enzimas Ativadoras de Ubiquitina/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto Jovem
19.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546537

RESUMO

Computational medicine is an emerging discipline that uses computer models and complex software to simulate the development and treatment of diseases. Advances in computer hardware and software technology, especially the development of algorithms and graphics processing units (GPUs), have led to the broader application of computers in the medical field. Computer vision based on mathematical biological modelling will revolutionize clinical research and diagnosis, and promote the innovative development of Chinese medicine, some biological models have begun to play a practical role in various types of research. This paper introduces the concepts and characteristics of computational medicine and then reviews the developmental history of the field, including Digital Human in Chinese medicine. Additionally, this study introduces research progress in computational medicine around the world, lists some specific clinical applications of computational medicine, discusses the key problems and limitations of the research and the development and application of computational medicine, and ultimately looks forward to the developmental prospects, especially in the field of computational Chinese medicine.

20.
Environ Int ; 158: 106871, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560324

RESUMO

Epigenetic aging biomarkers are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We evaluated if occupational exposure to three established chemical carcinogens is associated with acceleration of epigenetic aging. We studied workers in China occupationally exposed to benzene, trichloroethylene (TCE) or formaldehyde by measuring personal air exposures prior to blood collection. Unexposed controls matched by age and sex were selected from nearby factories. We measured leukocyte DNA methylation (DNAm) in peripheral white blood cells using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip to calculate five epigenetic aging clocks and DNAmTL, a biomarker associated with leukocyte telomere length and cell replication. We tested associations between exposure intensity and epigenetic age acceleration (EAA), defined as the residuals of regressing the DNAm aging biomarker on chronological age, matching factors and potential confounders. Median differences in EAA between exposure groups were tested using a permutation test with exact p-values. Epigenetic clocks were strongly correlated with age (Spearman r > 0.8) in all three occupational studies. There was a positive exposure-response relationship between benzene and the Skin-Blood Clock EAA biomarker: median EAA was -0.91 years in controls (n = 44), 0.78 years in workers exposed to <10 ppm (n = 41; mean benzene = 1.35 ppm; p = 0.034 vs. controls), and 2.10 years in workers exposed to ≥10 ppm (n = 9; mean benzene = 27.3 ppm; p = 0.019 vs. controls; ptrend = 0.0021). In the TCE study, control workers had a median Skin-Blood Clock EAA of -0.54 years (n = 71) compared to 1.63 years among workers exposed to <10 ppm of TCE (n = 27; mean TCE = 4.22 ppm; p = 0.035). We observed no evidence of EAA associations with formaldehyde exposure (39 controls, 31 exposed). Occupational benzene and TCE exposure were associated with increased epigenetic age acceleration measured by the Skin-Blood Clock. For TCE, there was some evidence of epigenetic age acceleration for lower exposures compared to controls. Our results suggest that some chemical carcinogens may accelerate epigenetic aging.

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