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1.
Sleep Med ; 76: 48-54, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091726

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate sleep duration in a representative sample of preschoolers and examine the relationships between screen time and use of different electronic media devices with sleep duration and social jetlag. METHODS: 2903 preschoolers were included. Parent-completed questionnaire provided information on socioeconomic status, electronic media use of the children and sleep patterns of both parents and children. Preschoolers were divided according to whether they met the international screen time recommendations for their age. Comparisons between the two groups in various sleep measures and effects of different devices on sleep were evaluated. RESULTS: 40% of preschoolers in our cohort did not achieve the recommended sleep duration. Subjects who adhered to the screen time recommendations were from families of higher socioeconomic status, had longer sleep duration and better sleep habits. Each hour increase on portable electronic device use was associated with 11 (95%CI: -15 to -6) and 6 (95%CI: -10 to -2) minutes less of average daily sleep duration in boys and girls, respectively. Every additional hour of non-portable electronic devices use was associated with 3 min shift in social jetlag in boys. Presence of electronic devices in bedroom and their use at bedtime increased risk of social jetlag in boys with an OR of 1.40 (95%CI: 1.01 to 1.92) and 1.39 (95%CI: 1.00 to 1.95) respectively. CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of preschoolers does not obtain the recommended amount of sleep. Screen time in preschoolers affects not only sleep duration but also leads to circadian discrepancy.

2.
Eur J Nutr ; 2020 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979077

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) plays an essential role in brain, and its status is dependent on dietary intakes. School-aged children in rural China, who consume diets low in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, may benefit from DHA supplementation. Therefore, this trial was performed to examine the effect of 6-month DHA supplementation on executive functions (EFs) among healthy school-aged children in rural China. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 106 primary school children aged 7-12 years in rural China. Participants were randomized to receive either 300 mg/d DHA or placebo for 6 months. EFs including working memory and cognitive flexibility were evaluated at baseline, at 3 months and at 6 months, using Digit Span Backwards and Wisconsin card sorting test, respectively. Socio-demographic data were collected at baseline, and erythrocyte membrane fatty acids and serum neurotransmitters were measured at baseline and after 6-month intervention. RESULTS: Ninety-four children (88.7%) completed the study according to the protocol. Changes in erythrocyte membrane fatty acids indicated good compliance of the participants. There was no significant intervention effect on serum neurotransmitters. In two-factor ANCOVA, both groups showed a significant improvement in the Digit Span Backwards and the Wisconsin card sorting test from baseline to endpoint. However, no significant intervention effect was found on any EF scores. Linear regression analysis suggested no significant association between changes in erythrocyte DHA level with changes in any EF scores. CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation with 300 mg/d DHA for 6 months had no benefit on EFs including working memory and cognitive flexibility among healthy school-aged children. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02308930 on December 5, 2014.

3.
Nutrients ; 10(8)2018 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30126134

RESUMO

Adherence to healthy dietary guidelines has been related to a lower risk of several cancers, but its role in primary liver cancer (PLC) has not been fully investigated, especially among Eastern populations. This study enrolled 720 PLC patients and 720 healthy controls who were frequency-matched by age and sex between September 2013 and October 2017 in South China. Dietary quality was assessed by the Chinese Healthy Eating Index (CHEI) and the Healthy Eating Index 2015 (HEI-2015), which manifests as scores of adhering to the 2016 Dietary Guidelines for Chinese and adhering to the 2015⁻2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, respectively. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression models, adjusting for potential confounders. Higher scores in both the CHEI and HEI-2015 were associated with a lower risk of PLC (per 5-points increment of the total scores: OR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.38⁻0.50 for CHEI; OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.40⁻0.55 for HEI-2015). The protective associations persisted significantly in the stratified analyses by sex, smoker status, alcohol consumption, HBV infection, and histological types of PLC, without statistical evidence for heterogeneity (p-interaction > 0.05). Closer adherence to the most recent dietary guidelines for Chinese or Americans may protect against PLC.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Política Nutricional , Cooperação do Paciente , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/prevenção & controle , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
4.
Oncotarget ; 9(45): 27872-27881, 2018 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29963244

RESUMO

Introduction: Healthy dietary patterns may prevent many chronic diseases, and is emphasized by 2015 US dietary guideline, but it remains unclear which dietary patterns may be benefit to prevention of primary liver cancer (PLC). Materials and Methods: We recruited 782 PLC cases and 1:1 age- and sex-matched controls in Guangzhou, China. Habitual dietary intake was assessed by face-to-face interview using a 79-item food frequency questionnaire, and used to explore dietary patterns by factor analysis. Results: Three dietary patterns were identified: 1) an urban prudent dietary pattern (UPDP) characterized by high in dairy products, eggs, mushrooms, nuts and soy foods, but low in refined grains; 2) a traditional Cantonese dietary pattern (TCDP) consisting of a high intake of fruit and vegetables, fish, Cantonese soup, and Chinese herb tea; and 3) a high meat and preserved food pattern (MPFP). Multivariable analyses showed favorable associations for the first two dietary patterns, but unfavorable association for the last one (all p-trend < 0.01). Odds ratios (95% CI) of PLC for the highest (vs. lowest) quartile of pattern scores of the three patterns were 0.25 (0.18-0.35), 0.61 (0.46-0.82), and 1.98 (1.46-2.69), respectively. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the UPDP and TCDP were associated with lower, whereas the MPFP with higher, risk of PLC.

5.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 679, 2017 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28386093

RESUMO

The dietary intake of methyl donors is favorably associated with many diseases, but the findings regarding primary liver cancer (PLC) risk are limited. This study investigated the association between the intake of choline, betaine and methionine and PLC risk in adults. This 1:1 matched case-control study enrolled 644 hospital-based PLC patients and 644 community-based controls who were matched by sex and age, in Guangzhou, China. An interviewer-administered questionnaire and a food-frequency questionnaire were used to collect general information and dietary intake information. Conditional logistic regression showed a significantly inverse association between total choline and betaine intakes and PLC risk. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for PLC for the top (vs. bottom) tertile were 0.34 (0.24-0.49; P -trend < 0.001) for total choline and 0.67 (0.48-0.93; P -trend = 0.011) for betaine. No significant association was observed between the intake of methionine and PLC risk (P > 0.05). For individual choline compounds, higher consumptions of free choline, glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine, phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin were associated with a lower PLC risk (all P-trend < 0.05). The studied associations were not significantly modified by the folate intake (P-interactions: 0.488-0.890). Our findings suggest that higher choline and betaine intakes may be associated with a lower risk of PLC.


Assuntos
Betaína , Colina , Dieta , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betaína/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Colina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metionina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Vigilância da População , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
6.
Nutrients ; 8(10)2016 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27727160

RESUMO

Dietary intake of vitamin A (VA) and carotenes has shown beneficial effects for decreasing the risk of some types of cancer, but findings on the risk of primary liver cancer (PLC) are inconsistent. This case-control study explored the associations between the dietary intake of VA and carotenes and the risk of PLC. We recruited 644 incident PLC patients (diagnosed within one month of each other) and 644 age- and gender-matched controls in Guangzhou, China. A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess habitual dietary intake. Logistic regression analyses found that higher intakes of VA and carotenes were independently associated with decreased PLC risk (all P-trend < 0.001). The multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CI) of PLC for the highest (vs. lowest) quartile were 0.34 (0.24-0.48) for vitamin A and 0.35 (0.25-0.49) for carotenes. The associations were not significantly modified by smoking, alcohol, or tea drinking (P-interactions: 0.062-0.912). Dose-response analysis showed a U-shaped VA-PLC relationship, with sharply decreased risks at the intakes of about 1000 µg retinol equivalent (RE)/day, and then slowly went down toward the flat-bottomed risks with the lowest risk at 2300 µg RE/day. Our findings suggest that greater intake of retinol, carotenes, and total VA may decrease PLC risk among the Chinese population at an intake of 1000 µg RE/day or greater from food sources.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/administração & dosagem , Dieta , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Registros de Dieta , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/prevenção & controle , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Br J Nutr ; 115(12): 2181-8, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27079329

RESUMO

Previous studies have demonstrated that betaine supplements increase lean body mass in livestock and improve muscle performance in human beings, but evidence for its effect on human lean mass is limited. Our study assessed the association of circulating betaine with lean mass and its composition in Chinese adults. A community-based study was conducted on 1996 Guangzhou residents (weight/mass: 1381/615) aged 50-75 years between 2008 and 2010. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect general baseline information. Fasting serum betaine was assessed using HPLC-MS. A total of 1590 participants completed the body composition analysis performed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry during a mean of 3·2 years of follow-up. After adjustment for age, regression analyses demonstrated a positive association of serum betaine with percentage of lean mass (LM%) of the entire body, trunk and limbs in men (all P<0·05) and LM% of the trunk in women (P=0·016). Each sd increase in serum betaine was associated with increases in LM% of 0·609 (whole body), 0·811 (trunk), 0·422 (limbs), 0·632 (arms) and 0·346 (legs) in men and 0·350 (trunk) in women. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the prevalence of lower LM% decreased by 17 % (whole body) and 14 % (trunk) in women and 23 % (whole body), 28 % (trunk), 22 % (arms) and 26 % (percentage skeletal muscle index) in men with each sd increment in serum betaine. Elevated circulating betaine was associated with a higher LM% and lower prevalence of lower LM% in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults, particularly men.


Assuntos
Betaína/sangue , Composição Corporal , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Sarcopenia/sangue , Absorciometria de Fóton , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Betaína/farmacologia , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais
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