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1.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310889

RESUMO

PURPOSE: TERT gene rearrangement with transcriptional superenhancers leads to TERT overexpression and neuroblastoma. No targeted therapy is available for clinical trials in patients with TERT-rearranged neuroblastoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Anticancer agents exerting the best synergistic anticancer effects with BET bromodomain inhibitors were identified by screening an FDA-approved oncology drug library. The synergistic effects of the BET bromodomain inhibitor OTX015 and the proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib were examined by immunoblot and flow cytometry analysis. The anticancer efficacy of OTX015 and carfilzomib combination therapy was investigated in mice xenografted with TERT-rearranged neuroblastoma cell lines or patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumor cells, and the role of TERT reduction in the anticancer efficacy was examined through rescue experiments in mice. RESULTS: The BET bromodomain protein BRD4 promoted TERT-rearranged neuroblastoma cell proliferation through upregulating TERT expression. Screening of an approved oncology drug library identified the proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib as the agent exerting the best synergistic anticancer effects with BET bromodomain inhibitors including OTX015. OTX015 and carfilzomib synergistically reduced TERT protein expression, induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, and induced TERT-rearranged neuroblastoma cell apoptosis which was blocked by TERT overexpression and endoplasmic reticulum stress antagonists. In mice xenografted with TERT-rearranged neuroblastoma cell lines or PDX tumor cells, OTX015 and carfilzomib synergistically blocked TERT expression, induced tumor cell apoptosis, suppressed tumor progression, and improved mouse survival, which was largely reversed by forced TERT overexpression. CONCLUSIONS: OTX015 and carfilzomib combination therapy is likely to be translated into the first clinical trial of a targeted therapy in patients with TERT-rearranged neuroblastoma.

2.
Cancer Res ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272927

RESUMO

Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene variation is associated with risk of cancers, particularly those with infectious etiology or hematopoietic origin given its role in immune presentation. Previous studies focused primarily on HLA allele/haplotype-specific associations. To answer whether associations are driven by HLA class I (essential for T-cell cytotoxicity) or class II (important for T-cell helper responses) genes, we analyzed GWAS from 24 case-control studies and consortia comprising 27 cancers (totaling >71,000 individuals). Associations for most cancers with infectious etiology or of hematopoietic origin were driven by multiple HLA regions, suggesting that both cytotoxic and helper T-cell responses are important. Notable exceptions were observed for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, an EBV-associated cancer, and CLL/SLL forms of non-Hodgkin lymphomas; these cancers were associated with HLA class I region only and HLA class II region only, implying the importance of cytotoxic T-cell responses for the former and CD4+ T-cell helper responses for the latter. Our findings suggest that increased understanding of the pattern of HLA associations for individual cancers could lead to better insights into specific mechanisms involved in cancer pathogenesis.

3.
Thorax ; 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318237

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To prospectively investigate whether diversity in oral microbiota is associated with risk of lung cancer among never-smokers. DESIGN AND SETTING: A nested case-control study within two prospective cohort studies, the Shanghai Women's Health Study (n=74 941) and the Shanghai Men's Health Study (n=61 480). PARTICIPANTS: Lifetime never-smokers who had no cancer at baseline. Cases were subjects who were diagnosed with incident lung cancer (n=114) and were matched 1:1 with controls on sex, age (≤2 years), date (≤30 days) and time (morning/afternoon) of sample collection, antibiotic use during the week before sample collection (yes/no) and menopausal status (for women). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Metagenomic shotgun sequencing was used to measure the community structure and abundance of the oral microbiome in pre-diagnostic oral rinse samples of each case and control. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the association of lung cancer risk with alpha diversity metrics and relative abundance of taxa. The Microbiome Regression-Based Kernel Association Test (MiRKAT) evaluated the association between risk and the microbiome beta diversity. RESULTS: Subjects with lower microbiota alpha diversity had an increased risk of lung cancer compared with those with higher microbial alpha diversity (Shannon: ptrend=0.05; Simpson: ptrend=0.04; Observed Species: ptrend=0.64). No case-control differences were apparent for beta diversity (pMiRKAT=0.30). After accounting for multiple comparisons, a greater abundance of Spirochaetia (ORlow 1.00 (reference), ORmedium 0.61 (95% CI 0.32 to 1.18), ORhigh 0.42 (95% CI 0.21 to 0.85)) and Bacteroidetes (ORlow 1.00 (reference), ORmedium 0.66 (95% CI 0.35 to 1.25), ORhigh 0.31 (95% CI 0.15 to 0.64)) was associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer, while a greater abundance of the Bacilli class (ORlow 1.00 (reference), ORmedium 1.49 (95% CI 0.73 to 3.08), ORhigh 2.40 (95% CI 1.18 to 4.87)) and Lactobacillales order (ORlow 1.00 (reference), ORmedium 2.15 (95% CI 1.03 to 4.47), ORhigh 3.26 (95% CI 1.58 to 6.70)) was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Our prospective study of never-smokers suggests that lower alpha diversity was associated with a greater risk of lung cancer and the abundance of certain specific taxa was associated with altered risk, providing further insight into the aetiology of lung cancer in the absence of active tobacco smoking.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326609

RESUMO

Associations of coffee and tea consumption with lung cancer risk have been inconsistent, and most lung cancer cases investigated were smokers. Included in this study were over 1.1 million participants from 17 prospective cohorts. Cox regression analyses were conducted to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Potential effect modifications by sex, smoking, race, cancer subtype and coffee type were assessed. After a median 8.6 years of follow-up, 20 280 incident lung cancer cases were identified. Compared with noncoffee and nontea consumption, HRs (95% CIs) associated with exclusive coffee drinkers (≥2 cups/d) among current, former and never smokers were 1.30 (1.15-1.47), 1.49 (1.27-1.74) and 1.35 (1.15-1.58), respectively. Corresponding HRs for exclusive tea drinkers (≥2 cups/d) were 1.16 (1.02-1.32), 1.10 (0.92-1.32) and 1.37 (1.17-1.61). In general, the coffee and tea associations did not differ significantly by sex, race or histologic subtype. Our findings suggest that higher consumption of coffee or tea is associated with increased lung cancer risk. However, these findings should not be assumed to be causal because of the likelihood of residual confounding by smoking, including passive smoking, and change of coffee and tea consumption after study enrolment.

5.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-5, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078626

RESUMO

In this paper, a series of novel derivatives of camptothecin substituted norcantharimide was designed by mimic strategy. These compounds were synthesized in moderate yields by directly coupling CPT with N-amino acid norcantharimides. Their cytotoxicity to four human tumour cell lines (HepG2, BGC-803, SW480 and PANC-1) and normal human cell lines L-O2 and HIEC was evaluated. The synthesized CPT substituted norcantharimide analogs (3g and 3f) showed better anti-hepatocarcinoma activity than CPT. Compounds 3d, 3e, 3g, 3h and 3i also showed strong inhibition activity against BGC803.

6.
Theranostics ; 10(25): 11719-11736, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052243

RESUMO

Rationale: Photothermal therapy employs the photoabsorbers to generate heat under the near-infrared (NIR) irradiation for thermal tumor ablation. However, NIR irradiation might damage the adjacent tissue due to the leakage of the photoabsorbers and the residual materials after treatment might hinder the local healing process. A bifunctional hydrogel that holds both photothermal property and potent pro-healing ability provides a viable option to resolve this issue. Methods: In this study, we developed a bioinspired green hydrogel (BVSF) with the integration of bioproduct biliverdin into natural derived silk fibroin matrix for antiglioma photothermal therapy and wound healing. Results: The BVSF hydrogel possessed excellent and controllable photothermal activity under NIR irradiation and resulted in effective tumor ablation both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, the BVSF hydrogel exerted anti-inflammatory effects both in vitro and in vivo, and stimulated angiogenesis and wound healing in a full-thickness defect rat model. Conclusion: Overall, this proof-of-concept study was aimed to determine the feasibility and reliability of using an all-natural green formulation for photothermal therapy and post-treatment care.

7.
Brief Bioinform ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073843

RESUMO

Single-cell mRNA sequencing has been adopted as a powerful technique for understanding gene expression profiles at the single-cell level. However, challenges remain due to factors such as the inefficiency of mRNA molecular capture, technical noises and separate sequencing of cells in different batches. Normalization methods have been developed to ensure a relatively accurate analysis. This work presents a survey on 10 tools specifically designed for single-cell mRNA sequencing data preprocessing steps, among which 6 tools are used for dropout normalization and 4 tools are for batch effect correction. In this survey, we outline the main methodology for each of these tools, and we also compare these tools to evaluate their normalization performance on datasets which are simulated under the constraints of dropout inefficiency, batch effect or their combined effects. We found that Saver and Baynorm performed better than other methods in dropout normalization, in most cases. Beer and Batchelor performed better in the batch effect normalization, and the Saver-Beer tool combination and the Baynorm-Beer combination performed better in the mixed dropout-and-batch effect normalization. Over-normalization is a common issue occurred to these dropout normalization tools that is worth of future investigation. For the batch normalization tools, the capability of retaining heterogeneity between different groups of cells after normalization can be another direction for future improvement.

8.
Part Fibre Toxicol ; 17(1): 47, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among manufactured or engineered nanoparticles, carbon black (CB) has largest production worldwide and is also an occupational respiratory hazard commonly seen in rubber industry. Few studies have assessed the risk for cardiovascular disease in carbon black exposed populations. An endothelial biosensor assay was used to quantify the capacity of sera from 82 carbon black packers (CBP) and 106 non-CBPs to induce endothelial cell activation ex vivo. The mediation effect of circulatory proinflammatory factors on the association between carbon black exposure and endothelial cell activation was assessed and further validated using in vitro intervention experiments. RESULTS: The average elemental carbon level inside carbon black bagging facilities was 657.0 µg/m3, which was 164-fold higher than that seen in reference areas (4.0 µg/m3). A global index was extracted from mRNA expression of seven candidate biosensor genes using principal component analysis and used to quantify the magnitude of endothelial cell activation. This global index was found to be significantly altered in CBPs compared to non-CBPs (P < 0.0001), however this difference did not vary by smoking status (P = 0.74). Individual gene analyses identified that de novo expression of key adhesion molecules (e.g., ICAM and VCAM) and chemotactic factors (e.g., CCL2, CCL5, and CXCL8) responsible for the recruitment of leukocytes was dramatically induced in CBPs with CXCL8 showing the highest fold of induction (relative quantification = 9.1, P < 0.0001). The combination of mediation analyses and in vitro functional validation confirmed TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 as important circulatory factors mediating the effects of carbon black exposure on endothelial cell activation responses. CONCLUSIONS: Inflammatory mediators in sera from CBPs may bridge carbon black exposure and endothelial cell activation response assessed ex vivo. CBPs may have elevated risk for cardiovascular diseases when comorbidity exists. Our study may serve as a benchmark for understanding health effects of engineered carbon based nanoparticles with environmental and occupational health relevance.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975209

RESUMO

In order to obtain novel botanical fungicides, three series of novel 6-substituted n-butyphthalide derivatives have been designed and synthesized via nucleophilic addition, reduction, nitrification, amination, sulfonation, Sandmeyer and Suzuki reaction. The mycelium growth rate method was used to evaluate the inhibition activity against eight phytopathogenic fungi in vitro. Preliminary bioassay tests showed that compounds 6f, 6n, 6p, 6r and 7a exhibited better activity for some fungi at 50 µg/mL than the positive drug hymexazol and lead compound n-butyphthalide (NBP). The preliminary structure-activity relationships indicated that the antifungal activity is significantly affected by the substituents on the benzene ring.

11.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1458, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A number of studies have investigated the association between reproductive factors and lung cancer risk, however findings are inconsistent. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the association between female reproductive factors and lung cancer risk. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive systematic search to identify relevant and eligible studies published before 18th December 2019. Inter-study heterogeneity was assessed using the Q test and I2 statistic. Based on the heterogeneity of each reproductive factor, fixed or random effects models were used to calculate the summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Subgroup analyses by study design, lung cancer subtypes, smoking status, and ethnicity were also performed. RESULTS: A total of 66 studies with 20 distinct reproductive factors were included in this meta-analysis. Comparing the highest and lowest categories (reference) of each reproductive factor, parity (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.72-0.96), menstrual cycle length (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.65-0.96), and age at first birth (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.74-0.98), were significantly associated with a lower risk of overall lung cancer. On the contrary, non-natural menopause was significantly associated with higher lung cancer risk (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.25-1.86). Among never-smokers, a significant negative association was found between parity and lung cancer risk. Both parity and non-natural menopause were statistically significant in case-control studies. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that certain reproductive factors may be associated with lung cancer risk. Future studies should further validate the associations, and investigate the underlying mechanisms.

12.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(8): 87004, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genotoxicity of benzene has been investigated in dozens of biomonitoring studies, mainly by studying (classical) chromosomal aberrations (CAs) or micronuclei (MN) as markers of DNA damage. Both have been shown to be predictive of future cancer risk in cohort studies and could, therefore, potentially be used for risk assessment of genotoxicity-mediated cancers. OBJECTIVES: We sought to estimate an exposure-response curve (ERC) and quantify between-study heterogeneity using all available quantitative evidence on the cytogenetic effects of benzene exposure on CAs and MN respectively. METHODS: We carried out a systematic literature review and summarized all available data of sufficient quality using meta-analyses. We assessed the heterogeneity in slope estimates between studies and conducted additional sensitivity analyses to assess how various study characteristics impacted the estimated ERC. RESULTS: Sixteen CA (1,356 individuals) and 13 MN studies (2,097 individuals) were found to be eligible for inclusion in a meta-analysis. Studies where benzene was the primary genotoxic exposure and that had adequate assessment of both exposure and outcomes were used for the primary analysis. Estimated slope estimates were an increase of 0.27% CA [(95% CI: 0.08%, 0.47%); based on the results from 4 studies] and 0.27% MN [(95% CI: -0.23%, 0.76%); based on the results from 7 studies] per parts-per-million benzene exposure. We observed considerable between-study heterogeneity for both end points (I2>90%). DISCUSSION: Our study provides a systematic, transparent, and quantitative summary of the literature describing the strong association between benzene exposure and accepted markers of genotoxicity in humans. The derived consensus slope can be used as a best estimate of the quantitative relationship between real-life benzene exposure and genetic damage in future risk assessment. We also quantitate the large between-study heterogeneity that exists in this literature, a factor which is crucial for the interpretation of single-study or consensus slopes. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP6404.

13.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 89, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Household air pollution (HAP) is a significant source of the global burden of disease. Our objective was to evaluate the association between environmental health literacy (EHL), a domain of health literacy (HL) that describes the ability to use environmental health information to reduce health risks, and symptoms associated with HAP. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional population-based study of 353 households in Kasarani, Kenya. One individual from each household was surveyed using our novel EHL survey tool. Baseline characteristics were compared between individuals who were symptomatic (i.e., experiencing cough, shortness of breath, phlegm production, wheeze, chest tightness, headache, eye irritation, or burns from cooking at least 5 times per month) versus individuals who were asymptomatic (i.e., experiencing none or symptoms no more than once per month). Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratios (OR) of self-reported symptoms associated with HL, stratified by median EHL, adjusting for education, self-perceived health and solid fuel use. RESULTS: A total of 100 individuals (28%) reported experiencing one or more symptoms at least 5 times per month, including 31.2% of solid fuel users and 30.3% of non-solid fuel users. Among individuals with high EHL, higher HL was associated with lower risk of experiencing symptoms (OR = 0.26; 95% CI 0.10-0.67), however, there was no association among individuals with low EHL (OR = 0.85; 95% CI 0.34-2.13). Among solid fuel users, the association between HL and risk of experiencing symptoms was driven by individuals with high EHL (OR = 0.30; 95% CI 0.05-1.84), rather than those with low EHL (OR = 1.22; 95% CI 0.36-4.16). CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this was the first study to assess the association between EHL, HL, and HAP-associated symptoms. Our findings highlight the potential importance of EHL in promoting sustainable interventions to reduce symptoms associated with HAP from solid fuel use among communities in Kenya.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Saúde Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Quênia , População Urbana
14.
Mol Pharm ; 17(10): 3857-3869, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833457

RESUMO

Disulfiram (DSF) is an FDA-approved anti-alcoholic drug that has recently proven to be effective in cancer treatment. However, the short half-life in the bloodstream and the metal ion-dependent antitumor activity significantly limited the further application of DSF in the clinical field. To this end, we constructed a silk fibroin modified disulfiram/zinc oxide nanocomposites (SF/DSF@ZnO) to solubilize and stabilize DSF, and, more importantly, achieve pH triggered Zn2+ release and subsequent synergistic antitumor activity. The prepared SF/DSF@ZnO nanocomposites were spherical and had a high drug loading. Triggered by the lysosomal pH, SF/DSF@ZnO could induce the rapid release of Zn2+ under the acidic conditions and caused nanoparticulate disassembly along with DSF release. In vitro experiments showed that cytotoxicity of DSF could be enhanced by the presence of Zn2+, and further amplified when encapsulated into SF/DSF@ZnO nanocomposites. It was confirmed that the significantly amplified cytotoxicity of SF/DSF@ZnO was resulted from pH-triggered Zn2+ release, inhibited cell migration, and increased ROS production. In vivo study showed that SF/DSF@ZnO nanocomposites significantly increased the tumor accumulation and prolonged the retention time. In vivo antitumor experiments in the xenograft model showed that SF/DSF@ZnO exerted the highest tumor-inhibition rate among all the drug treatments. Therefore, this exquisite study established silk fibroin-modified disulfiram/zinc oxide nanocomposites, SF/DSF@ZnO, where ZnO not only acted as a delivery carrier but also served as a metal ion reservoir to achieve synergistic antitumor efficacy. The established DSF nanoformulation displayed excellent therapeutic potential in future cancer treatment.

15.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008766, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857822

RESUMO

Pathogens commonly disrupt the intestinal epithelial barrier; however, how the epithelial immune system senses the loss of intestinal barrier as a danger signal to activate self-defense is unclear. Through an unbiased approach in the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that the EGL-44/TEAD transcription factor and its transcriptional activator YAP-1/YAP (Yes-associated protein) were activated when the intestinal barrier was disrupted by infections with the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis of the genes containing the TEAD-binding sites revealed that "innate immune response" and "defense response to Gram-negative bacterium" were two top significantly overrepresented terms. Genetic inactivation of yap-1 and egl-44 significantly reduced the survival rate and promoted bacterial accumulation in worms after bacterial infections. Furthermore, we found that disturbance of the E-cadherin-based adherens junction triggered the nuclear translocation and activation of YAP-1/YAP in the gut of worms. Although YAP is a major downstream effector of the Hippo signaling, our study revealed that the activation of YAP-1/YAP was independent of the Hippo pathway during disruption of intestinal barrier. After screening 10 serine/threonine phosphatases, we identified that PP2A phosphatase was involved in the activation of YAP-1/YAP after intestinal barrier loss induced by bacterial infections. Additionally, our study demonstrated that the function of YAP was evolutionarily conserved in mice. Our study highlights how the intestinal epithelium recognizes the loss of the epithelial barrier as a danger signal to deploy defenses against pathogens, uncovering an immune surveillance program in the intestinal epithelium.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Salmonelose Animal/imunologia , Salmonella typhimurium/imunologia , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Camundongos , Salmonelose Animal/metabolismo , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/patologia , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Am J Emerg Med ; 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739095

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hepatic portal pneumatosis has a high mortality rate, and whether surgical intervention is necessary remains controversial. This experiment retrospectively analyzed the etiology, treatment methods and prognosis of adult patients with hepatoportal pneumocele to provide a theoretical basis for the treatment of this disease. METHODS: We analyzed the clinical symptoms and post-treatment of a 43-year-old male patient with HPVG admitted to hospital. We retrieved adult non-iatrogenic HPVG cases with complete clinical data in PUBMED,  and MEDLINE and other databases were retrieved for analysis, and summarized the pathogenesis, clinical symptoms, pathogenesis, pathogenesis and prognosis of different treatment schemes were summarized. RESULTS: The main etiology of HPVG are intestinal ischemia (27%), severe enteritis/intestinal perforation/intestinal fistula (16%), intestinal obstruction (7%), abdominal infection (7%), gastric diseases (11%), appendicitis and its complications (5%), acute hemorrhage or necrotizing pancreatitis (5%), Crohn's disease and its complications (4%), trauma (traffic accidents, falls) (2%), diverticulitis and perforation (6%), nephrogenic diseases (4%), spontaneous pneumohepatic portal vein (2%), other reasons (4%). And after analysis, we found that the survival rate of patients treated by surgery was 40.5% and the mortality rate was 19.1%, the difference between the two was significant. CONCLUSIONS: Etiology should be actively explored and surgical treatment is necessary.

17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11335, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647370

RESUMO

Outdoor air pollution is a growing public health concern, particularly in urban settings. However, there are limited epidemiological data on outdoor air pollution in rural areas with substantial levels of air pollution attributed to solid fuel burning for household cooking and heating. Xuanwei and Fuyuan are rural counties in China where the domestic combustion of locally sourced bituminous ("smoky") coal has been associated with the highest lung cancer rates in China. We previously assessed indoor and personal air pollution exposures in this area; however, the influence of indoor coal combustion and household ventilation on outdoor air pollution has not been assessed. Therefore, we measured outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5), species of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including naphthalene (NAP) and the known carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) over two consecutive 24-h sampling periods in 29 villages. Just over half of the villages were revisited two to nine months after the initial sampling period to repeat all measurements. The overall geometric mean (GM) of outdoor PM2.5, BaP, NAP, and NO2 were 45.3 µg/m3, 9.7 ng/m3, 707.7 ng/m3, and 91.5 µg/m3, respectively. Using linear mixed effects models, we found that burning smoky coal was associated with higher outdoor BaP concentrations [GM ratio (GMR) = 2.79] and lower outdoor SO2 detection rates (GMR = 0.43), compared to areas burning smokeless coal. Areas with predominantly ventilated stoves (> 50% of stoves) had higher outdoor BaP (GMR = 1.49) compared to areas with fewer ventilated stoves. These results show that outdoor air pollution in a rural region of China was associated with the type of coal used for cooking and heating indoors and the presence of stove ventilation. Our findings suggest that efforts of household stove improvement to reduce indoor air pollution have resulted in higher outdoor air pollution levels. Further reducing adverse health effects in rural villages from household coal combustion will require the use of cleaner fuel types.

18.
Chem Biodivers ; 17(10): e2000435, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687253

RESUMO

In order to discover novel potential antifungal agents, a series of 6-substituted 3-butylphthalide derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their antifungal activities against nine phytopathogenic fungi. Preliminary bioassay tests showed that five 3-butylphthalide derivatives exhibited more potent antifungal activities than hymexazol at the concentration of 50 µg/mL. Especially, 3-butyl-6-nitro-2-benzofuran-1(3H)-one and 3-butyl-6-hydroxy-5-nitro-2-benzofuran-1(3H)-one had significant fungicidal activity against some phytopathogenic fungi. The EC50 of 3-butyl-6-nitro-2-benzofuran-1(3H)-one against FS, FO and FG were 6.6, 9.6 and 16.0 µg/mL, respectively. The EC50 of 3-butyl-6-hydroxy-5-nitro-2-benzofuran-1(3H)-one against BC, PO, VM, SS and AS were 6.3, 5.9, 10.0, 4.5 and 8.4 µg/mL, respectively. The preliminary structure-activity relationships (SARs) of all target compounds were also investigated.

19.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236378, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, the missed diagnosis rate of pulmonary hypertension (PH) was high, and there has been limited development of a rapid, simple, and effective way to screen the disease. The purpose of this study is to develop a deep learning approach to achieve rapid detection of possible abnormalities in chest radiographs suggesting PH for screening patients suspected of PH. METHODS: We retrospectively collected frontal chest radiographs and the pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) value measured by Doppler transthoracic echocardiography from 762 patients (357 healthy controls and 405 with PH) from three institutes in China from January 2013 to May 2019. The wohle sample comprised 762 images (641 for training, 80 for internal test, and 41 for external test). We firstly performed a 8-fold cross-validation on the 641 images selected for training (561 for pre-training, 80 for validation), then decided to tune learning rate to 0.0008 according to the best score on validation data. Finally, we used all the pre-training and validation data (561+80 = 641) to train our models (Resnet50, Xception, and Inception V3), evaluated them on internal and external test dataset to classify the images as having manifestations of PH or healthy according to the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC/ROC). After that, the three deep learning models were further used for prediction of PASP using regression algorithm. Moreover, we invited an experienced chest radiologist to classify the images in the test dataset as having PH or not, and compared the prediction accuracy performed by deep learing models with that of manual classification. RESULTS: The AUC performed by the best model (Inception V3) achieved 0.970 in the internal test, and slightly declined in the external test (0.967) when using deep learning algorithms to classify PH from normal based on chest X-rays. The mean absolute error (MAE) of the best model for prediction of PASP value was smaller in the internal test (7.45) compared to 9.95 in the external test. Manual classification of PH based on chest X-rays showed much lower AUCs compared to that performed by deep learning models both in the internal and external test. CONCLUSIONS: The present study used deep learning algorithms to classify abnormalities suggesting PH in chest radiographs with high accuracy and good generalizability. Once tested prospectively in clinical settings, the technology could provide a non-invasive and easy-to-use method to screen patients suspected of having PH.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia Pulmonar de Massa/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tórax/patologia
20.
Am J Ind Med ; 63(9): 741-754, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While international agreement supports a causal relationship of benzene exposure with acute myeloid leukemia, there is debate about benzene and lymphoid neoplasm risks. METHODS: In a case-cohort study with follow-up of 110 631 Chinese workers during 1972-1999, we evaluated benzene exposure-response for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), lymphoid leukemias (LL), acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and total lymphoid neoplasms (LN). We estimated benzene exposures using state-of-the-art hierarchical modeling of occupational factors calibrated with historical routine measurements and evaluated cumulative exposure-response using Cox regression. RESULTS: NHL and other specified LN were increased in exposed vs unexposed workers. However, there was no evidence of exposure-response for NHL or other specified LN. Based on a linear exposure-response, relative risks at 100 parts per million-years (RR at 100 ppm-years) for cumulative benzene exposure using a 2-year lag (exposure at least 2 years before the time at risk) were 1.05 for NHL (95 percent confidence interval (CI) = 0.97, 1.27; 32 cases), 1.11 for LL (95% CI < 0, 1.66; 12 cases), 1.21 for ALL (95% CI < 0, 3.53; 10 cases), and 1.02 for total LN (95% CI < 0, 1.16; 49 cases). No statistically significant exposure-response trends were apparent for these LN for 2 to <10-year or ≥10-year lags. NHL risks were not significantly modified by sex, age, or year at first exposure, attained age, or time since exposure. CONCLUSION: Given the study strengths and limitations, we found little evidence of exposure-response for benzene and NHL, LL, ALL, or total LN, although NHL and other specified LN were increased in exposed vs unexposed individuals.

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