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1.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(11)2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148540

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine the relationship between access to medicine for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) among people at high risk of CVD in high-income countries (HICs), upper and lower middle-income countries (UMICs, LMICs) and low-income countries (LICs) participating in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. METHODS: We defined high CVD risk as the presence of any of the following: hypertension, coronary artery disease, stroke, smoker, diabetes or age >55 years. Availability and affordability of blood pressure lowering drugs, antiplatelets and statins were obtained from pharmacies. Participants were categorised: group 1-all three drug types were available and affordable, group 2-all three drugs were available but not affordable and group 3-all three drugs were not available. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazard models with nested clustering at country and community levels, adjusting for comorbidities, sociodemographic and economic factors. RESULTS: Of 163 466 participants, there were 93 200 with high CVD risk from 21 countries (mean age 54.7, 49% female). Of these, 44.9% were from group 1, 29.4% from group 2 and 25.7% from group 3. Compared with participants from group 1, the risk of MACEs was higher among participants in group 2 (HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.31), and among participants from group 3 (HR 1.25, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.50). CONCLUSION: Lower availability and affordability of essential CVD medicines were associated with higher risk of MACEs and mortality. Improving access to CVD medicines should be a key part of the strategy to lower CVD globally.

2.
Am J Hypertens ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although low sodium intake (<2g/day) and high potassium intake (>3·5g/day) are proposed as public health interventions to reduce stroke risk, there is uncertainty about the benefit and feasibility of this combined recommendation on prevention of stroke and its subtypes. METHODS: We obtained random urine samples from 9,275 cases of acute first stroke and 9,726 matched controls (8,761 matched pairs for conditional analysis) from 27 countries and estimated the 24-hour sodium and potassium excretion, a surrogate for intake, using the Tanaka formula. Using multivariable conditional logistic regression, we determined the associations of estimated 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion with stroke and its subtypes. RESULTS: The mean estimated 24-hour sodium and potassium urinary excretion was 3·29g/day and 1·57g/day, with 0·01% of participants having both low sodium (<2·0g/day) and high potassium excretion (>3·5g/day). There was a moderate positive correlation between sodium and potassium excretion (r=0·4435, P<0.001) and between sodium excretion and blood pressure (P<0.001). Compared with an estimated urinary sodium excretion of 2·8-3·5g/day (second quartile, reference), higher (>4·26g/day) (OR 1.81;95%CI,1.65-2.00) and lower (<2·8g/day) sodium excretion (OR 1.39;95%CI,1.26-1.53) were significantly associated with increased risk of stroke. The stroke risk associated with the highest quartile of sodium intake (sodium excretion >4·26g/day) was significantly greater (P<0.001) for intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) (OR 2.38;95%CI,1.93-2.92) than for ischemic stroke (OR 1.67;95%CI,1.50-1.87), and greater for large vessel and small vessel ischemic stroke than for cardioembolic ischemic stroke. Urinary potassium was inversely and linearly associated with risk of stroke, and stronger for ischemic stroke than ICH (P=0.026). In an analysis of combined sodium and potassium excretion, the combination of high potassium intake (>1·58g/day) and moderate sodium intake (2.8-3.5 g/day) was associated with the lowest risk of stroke. CONCLUSION: The association of sodium intake and stroke is J-shaped, with high sodium intake a stronger risk factor for intracerebral haemorrhage than ischemic stroke. Our data suggest that moderate sodium intake - rather than low sodium intake - combined with high potassium intake may be associated with the lowest risk of stroke and expected to be a more feasible combined dietary target.

3.
Eur Heart J ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197271

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE : Recent European Guidelines for Diabetes, Prediabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases introduced a shift in managing patients with type 2 diabetes at high risk for or established cardiovascular (CV) disease by recommending GLP-1 receptor agonists and SGLT-2 inhibitors as initial glucose-lowering therapy. This is questioned since outcome trials of these drug classes had metformin as background therapy. In this post hoc analysis, the effect of dulaglutide on CV events was investigated according to the baseline metformin therapy by means of a subgroup analysis of the Researching Cardiovascular Events with a Weekly Incretin in Diabetes (REWIND) trial. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS : Patients in REWIND (n = 9901; women: 46.3%; mean age: 66.2 years) had type 2 diabetes and either a previous CV event (31%) or high CV risk (69%). They were randomized (1:1) to sc. dulaglutide (1.5 mg/weekly) or placebo in addition to standard of care. The primary outcome was the first of a composite of nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, and death from cardiovascular or unknown causes. Key secondary outcomes included a microvascular composite endpoint, all-cause death, and heart failure. The effect of dulaglutide in patients with and without baseline metformin was evaluated by a Cox regression hazard model with baseline metformin, dulaglutide assignment, and their interaction as independent variables. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by a Cox regression model with adjustments for factors differing at baseline between people with vs. without metformin, identified using the backward selection. RESULTS : Compared to patients with metformin at baseline (n = 8037; 81%), those without metformin (n = 1864; 19%) were older and slightly less obese and had higher proportions of women, prior CV events, heart failure, and renal disease. The primary outcome occurred in 976 (12%) participants with baseline metformin and in 281 (15%) without. There was no significant difference in the effect of dulaglutide on the primary outcome in patients with vs. without metformin at baseline [HR 0.92 (CI 0.81-1.05) vs. 0.78 (CI 0.61-0.99); interaction P = 0.18]. Findings for key secondary outcomes were similar in patients with and without baseline metformin. CONCLUSION : This analysis suggests that the cardioprotective effect of dulaglutide is unaffected by the baseline use of metformin therapy.

4.
Lancet Planet Health ; 4(10): e451-e462, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 2·8 billion people are exposed to household air pollution from cooking with polluting fuels. Few monitoring studies have systematically measured health-damaging air pollutant (ie, fine particulate matter [PM2·5] and black carbon) concentrations from a wide range of cooking fuels across diverse populations. This multinational study aimed to assess the magnitude of kitchen concentrations and personal exposures to PM2·5 and black carbon in rural communities with a wide range of cooking environments. METHODS: As part of the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) cohort, the PURE-AIR study was done in 120 rural communities in eight countries (Bangladesh, Chile, China, Colombia, India, Pakistan, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe). Data were collected from 2541 households and from 998 individuals (442 men and 556 women). Gravimetric (or filter-based) 48 h kitchen and personal PM2·5 measurements were collected. Light absorbance (10-5m-1) of the PM2·5 filters, a proxy for black carbon concentrations, was calculated via an image-based reflectance method. Surveys of household characteristics and cooking patterns were collected before and after the 48 h monitoring period. FINDINGS: Monitoring of household air pollution for the PURE-AIR study was done from June, 2017, to September, 2019. A mean PM2·5 kitchen concentration gradient emerged across primary cooking fuels: gas (45 µg/m3 [95% CI 43-48]), electricity (53 µg/m3 [47-60]), coal (68 µg/m3 [61-77]), charcoal (92 µg/m3 [58-146]), agricultural or crop waste (106 µg/m3 [91-125]), wood (109 µg/m3 [102-118]), animal dung (224 µg/m3 [197-254]), and shrubs or grass (276 µg/m3 [223-342]). Among households cooking primarily with wood, average PM2·5 concentrations varied ten-fold (range: 40-380 µg/m3). Fuel stacking was prevalent (981 [39%] of 2541 households); using wood as a primary cooking fuel with clean secondary cooking fuels (eg, gas) was associated with 50% lower PM2·5 and black carbon concentrations than using only wood as a primary cooking fuel. Similar average PM2·5 personal exposures between women (67 µg/m3 [95% CI 62-72]) and men (62 [58-67]) were observed. Nearly equivalent average personal exposure to kitchen exposure ratios were observed for PM2·5 (0·79 [95% 0·71-0·88] for men and 0·82 [0·74-0·91] for women) and black carbon (0·64 [0·45-0·92] for men and 0·68 [0·46-1·02] for women). INTERPRETATION: Using clean primary fuels substantially lowers kitchen PM2·5 concentrations. Importantly, average kitchen and personal PM2·5 measurements for all primary fuel types exceeded WHO's Interim Target-1 (35 µg/m3 annual average), highlighting the need for comprehensive pollution mitigation strategies. FUNDING: Canadian Institutes for Health Research, National Institutes of Health.

5.
Diabetes Care ; 43(12): 3094-3101, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060076

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare cardiovascular (CV) events, all-cause mortality, and CV mortality rates among adults with and without diabetes in countries with differing levels of income. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study enrolled 143,567 adults aged 35-70 years from 4 high-income countries (HIC), 12 middle-income countries (MIC), and 5 low-income countries (LIC). The mean follow-up was 9.0 ± 3.0 years. RESULTS: Among those with diabetes, CVD rates (LIC 10.3, MIC 9.2, HIC 8.3 per 1,000 person-years, P < 0.001), all-cause mortality (LIC 13.8, MIC 7.2, HIC 4.2 per 1,000 person-years, P < 0.001), and CV mortality (LIC 5.7, MIC 2.2, HIC 1.0 per 1,000 person-years, P < 0.001) were considerably higher in LIC compared with MIC and HIC. Within LIC, mortality was higher in those in the lowest tertile of wealth index (low 14.7%, middle 10.8%, and high 6.5%). In contrast to HIC and MIC, the increased CV mortality in those with diabetes in LIC remained unchanged even after adjustment for behavioral risk factors and treatments (hazard ratio [95% CI] 1.89 [1.58-2.27] to 1.78 [1.36-2.34]). CONCLUSIONS: CVD rates, all-cause mortality, and CV mortality were markedly higher among those with diabetes in LIC compared with MIC and HIC with mortality risk remaining unchanged even after adjustment for risk factors and treatments. There is an urgent need to improve access to care to those with diabetes in LIC to reduce the excess mortality rates, particularly among those in the poorer strata of society.

6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 2509039, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33015157

RESUMO

In-stent restenosis (ISR) is one of the main complications in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary angioplasty, and microRNAs participate in the contractile-to-synthetic phenotypic switch of vascular smooth muscle cells, a hallmark of restenosis development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can be released into circulation from injured tissues, enticing a potential role as noninvasive biomarkers. We aimed to evaluate circulating levels of miRNA-23b, miRNA-143, and miRNA-145 as diagnostic markers of ISR. 142 patients with coronary artery disease undergoing successful angioplasty and a follow-up angiography were included. Subjects were classified according to the degree of obstruction at the angioplasty site into cases (≥50%) or controls (<50%). Total RNA was isolated from plasma to quantify circulating miRNAs levels, and the ROC curves were constructed. Among circulating miRNAs assessed, miRNA-23b and miRNA-143 were significantly lower in cases (miRNA-23b: 18.4x10-5 and miRNA-143: 13.7x10-5) than controls (miRNA-23b: 5.2x10-5, p < 0.0001; miRNA-143: 4.0x10-5, p < 0.0001). Plasma levels of miRNA-145 showed no significant differences. The analysis of the ROC curves showed an area under the curve for miRNA-23b of 0.71 (95% CI: 0.62-0.80, p < 0.0001) and 0.69 for miRNA-143 (95% CI: 0.60-0.78; p < 0.0001). Our data suggest that plasma levels of miRNA-23b and miRNA-143 could be useful as noninvasive biomarkers of ISR.

7.
Diabetes Care ; 43(11): 2643-2650, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873587

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous prospective studies on the association of white rice intake with incident diabetes have shown contradictory results but were conducted in single countries and predominantly in Asia. We report on the association of white rice with risk of diabetes in the multinational Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data on 132,373 individuals aged 35-70 years from 21 countries were analyzed. White rice consumption (cooked) was categorized as <150, ≥150 to <300, ≥300 to <450, and ≥450 g/day, based on one cup of cooked rice = 150 g. The primary outcome was incident diabetes. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using a multivariable Cox frailty model. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up period of 9.5 years, 6,129 individuals without baseline diabetes developed incident diabetes. In the overall cohort, higher intake of white rice (≥450 g/day compared with <150 g/day) was associated with increased risk of diabetes (HR 1.20; 95% CI 1.02-1.40; P for trend = 0.003). However, the highest risk was seen in South Asia (HR 1.61; 95% CI 1.13-2.30; P for trend = 0.02), followed by other regions of the world (which included South East Asia, Middle East, South America, North America, Europe, and Africa) (HR 1.41; 95% CI 1.08-1.86; P for trend = 0.01), while in China there was no significant association (HR 1.04; 95% CI 0.77-1.40; P for trend = 0.38). CONCLUSIONS: Higher consumption of white rice is associated with an increased risk of incident diabetes with the strongest association being observed in South Asia, while in other regions, a modest, nonsignificant association was seen.

8.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777820

RESUMO

AIMS: To compare the prevalence of electrocardiogram (ECG)-documented atrial fibrillation (or flutter) (AF) across eight regions of the world, and to examine anti-thrombotic use and clinical outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Baseline ECGs were collected in 153,152 middle-aged participants (ages 35 to 70 years) to document AF in two community-based studies, spanning 20 countries. Medication use and clinical outcome data (mean follow up of 7.4 years) were available in one cohort. Cross sectional analyses were performed to document the prevalence of AF and medication use, and associations between AF and clinical events were examined prospectively. Mean age of participants was 52.1 years, and 57.7% were female. Age and sex-standardized prevalence of AF varied 12-fold between regions; with the highest in North America, Europe, China and Southeast Asia (270-360 cases per 100,000 persons); and lowest in the Middle East, Africa, and South Asia (30-60 cases per 100,000 persons)(p < 0.001). Compared with low-income countries (LICs), AF prevalence was 7-fold higher in middle-income countries (MICs) and 11-fold higher in high-income countries (HICs)(p < 0.001). Differences in AF prevalence remained significant after adjusting for traditional AF risk factors. In LICs/MICs, 24% of participants with AF and a CHADS2 score ≥1 received anti-thrombotic therapy, compared with 85% in HICs. AF was associated with an increased risk of stroke (hazard ratio [HR: 2.29; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-3.52) and death (HR: 2.97; 95% CI 2.25-3.93); with similar rates in different country income levels. CONCLUSIONS: Large variations in AF prevalence occur in different regions and country income settings, but this is only partially explained by traditional AF risk factors. Anti-thrombotic therapy is infrequently used in poorer countries despite the high risk of stroke associated with AF. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: We examined atrial fibrillation (AF) prevalence in 153,152 middle-aged participants spanning 20 countries. Age and sex-standardized prevalence of AF varied by as much as 12-fold between regions; highest in North America, Europe, China and Southeast Asia (270-360 cases per 100,000 persons); and lowest in the Middle East, Africa, and South Asia (30-60 cases per 100,000 persons)(p < 0.001); and by as much as 11-fold between groups of countries at different income levels (p < 0.001). Global variations were poorly explained by traditional AF risk factors. Future studies are needed to understand the predominant determinants driving the variation in AF burden across different regions of the world.

10.
Am Heart J ; 227: 56-63, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679282

RESUMO

The goal of the global congestive heart failure (G-CHF) registry is to collect comparative international data on heart failure characteristics, management, and outcomes and to better understand the determinants that impact the clinical course of heart failure. METHODS: G-CHF is a multicenter, prospective cohort study of adult patients with a new or prior clinical diagnosis of heart failure. We have enrolled 23,047 participants from 257 centers in 40 countries from 8 major geographic regions of the world, with recruitment ongoing. Approximately 4,000 participants will also participate in substudies to assess frailty, comorbidity, diet, barriers to care, biomarkers, and planned detailed echocardiographic analyses. Follow-up is planned for a period of 5 years. The primary outcome is cause-specific mortality. Key secondary outcomes include hospitalizations, quality of life, and major cardiovascular and noncardiovascular outcomes. A total of 31.9% of participants were enrolled as inpatients. Thus far, mean age of the cohort at baseline is 63.1 years, and 60.8% are male. Participants most commonly have heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (53.6%) followed by preserved ejection fraction (24.2%) and midrange ejection fraction (20.6%). The most common causes of heart failure are ischemic (37.8%) followed by hypertensive (20.0%), idiopathic (15.1%), and valvular disease (8.8%). CONCLUSION: G-CHF will provide a greater understanding of the characteristics of the global heart failure population, variations in its management, clinical outcomes, and what continues to impact morbidity and mortality in this high-risk population.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Sistema de Registros , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Lancet Planet Health ; 4(6): e235-e245, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most studies of long-term exposure to outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2·5) and cardiovascular disease are from high-income countries with relatively low PM2·5 concentrations. It is unclear whether risks are similar in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) and how outdoor PM2·5 contributes to the global burden of cardiovascular disease. In our analysis of the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, we aimed to investigate the association between long-term exposure to PM2·5 concentrations and cardiovascular disease in a large cohort of adults from 21 high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries. METHODS: In this multinational, prospective cohort study, we studied 157 436 adults aged 35-70 years who were enrolled in the PURE study in countries with ambient PM2·5 estimates, for whom follow-up data were available. Cox proportional hazard frailty models were used to estimate the associations between long-term mean community outdoor PM2·5 concentrations and cardiovascular disease events (fatal and non-fatal), cardiovascular disease mortality, and other non-accidental mortality. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1, 2003, and July 14, 2018, 157 436 adults from 747 communities in 21 high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries were enrolled and followed up, of whom 140 020 participants resided in LMICs. During a median follow-up period of 9·3 years (IQR 7·8-10·8; corresponding to 1·4 million person-years), we documented 9996 non-accidental deaths, of which 3219 were attributed to cardiovascular disease. 9152 (5·8%) of 157 436 participants had cardiovascular disease events (fatal and non-fatal incident cardiovascular disease), including 4083 myocardial infarctions and 4139 strokes. Mean 3-year PM2·5 at cohort baseline was 47·5 µg/m3 (range 6-140). In models adjusted for individual, household, and geographical factors, a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2·5 was associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease events (hazard ratio 1·05 [95% CI 1·03-1·07]), myocardial infarction (1·03 [1·00-1·05]), stroke (1·07 [1·04-1·10]), and cardiovascular disease mortality (1·03 [1·00-1·05]). Results were similar for LMICs and communities with high PM2·5 concentrations (>35 µg/m3). The population attributable fraction for PM2·5 in the PURE cohort was 13·9% (95% CI 8·8-18·6) for cardiovascular disease events, 8·4% (0·0-15·4) for myocardial infarction, 19·6% (13·0-25·8) for stroke, and 8·3% (0·0-15·2) for cardiovascular disease mortality. We identified no consistent associations between PM2·5 and risk for non-cardiovascular disease deaths. INTERPRETATION: Long-term outdoor PM2·5 concentrations were associated with increased risks of cardiovascular disease in adults aged 35-70 years. Air pollution is an important global risk factor for cardiovascular disease and a need exists to reduce air pollution concentrations, especially in LMICs, where air pollution levels are highest. FUNDING: Full funding sources are listed at the end of the paper (see Acknowledgments).

12.
Lancet Neurol ; 19(7): 582-590, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is an independent risk factor for cognitive impairment. We aimed to investigate the association between the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist dulaglutide and cognitive impairment as an exploratory analysis within the Researching Cardiovascular Events With a Weekly Incretin in Diabetes (REWIND) trial. METHODS: REWIND is a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial at 371 sites in 24 countries. We included men and women (aged ≥50 years) with either established or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and additional cardiovascular risk factors, glycated haemoglobin of up to 9·5% (80 mmol/mol) on a maximum of two oral glucose-lowering drugs with or without basal insulin, and a body-mass index of at least 23 kg/m2. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) subcutaneous injections once a week of either dulaglutide (1·5 mg) or an equal volume of matching placebo. Randomisation was done using a computer-generated code with stratification by site. Participants and all study personnel were masked to treatment allocation until the database was locked. Participants were followed up at least every 6 months for the composite primary outcome of stroke, myocardial infarction, or death from cardiovascular or unknown causes. Cognitive function was assessed at baseline and during follow-up using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST). We present here the exploratory primary cognitive outcome, which was the first occurrence of a follow-up score on MoCA or DSST that was 1·5 SDs or more below the baseline mean score in the participant's country. All analyses were done using an intention-to-treat approach. The REWIND trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01394952. FINDINGS: Between Aug 18, 2011, and Aug 14, 2013, 9901 participants were randomly assigned to either dulaglutide (n=4949) or placebo (n=4952). During median follow-up of 5·4 (IQR 5·1-5·9) years, 8828 participants provided a baseline and one or more follow-up MoCA or DSST scores, of whom 4456 were assigned dulaglutide and 4372 were assigned placebo. The cognitive outcome occurred in 4·05 per 100 patient-years in participants assigned dulaglutide and 4·35 per 100 patient-years in people assigned placebo (hazard ratio [HR] 0·93, 95% CI 0·85-1·02; p=0·11). After post-hoc adjustment for individual standardised baseline scores, the hazard of substantive cognitive impairment was reduced by 14% in those assigned dulaglutide (HR 0·86, 95% CI 0·79-0·95; p=0·0018). INTERPRETATION: Long-term treatment with dulaglutide might reduce cognitive impairment in people with type 2 diabetes. Further studies of this drug focused on brain health and cognitive function are clearly indicated. FUNDING: Eli Lilly and Company.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Hypertens ; 38(6): 1183-1188, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371809

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To raise awareness of blood pressure, measured by number of countries involved, number of people screened, and number of people who have untreated or inadequately treated hypertension. METHODS: An opportunistic cross-sectional survey of volunteers aged at least 18 years was carried out in May 2017. Blood pressure measurement, the definition of hypertension and statistical analysis followed the standard May measurement month protocol. Eighteen countries in Latin America and the Caribbean participated in the campaign, providing us with a wide sample for characterization. RESULTS: During May measurement month 2017 in Latin America and the Caribbean, 105 246 individuals were screened. Participants who had cardiovascular disease, 2245 (2.3%) had a prior myocardial infarction, and 1711 (1.6%) a previous stroke, additionally 6760 (6.4%) individuals were diabetic, 7014 (6.7%) current smokers and 9262 (8.8%) reported alcohol intake once or more per week. Mean SBP was 122.7 mmHg and DBP was 75.6 mmHg. After imputation, 42 328 participants (40,4%) were found to be hypertensive. CONCLUSION: The high numbers of participants detected with hypertension and the relatively large proportion of participants on antihypertensive treatment but with uncontrolled hypertension reinforces the importance of this annual event in our continent, to raise awareness of the prevention of cardiovascular events.

14.
Environ. pollut ; 262(114197): 1-41, Jul, 2020. gráfico, tabela, ilustração
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1103363

RESUMO

Exposure to air pollution has been linked to elevated blood pressure (BP) and hypertension, but most research has focused on short-term (hours, days, or months) exposures at relatively low concentrations. We examined the associations between long-term (3-year average) concentrations of outdoor PM2.5 and household air pollution (HAP) from cooking with solid fuels with BP and hypertension in the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. Outdoor PM2.5 exposures were estimated at year of enrollment for 137,809 adults aged 35­70 years from 640 urban and rural communities in 21 countries using satellite and ground-based methods. Primary use of solid fuel for cooking was used as an indicator of HAP exposure, with analyses restricted to rural participants (n = 43,313) in 27 study centers in 10 countries. BP was measured following a standardized procedure and associations with air pollution examined with mixed-effect regression models, after adjustment for a comprehensive set of potential confounding factors. Baseline outdoor PM2.5 exposure ranged from 3 to 97 µg/m3 across study communities and was associated with an increased odds ratio (OR) of 1.04 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.07) for hypertension, per 10 µg/m3 increase in concentration. This association demonstrated non-linearity and was strongest for the fourth (PM2.5 > 62 µg/m3) compared to the first (PM2.5 < 14 µg/m3) quartiles (OR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.69). Similar non-linear patterns were observed for systolic BP (ß = 2.15 mmHg, 95% CI: −0.59, 4.89) and diastolic BP (ß = 1.35, 95% CI: −0.20, 2.89), while there was no overall increase in ORs across the full exposure distribution. Individuals who used solid fuels for cooking had lower BP measures compared to clean fuel users (e.g. 34% of solid fuels users compared to 42% of clean fuel users had hypertension), and even in fully adjusted models had slightly decreased odds of hypertension (OR = 0.93; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.99) and reductions in systolic (−0.51 mmHg; 95% CI: −0.99, −0.03) and diastolic (−0.46 mmHg; 95% CI: −0.75, −0.18) BP. In this large international multi-center study, chronic exposures to outdoor PM2.5 was associated with increased BP and hypertension while there were small inverse associations with HAP.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Pressão Arterial , Epidemiologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423962

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our aims were to assess the association of dairy intake with prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) (cross-sectionally) and with incident hypertension and incident diabetes (prospectively) in a large multinational cohort study. METHODS: The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study is a prospective epidemiological study of individuals aged 35 and 70 years from 21 countries on five continents, with a median follow-up of 9.1 years. In the cross-sectional analyses, we assessed the association of dairy intake with prevalent MetS and its components among individuals with information on the five MetS components (n=112 922). For the prospective analyses, we examined the association of dairy with incident hypertension (in 57 547 individuals free of hypertension) and diabetes (in 131 481 individuals free of diabetes). RESULTS: In cross-sectional analysis, higher intake of total dairy (at least two servings/day compared with zero intake; OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.80, p-trend<0.0001) was associated with a lower prevalence of MetS after multivariable adjustment. Higher intakes of whole fat dairy consumed alone (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.78, p-trend<0.0001), or consumed jointly with low fat dairy (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.98, p-trend=0.0005), were associated with a lower MetS prevalence. Low fat dairy consumed alone was not associated with MetS (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.38, p-trend=0.13). In prospective analysis, 13 640 people with incident hypertension and 5351 people with incident diabetes were recorded. Higher intake of total dairy (at least two servings/day vs zero serving/day) was associated with a lower incidence of hypertension (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.97, p-trend=0.02) and diabetes (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.02, p-trend=0.01). Directionally similar associations were found for whole fat dairy versus each outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Higher intake of whole fat (but not low fat) dairy was associated with a lower prevalence of MetS and most of its component factors, and with a lower incidence of hypertension and diabetes. Our findings should be evaluated in large randomized trials of the effects of whole fat dairy on the risks of MetS, hypertension, and diabetes.

16.
Lancet ; 396(10244): 97-109, 2020 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some studies, mainly from high-income countries (HICs), report that women receive less care (investigations and treatments) for cardiovascular disease than do men and might have a higher risk of death. However, very few studies systematically report risk factors, use of primary or secondary prevention medications, incidence of cardiovascular disease, or death in populations drawn from the community. Given that most cardiovascular disease occurs in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), there is a need for comprehensive information comparing treatments and outcomes between women and men in HICs, middle-income countries, and low-income countries from community-based population studies. METHODS: In the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiological study (PURE), individuals aged 35-70 years from urban and rural communities in 27 countries were considered for inclusion. We recorded information on participants' sociodemographic characteristics, risk factors, medication use, cardiac investigations, and interventions. 168 490 participants who enrolled in the first two of the three phases of PURE were followed up prospectively for incident cardiovascular disease and death. FINDINGS: From Jan 6, 2005 to May 6, 2019, 202 072 individuals were recruited to the study. The mean age of women included in the study was 50·8 (SD 9·9) years compared with 51·7 (10) years for men. Participants were followed up for a median of 9·5 (IQR 8·5-10·9) years. Women had a lower cardiovascular disease risk factor burden using two different risk scores (INTERHEART and Framingham). Primary prevention strategies, such as adoption of several healthy lifestyle behaviours and use of proven medicines, were more frequent in women than men. Incidence of cardiovascular disease (4·1 [95% CI 4·0-4·2] for women vs 6·4 [6·2-6·6] for men per 1000 person-years; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0·75 [95% CI 0·72-0·79]) and all-cause death (4·5 [95% CI 4·4-4·7] for women vs 7·4 [7·2-7·7] for men per 1000 person-years; aHR 0·62 [95% CI 0·60-0·65]) were also lower in women. By contrast, secondary prevention treatments, cardiac investigations, and coronary revascularisation were less frequent in women than men with coronary artery disease in all groups of countries. Despite this, women had lower risk of recurrent cardiovascular disease events (20·0 [95% CI 18·2-21·7] versus 27·7 [95% CI 25·6-29·8] per 1000 person-years in men, adjusted hazard ratio 0·73 [95% CI 0·64-0·83]) and women had lower 30-day mortality after a new cardiovascular disease event compared with men (22% in women versus 28% in men; p<0·0001). Differences between women and men in treatments and outcomes were more marked in LMICs with little differences in HICs in those with or without previous cardiovascular disease. INTERPRETATION: Treatments for cardiovascular disease are more common in women than men in primary prevention, but the reverse is seen in secondary prevention. However, consistently better outcomes are observed in women than in men, both in those with and without previous cardiovascular disease. Improving cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment, especially in LMICs, should be vigorously pursued in both women and men. FUNDING: Full funding sources are listed at the end of the paper (see Acknowledgments).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causas de Morte/tendências , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Estilo de Vida Saudável/fisiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Prevenção Secundária , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care ; 8(1): 1-12, Apr., 2020. tab.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1100200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our aims were to assess the association of dairy intake with prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) (cross-sectionally) and with incident hypertension and incident diabetes (prospectively) in a large multinational cohort study. METHODS: The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study is a prospective epidemiological study of individuals aged 35 and 70 years from 21 countries on five continents, with a median follow-up of 9.1 years. In the cross-sectional analyses, we assessed the association of dairy intake with prevalent MetS and its components among individuals with information on the five MetS components (n=112 922). For the prospective analyses, we examined the association of dairy with incident hypertension (in 57 547 individuals free of hypertension) and diabetes (in 131 481 individuals free of diabetes). RESULTS: In cross-sectional analysis, higher intake of total dairy (at least two servings/day compared with zero intake; OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.80, p-trend<0.0001) was associated with a lower prevalence of MetS after multivariable adjustment. Higher intakes of whole fat dairy consumed alone (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.78, p-trend<0.0001), or consumed jointly with low fat dairy (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.98, p-trend=0.0005), were associated with a lower MetS prevalence. Low fat dairy consumed alone was not associated with MetS (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.38, p-trend=0.13). In prospective analysis, 13 640 people with incident hypertension and 5351 people with incident diabetes were recorded. Higher intake of total dairy (at least two servings/day vs zero serving/day) was associated with a lower incidence of hypertension (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.97, p-trend=0.02) and diabetes (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.02, p-trend=0.01). Directionally similar associations were found for whole fat dairy versus each outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Higher intake of whole fat (but not low fat) dairy was associated with a lower prevalence of MetS and most of its component factors, and with a lower incidence of hypertension and diabetes. Our findings should be evaluated in large randomized trials of the effects of whole fat dairy on the risks of MetS, hypertension, and diabetes.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Diabetes Mellitus , Ciências da Nutrição , Hipertensão , Endocrinologia
18.
Environ Pollut ; 262: 114197, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146361

RESUMO

Exposure to air pollution has been linked to elevated blood pressure (BP) and hypertension, but most research has focused on short-term (hours, days, or months) exposures at relatively low concentrations. We examined the associations between long-term (3-year average) concentrations of outdoor PM2.5 and household air pollution (HAP) from cooking with solid fuels with BP and hypertension in the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. Outdoor PM2.5 exposures were estimated at year of enrollment for 137,809 adults aged 35-70 years from 640 urban and rural communities in 21 countries using satellite and ground-based methods. Primary use of solid fuel for cooking was used as an indicator of HAP exposure, with analyses restricted to rural participants (n = 43,313) in 27 study centers in 10 countries. BP was measured following a standardized procedure and associations with air pollution examined with mixed-effect regression models, after adjustment for a comprehensive set of potential confounding factors. Baseline outdoor PM2.5 exposure ranged from 3 to 97 µg/m3 across study communities and was associated with an increased odds ratio (OR) of 1.04 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.07) for hypertension, per 10 µg/m3 increase in concentration. This association demonstrated non-linearity and was strongest for the fourth (PM2.5 > 62 µg/m3) compared to the first (PM2.5 < 14 µg/m3) quartiles (OR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.69). Similar non-linear patterns were observed for systolic BP (ß = 2.15 mmHg, 95% CI: -0.59, 4.89) and diastolic BP (ß = 1.35, 95% CI: -0.20, 2.89), while there was no overall increase in ORs across the full exposure distribution. Individuals who used solid fuels for cooking had lower BP measures compared to clean fuel users (e.g. 34% of solid fuels users compared to 42% of clean fuel users had hypertension), and even in fully adjusted models had slightly decreased odds of hypertension (OR = 0.93; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.99) and reductions in systolic (-0.51 mmHg; 95% CI: -0.99, -0.03) and diastolic (-0.46 mmHg; 95% CI: -0.75, -0.18) BP. In this large international multi-center study, chronic exposures to outdoor PM2.5 was associated with increased BP and hypertension while there were small inverse associations with HAP.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Culinária , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/análise , Estudos Prospectivos , População Rural
19.
Int J Cardiol ; 302: 53-58, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variation in patient characteristics and practice patterns may influence outcomes at a regional level. METHODS: We assessed differences in demographics, practice patterns, outcomes, and the effect of apixaban compared with warfarin in ARISTOTLE (n = 18,201) by prespecified regions: North America, Latin America, Europe, and Asia Pacific. The primary outcomes were stroke/systemic embolism and major bleeding. RESULTS: Compared with other regions, patients from Asia Pacific were younger, more women were enrolled in Latin America. Coronary artery disease was more prevalent in Europe and Asia Pacific had the highest rate of prior stroke and renal impairment. Over 50% of patients in North America were taking ≥9 drugs at randomization, compared with 10% in Latin America. North America had the highest rates of temporary study drug discontinuation and procedures. Time in therapeutic range (INR 2.0-3.0) on warfarin was highest in North America and lowest in Asia Pacific. After adjustment and compared with Europe, patients in Asia Pacific had 2-fold higher risk of stroke/systemic embolism and 3-fold higher risk of intracranial hemorrhage. Patients in Latin America had 2-fold increased risk of all-cause death compared with Europe. The benefits of apixaban compared with warfarin were consistent across regions; there was a pronounced reduction in major bleeding in patients from Asia Pacific compared with other regions (p-interaction = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with AF enrolled in prespecified regions in ARISTOTLE had differences in clinical baseline characteristics and practice patterns. After adjustment, patients in Asia Pacific and Latin America had worse outcomes than patients from other regions. The relative benefits of apixaban compared with warfarin were consistent across regions with an even greater treatment effect in the reduction of bleeding in patients from Asia Pacific.

20.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(2): 106-114, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular outcome trials have suggested that glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists might reduce strokes. We analysed the effect of dulaglutide on stroke within the researching cardiovascular events with a weekly incretin in diabetes (REWIND) trial. METHODS: REWIND was a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial done at 371 sites in 24 countries. Men and women (aged ≥50 years) with established or newly detected type 2 diabetes whose HbA1c was 9·5% or less (with no lower limit) on stable doses of up to two oral glucose-lowering drugs with or without basal insulin therapy were eligible if their body-mass index was at least 23 kg/m2. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to weekly subcutaneous injections of either masked dulaglutide 1·5 mg or the same volume of masked placebo (containing the same excipients but without dulaglutide). Randomisation was done by a computer-generated random code with an interactive web response system with stratification by site. Participants, investigators, the trial leadership, and all other personnel were masked to treatment allocation until the trial was completed and the database was locked. During the treatment period, participants in both groups were instructed to inject study drug on the same day at around the same time, each week. Strokes were categorised as fatal or non-fatal, and as either ischaemic, haemorrhagic, or undetermined. Stroke severity was assessed using the modified Rankin scale. Participants were seen at 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and then every 3 months for drug dispensing and every 6 months for detailed assessments, until 1200 confirmed primary outcomes accrued. The primary endpoint was the first occurrence of any component of the composite outcome, which comprised non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, or death from cardiovascular or unknown causes. All analyses were done according to an intention-to-treat strategy that included all randomly assigned participants, irrespective of adherence. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01394952. FINDINGS: Between Aug 18, 2011, and Aug 14, 2013, we screened 12 133 patients, of whom 9901 with type 2 diabetes and additional cardiovascular risk factors were randomly assigned to either dulaglutide (n=4949) or an equal volume of placebo (n=4952). During a median follow-up of 5·4 years, cerebrovascular and other cardiovascular outcomes were ascertained and adjudicated. 158 (3·2%) of 4949 participants assigned to dulaglutide and 205 (4·1%) of 4952 participants assigned to placebo had a stroke during follow-up (hazard ratio [HR] 0·76, 95% CI 0·62-0·94; p=0·010). Dulaglutide reduced ischaemic stroke (0·75, 0·59-0·94, p=0·012) but had no effect on haemorrhagic stroke (1·05, 0·55-1·99; p=0·89). Dulaglutide also reduced the composite of non-fatal stroke or all-cause death (0·88, 0·79-0·98; p=0·017) and disabling stroke (0·74, 0·56-0·99; p=0·042). The degree of disability after stroke did not differ by treatment group. INTERPRETATION: Long-term dulaglutide use might reduce clinically relevant ischaemic stroke in people with type 2 diabetes but does not affect stroke severity. FUNDING: Eli Lilly and Company.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Angiopatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Hemoglobina A Glicada/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/sangue , Angiopatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Incretinas/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
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