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1.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 180, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371701

RESUMO

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe psychiatric disorder with high mortality and, to a large extent, unknown pathophysiology. Structural brain differences, such as global or focal reductions in grey or white matter volumes, as well as enlargement of the sulci and the ventricles, have repeatedly been observed in individuals with AN. However, many of the documented aberrances normalize with weight recovery, even though some studies show enduring changes. To further explore whether AN is associated with neuronal damage, we analysed the levels of neurofilament light chain (NfL), a marker reflecting ongoing neuronal injury, in plasma samples from females with AN, females recovered from AN (AN-REC) and normal-weight age-matched female controls (CTRLS). We detected significantly increased plasma levels of NfL in AN vs CTRLS (medianAN = 15.6 pg/ml, IQRAN = 12.1-21.3, medianCTRL = 9.3 pg/ml, IQRCTRL = 6.4-12.9, and p < 0.0001), AN vs AN-REC (medianAN-REC = 11.1 pg/ml, IQRAN-REC = 8.6-15.5, and p < 0.0001), and AN-REC vs CTRLS (p = 0.004). The plasma levels of NfL are negatively associated with BMI overall samples (ß (±se) = -0.62 ± 0.087 and p = 6.9‧10-12). This indicates that AN is associated with neuronal damage that partially normalizes with weight recovery. Further studies are needed to determine which brain areas are affected, and potential long-term sequelae.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378653

RESUMO

There is considerable variability in the severity of bipolar disorder, e.g., in terms of the frequency of inpatient episodes. The long-term progression also differs, where some patients are sensitised with progressively shorter healthy intervals. Little is known about the proportion of patients being sensitised, their clinical characteristics, and biological underpinnings. We analysed long-term progression of bipolar disorder in relation to clinical characteristics (N = 3074), serum biomarkers (N = 745), and genetic variants (N = 1401) in a cohort of Swedish bipolar disorder patients. We took advantage of the National Patient Register, providing reliable data on 35,973 psychiatric inpatient care episodes in Sweden since 1973. First, one third of the cohort cluster together with a maximum of one inpatient episode per year, while the remaining two thirds had >1 episode per year. These groups did not differ with respect to clinical features or biomarkers. Second, among patients with at least five inpatient episodes (defined as severely ill), we find one group with progressively shorter cycle-lengths (one fifth of the total cohort, N = 550). Compared with those with a stable or recuperant trajectory, these patients featured lower functioning, more antidepressant treatment, as well as reduced levels of inflammatory markers in serum. Third, sensitisation was associated with a common genetic variant near the calcium channel gene CACNA2D3 at genome-wide significance. These results suggest the potential for translational research aimed at preventive actions.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302732

RESUMO

Preclinical studies indicate a link between the kynurenine pathway and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), but there is a lack of clinical studies examining this further. We here perform a secondary analysis of kynurenine metabolites and MCP-1 in cerebrospinal fluid of 23 twins affected from schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or unaffected. We show an association between MCP-1 and kynurenic acid (KYNA), driven by unique environmental influences and a less pronounced association between MCP-1 and tryptophan. No association was detected between MCP-1 and quinolinic acid. Further studies on the mechanism behind the putative relationship between KYNA and MCP-1 are needed.

4.
Br J Psychiatry ; : 1-3, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317860

RESUMO

Variation in the CACNA1C gene has been associated with bipolar disorder in several genome-wide association studies. This gene encodes the alpha 1C subunit of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels, which play an essential role in neurons. We analysed 39 biomarkers in either cerebrospinal fluid or serum in relation to six different CACNA1C variants in 282 patients with bipolar disorder and 90 controls. We report associations of CACNA1C risk alleles with serum levels of BDNF as well as tissue plasminogen activator, which converts pro-BDNF to mature BDNF. This sheds light on links between CACNA1C genetic variants and pathophysiological mechanisms in bipolar disorder.Declaration of interestNone.

5.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 6(8): 651-658, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a clinical concern that prescribing methylphenidate, the most common pharmacological treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), might increase the risk of psychotic events, particularly in young people with a history of psychosis. We aimed to determine whether the risk of psychotic events increases immediately after initiation of methylphenidate treatment or, in the longer term, 1 year after treatment initiation in adolescents and young adults with and without a previously diagnosed psychotic disorder. METHODS: In this cohort study, we used population-based observational data from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, the National Patient Register, and the Total Population Register, three population-based registers containing data on all individuals in Sweden, to attain data on sex, birth, death, migration, medication use, and psychotic events for all eligible participants. We screened individuals on these registers to identify those receiving methylphenidate treatment, and who were aged 12-30 years at the start of treatment, for their inclusion in the study. We used a within-individual design to compare the incidence of psychotic events in these individuals during the 12-week periods immediately before and after methylphenidate initiation. Longer term risk was assessed by comparing the incidence of psychotic events 12 weeks before methylphenidate initiation and during a 12-week period one calendar year before the initiation of methylphenidate with the incidence of these events during the 12-week period one calendar year after methylphenidate initiation. We estimated the incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% CIs of psychotic events after the initation of methylphenidate treatment, relative to the events before treatment, which were defined as any hospital visit (inpatient admission or outpatient attendance, based on data from the National Patient Register) because of psychosis, using the International Classification of Diseases version 10 definition. Analyses were stratified by whether the individual had a history of psychosis. FINDINGS: We searched the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register to find eligible individuals who had received methylphenidate between Jan 1, 2007 and June 30, 2012. 61 814 individuals were screened, of whom 23 898 (38·7%) individuals were assessed and 37 916 (61·3%) were excluded from the study because they were outside of the age criteria at the start of treatment, they had immigrated, emigrated, or died during the study period, or because they were administered other ADHD medications. The median age at methylphenidate initiation was 17 years, and a history of psychosis was reported in 479 (2·0%) participants. The IRR of psychotic events in the 12-week period after initiation of methylphenidate treatment relative to that in the 12-week period before treatment start was 1·04 (95% CI 0·80-1·34) in adolescents and young adults without a history of psychosis and 0·95 (0·69-1·30) among those with a history of psychosis. INTERPRETATION: Contrary to clinical concerns, we found no evidence that initiation of methylphenidate treatment increases the risk of psychotic events in adolescents and young adults, including in those individuals with a history of psychosis. Our study should reassure clinicians considering initiating methylphenidate treatment for ADHD in adolescents and young adults, and it challenges the widely held view in clinical practice that methylphenidate should be avoided, or its use restricted, in individuals with a history of psychosis. FUNDING: Swedish Research Council, National Institute of Mental Health, UK National Institute of Health Research Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre.

6.
JAMA Neurol ; 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206160

RESUMO

Importance: Neurofilament light protein (NfL) is elevated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a number of neurological conditions compared with healthy controls (HC) and is a candidate biomarker for neuroaxonal damage. The influence of age and sex is largely unknown, and levels across neurological disorders have not been compared systematically to date. Objectives: To assess the associations of age, sex, and diagnosis with NfL in CSF (cNfL) and to evaluate its potential in discriminating clinically similar conditions. Data Sources: PubMed was searched for studies published between January 1, 2006, and January 1, 2016, reporting cNfL levels (using the search terms neurofilament light and cerebrospinal fluid) in neurological or psychiatric conditions and/or in HC. Study Selection: Studies reporting NfL levels measured in lumbar CSF using a commercially available immunoassay, as well as age and sex. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Individual-level data were requested from study authors. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the fixed effects of age, sex, and diagnosis on log-transformed NfL levels, with cohort of origin modeled as a random intercept. Main Outcome and Measure: The cNfL levels adjusted for age and sex across diagnoses. Results: Data were collected for 10 059 individuals (mean [SD] age, 59.7 [18.8] years; 54.1% female). Thirty-five diagnoses were identified, including inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (n = 2795), dementias and predementia stages (n = 4284), parkinsonian disorders (n = 984), and HC (n = 1332). The cNfL was elevated compared with HC in a majority of neurological conditions studied. Highest levels were observed in cognitively impaired HIV-positive individuals (iHIV), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and Huntington disease. In 33.3% of diagnoses, including HC, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer disease (AD), and Parkinson disease (PD), cNfL was higher in men than women. The cNfL increased with age in HC and a majority of neurological conditions, although the association was strongest in HC. The cNfL overlapped in most clinically similar diagnoses except for FTD and iHIV, which segregated from other dementias, and PD, which segregated from atypical parkinsonian syndromes. Conclusions and Relevance: These data support the use of cNfL as a biomarker of neuroaxonal damage and indicate that age-specific and sex-specific (and in some cases disease-specific) reference values may be needed. The cNfL has potential to assist the differentiation of FTD from AD and PD from atypical parkinsonian syndromes.

7.
Psychol Med ; : 1-7, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31057138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of psychoeducation for bipolar disorder has been demonstrated in clinical trials, but it is not known if the results translate into effectiveness in routine clinical practice. The aim was to determine the effectiveness of psychoeducation for bipolar disorder in a routine clinical setting. METHOD: We identified 2819 patients with at least three registrations in the Swedish Quality Assurance Register for Bipolar Disorder. Among those, 402 had not been exposed to psychoeducation at the first visit, but received psychoeducation during any of the following registrations. Using within-individual analyses, the risk of recurrence after having received psychoeducation was compared with the risk prior to psychoeducation. RESULTS: In adjusted within-individuals comparisons, periods after psychoeducation was associated with decreased risks of any recurrence [odds ratio (OR) 0.57, 95% CI 0.42-0.78], (hypo-)manic or mixed episodes (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.39-0.76), depressive episodes (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.47-0.86), and inpatient care (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.86) relative to periods prior to psychoeducation. There was no association with rates of involuntary sectioning or suicide attempts. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that psychoeducation for bipolar disorder reduces the risk of mood episodes and inpatient care also when implemented in routine clinical practice.

8.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been proposed as a model for investigating the role of prenatal androgen exposure in the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, women with PCOS are at higher risk of developing psychiatric conditions and previous studies are likely confounded by genetic influences. METHODS: A Swedish nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted to disentangle the influence of prenatal androgen exposure from familial confounding in the association between maternal PCOS and offspring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and Tourette's disorder and chronic tic disorders (TD/CTD). PCOS-exposed offspring (n = 21 280) were compared with unrelated PCOS-unexposed offspring (n = 200 816) and PCOS-unexposed cousins (n = 17 295). Associations were estimated with stratified Cox regression models. RESULTS: PCOS-exposed offspring had increased risk of being diagnosed with ADHD, ASD, and TD/CTD compared with unrelated PCOS-unexposed offspring. Associations were stronger in girls for ADHD and ASD but not TD/CTD [ADHD: adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.61 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.31-1.99), ASD: aHR = 2.02 (95% CI 1.45-2.82)] than boys [ADHD: aHR = 1.37 (95% CI 1.19-1.57), ASD: aHR = 1.46 (95% CI 1.21-1.76)]. For ADHD and ASD, aHRs for girls were stronger when compared with PCOS-unexposed cousins, but slightly attenuated for boys. CONCLUSIONS: Estimates were similar when accounting for familial confounding (i.e. genetics and environmental factors shared by cousins) and stronger in girls for ADHD and ASD, potentially indicating a differential influence of prenatal androgen exposure v. genetic factors. These results strengthen evidence for a potential causal influence of prenatal androgen exposure on the development of male-predominant neuropsychiatric disorders in female offspring of women with PCOS.

9.
J Psychiatr Res ; 113: 1-9, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878786

RESUMO

In many international studies, rates of completed suicide and suicide attempts have a seasonal pattern that peaks in spring or summer. This exploratory study investigated the association between solar insolation and a history of suicide attempt in patients with bipolar I disorder. Solar insolation is the amount of electromagnetic energy from the Sun striking a surface area on Earth. Data were collected previously from 5536 patients with bipolar I disorder at 50 collection sites in 32 countries at a wide range of latitudes in both hemispheres. Suicide related data were available for 3365 patients from 310 onset locations in 51 countries. 1047 (31.1%) had a history of suicide attempt. There was a significant inverse association between a history of suicide attempt and the ratio of mean winter solar insolation/mean summer solar insolation. This ratio is smallest near the poles where the winter insolation is very small compared to the summer insolation. This ratio is largest near the equator where there is relatively little variation in the insolation over the year. Other variables in the model that were positively associated with suicide attempt were being female, a history of alcohol or substance abuse, and being in a younger birth cohort. Living in a country with a state-sponsored religion decreased the association. (All estimated coefficients p < 0.01). In summary, living in locations with large changes in solar insolation between winter and summer may be associated with increased suicide attempts in patients with bipolar disorder. Further investigation of the impacts of solar insolation on the course of bipolar disorder is needed.

10.
J ECT ; 2019 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30807499

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is used in some cases of postpartum depression (PPD) and postpartum psychosis (PPP). The risk of relapse for PPD and PPP after ECT is unknown. This study compared the relapse rate after ECT between women who had been treated for PPD and/or PPP and women who had been treated for depression and/or psychosis outside the postpartum period. METHODS: The Swedish National Quality Register for ECT and the Swedish National Patient Register were used to identify women with PPD and/or PPP who had been treated with ECT within 6 months after delivery. For each case, a control (treated with ECT but not postpartum) patient was also selected. A Kaplan-Meier estimator was used to calculate the relapse rate (defined as rehospitalization or suicide) after ECT. Cox regression was used to identify variables associated with relapse. RESULTS: A total of 180 patients were included in each group. The proportions of patients who suffered relapse after 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years were 28%, 31%, and 40% for the postpartum group and 39%, 50%, and 55% for the nonpostpartum group. Treatment with benzodiazepines, several previous psychiatric admissions, and the absence of improvement after ECT were associated with relapse. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of relapse after ECT is lower for patients with PPD and/or PPP than for patients outside the postpartum period, but the risk is nonetheless substantial in both groups.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

11.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 37, 2019 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696814

RESUMO

Metabolites of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation, in particular, the N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (KYNA), are increasingly recognized as primary pathophysiological promoters in several psychiatric diseases. Studies analyzing central KYNA levels from subjects with psychotic disorders have reported increased levels. However, sample sizes are limited and in contrast many larger studies examining this compound in blood from psychotic patients commonly report a decrease. A major question is to what extent peripheral KYNA levels reflect brain KYNA levels under physiological as well as pathophysiological conditions. Here we measured KYNA in plasma from a total of 277 subjects with detailed phenotypic data, including 163 BD subjects and 114 matched healthy controls (HCs), using an HPLC system. Among them, 94 BD subjects and 113 HCs also had CSF KYNA concentrations analyzed. We observe a selective increase of CSF KYNA in BD subjects with previous psychotic episodes although this group did not display altered plasma KYNA levels. In contrast, BD subjects with ongoing depressive symptoms displayed a tendency to decreased plasma KYNA concentrations but unchanged CSF KYNA levels. Sex and age displayed specific effects on KYNA concentrations depending on if measured centrally or in the periphery. These findings implicate brain-specific regulation of KYNA under physiological as well as under pathophysiological conditions and strengthen our previous observation of CSF KYNA as a biomarker in BD. In summary, biomarker and drug discovery studies should include central KYNA measurements for a more reliable estimation of brain KYNA levels.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/sangue , Transtorno Bipolar/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Ácido Cinurênico/sangue , Ácido Cinurênico/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Adulto , Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Depressão/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Psicóticos/complicações , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/complicações , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Biol Psychiatry ; 86(2): 110-119, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30686506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic risk for bipolar disorder (BD) is conferred through many common alleles, while a role for rare copy number variants (CNVs) is less clear. Subtypes of BD including schizoaffective disorder bipolar type (SAB), bipolar I disorder (BD I), and bipolar II disorder (BD II) differ according to the prominence and timing of psychosis, mania, and depression. The genetic factors contributing to the combination of symptoms among these subtypes are poorly understood. METHODS: Rare large CNVs were analyzed in 6353 BD cases (3833 BD I [2676 with psychosis, 850 without psychosis, and 307 with unknown psychosis history], 1436 BD II, 579 SAB, and 505 BD not otherwise specified) and 8656 controls. CNV burden and a polygenic risk score (PRS) for schizophrenia were used to evaluate the relative contributions of rare and common variants to risk of BD, BD subtypes, and psychosis. RESULTS: CNV burden did not differ between BD and controls when treated as a single diagnostic entity. However, burden in SAB was increased relative to controls (p = .001), BD I (p = .0003), and BD II (p = .0007). Burden and schizophrenia PRSs were increased in SAB compared with BD I with psychosis (CNV p = .0007, PRS p = .004), and BD I without psychosis (CNV p = .0004, PRS p = 3.9 × 10-5). Within BD I, psychosis was associated with increased schizophrenia PRSs (p = .005) but not CNV burden. CONCLUSIONS: CNV burden in BD is limited to SAB. Rare and common genetic variants may contribute differently to risk for psychosis and perhaps other classes of psychiatric symptoms.

13.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 210, 2018 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297702

RESUMO

Ankyrin-3 (ANK3) is one of the few genes that have been consistently identified as associated with bipolar disorder by multiple genome-wide association studies. However, the exact molecular basis of the association remains unknown. A rare loss-of-function splice-site SNP (rs41283526*G) in a minor isoform of ANK3 (incorporating exon ENSE00001786716) was recently identified as protective of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. This suggests that an elevated expression of this isoform may be involved in the etiology of the disorders. In this study, we used novel approaches and data sets to test this hypothesis. First, we strengthen the statistical evidence supporting the allelic association by replicating the protective effect of the minor allele of rs41283526 in three additional large independent samples (meta-analysis p-values: 6.8E-05 for bipolar disorder and 8.2E-04 for schizophrenia). Second, we confirm the hypothesis that both bipolar and schizophrenia patients have a significantly higher expression of this isoform than controls (p-values: 3.3E-05 for schizophrenia and 9.8E-04 for bipolar type I). Third, we determine the transcription start site for this minor isoform by Pacific Biosciences sequencing of full-length cDNA and show that it is primarily expressed in the corpus callosum. Finally, we combine genotype and expression data from a large Norwegian sample of psychiatric patients and controls, and show that the risk alleles in ANK3 identified by bipolar disorder GWAS are located near the transcription start site of this isoform and are significantly associated with its elevated expression. Together, these results point to the likely molecular mechanism underlying ANK3´s association with bipolar disorder.

14.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 74: 61-69, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30287268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic factors contribute to anorexia nervosa (AN); and the first genome-wide significant locus has been identified. We describe methods and procedures for the Anorexia Nervosa Genetics Initiative (ANGI), an international collaboration designed to rapidly recruit 13,000 individuals with AN and ancestrally matched controls. We present sample characteristics and the utility of an online eating disorder diagnostic questionnaire suitable for large-scale genetic and population research. METHODS: ANGI recruited from the United States (US), Australia/New Zealand (ANZ), Sweden (SE), and Denmark (DK). Recruitment was via national registers (SE, DK); treatment centers (US, ANZ, SE, DK); and social and traditional media (US, ANZ, SE). All cases had a lifetime AN diagnosis based on DSM-IV or ICD-10 criteria (excluding amenorrhea). Recruited controls had no lifetime history of disordered eating behaviors. To assess the positive and negative predictive validity of the online eating disorder questionnaire (ED100K-v1), 109 women also completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID), Module H. RESULTS: Blood samples and clinical information were collected from 13,363 individuals with lifetime AN and from controls. Online diagnostic phenotyping was effective and efficient; the validity of the questionnaire was acceptable. CONCLUSIONS: Our multi-pronged recruitment approach was highly effective for rapid recruitment and can be used as a model for efforts by other groups. High online presence of individuals with AN rendered the Internet/social media a remarkably effective recruitment tool in some countries. ANGI has substantially augmented Psychiatric Genomics Consortium AN sample collection. ANGI is a registered clinical trial: clinicaltrials.govNCT01916538; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01916538?cond=Anorexia+Nervosa&draw=1&rank=3.

15.
Brain Behav ; 8(7): e00998, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29845776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonheterosexual individuals have higher risk of psychiatric morbidity. Together with growing evidence for sexual orientation-related brain differences, this raises the concern that sexual orientation may be an important factor to control for in neuroimaging studies of neuropsychiatric disorders. METHODS: We studied sexual orientation in adult psychiatric patients with bipolar disorder (BD) or ADHD in a large clinical cohort (N = 154). We compared cortical brain structure in exclusively heterosexual women (HEW, n = 29) with that of nonexclusively heterosexual women (nHEW, n = 37) using surface-based reconstruction techniques provided by FreeSurfer. RESULTS: The prevalence of nonheterosexual sexual orientation was tentatively higher than reported in general population samples. Consistent with previously reported cross-sex shifted brain patterns among homosexual individuals, nHEW patients showed significantly larger cortical volumes than HEW in medial occipital brain regions. CONCLUSION: We found evidence for a sex-reversed difference in cortical volume among nonheterosexual female patients, which provides insights into the neurobiology of sexual orientation, and may provide the first clues toward a better neurobiological understanding of the association between sexual orientation and mental health. We also suggest that sexual orientation is an important factor to consider in future neuroimaging studies of populations with certain mental health disorders.

16.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 14(5): e1006105, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29758032

RESUMO

A common goal in data-analysis is to sift through a large data-matrix and detect any significant submatrices (i.e., biclusters) that have a low numerical rank. We present a simple algorithm for tackling this biclustering problem. Our algorithm accumulates information about 2-by-2 submatrices (i.e., 'loops') within the data-matrix, and focuses on rows and columns of the data-matrix that participate in an abundance of low-rank loops. We demonstrate, through analysis and numerical-experiments, that this loop-counting method performs well in a variety of scenarios, outperforming simple spectral methods in many situations of interest. Another important feature of our method is that it can easily be modified to account for aspects of experimental design which commonly arise in practice. For example, our algorithm can be modified to correct for controls, categorical- and continuous-covariates, as well as sparsity within the data. We demonstrate these practical features with two examples; the first drawn from gene-expression analysis and the second drawn from a much larger genome-wide-association-study (GWAS).


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
J Affect Disord ; 235: 258-264, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29660641

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is used to treat postpartum depression and psychosis based on clinical experience and small observational studies. AIMS: The primary aim was to test the hypothesis that the response rate to ECT for depression and psychosis is higher during the postpartum period than outside this period. The secondary aim was to identify predictors of a response to ECT during the postpartum period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cases with postpartum depression and/or psychosis received ECT within 6 months of delivery. A matched comparison group with depression and/or psychosis (not within the postpartum period) was identified from the Swedish National Quality Register for ECT. The improvement 1 week after ECT was classified according to the Clinical Global Impressions Scale - Improvement scale (CGI-I) as responder (CGI-I score 1-2) or non-responder (CGI-I score 3-7). RESULTS: 185 cases and 185 comparison group subjects were included (46% with psychosis in each groups). More cases (87.0%) than comparison group subjects (73.5%) responded to ECT (p = 0.001). Adjusted binary regression analysis revealed that more severe symptoms prior to treatment were the only statistically significant predictor of response. LIMITATIONS: There was no control group without ECT treatment. CONCLUSION: The response rate of those with postpartum depression and/or psychosis to ECT was high. The response rate of patients with psychosis or depression was higher during the postpartum period than outside it. This study supports the use of ECT for severe forms of postpartum depression and/or psychosis.

18.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 86, 2018 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29666432

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a heritable mood disorder characterized by episodes of mania and depression. Although genomewide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified genetic loci contributing to BD risk, sample size has become a rate-limiting obstacle to genetic discovery. Electronic health records (EHRs) represent a vast but relatively untapped resource for high-throughput phenotyping. As part of the International Cohort Collection for Bipolar Disorder (ICCBD), we previously validated automated EHR-based phenotyping algorithms for BD against in-person diagnostic interviews (Castro et al. Am J Psychiatry 172:363-372, 2015). Here, we establish the genetic validity of these phenotypes by determining their genetic correlation with traditionally ascertained samples. Case and control algorithms were derived from structured and narrative text in the Partners Healthcare system comprising more than 4.6 million patients over 20 years. Genomewide genotype data for 3330 BD cases and 3952 controls of European ancestry were used to estimate SNP-based heritability (h2g) and genetic correlation (rg) between EHR-based phenotype definitions and traditionally ascertained BD cases in GWAS by the ICCBD and Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) using LD score regression. We evaluated BD cases identified using 4 EHR-based algorithms: an NLP-based algorithm (95-NLP) and three rule-based algorithms using codified EHR with decreasing levels of stringency-"coded-strict", "coded-broad", and "coded-broad based on a single clinical encounter" (coded-broad-SV). The analytic sample comprised 862 95-NLP, 1968 coded-strict, 2581 coded-broad, 408 coded-broad-SV BD cases, and 3 952 controls. The estimated h2g were 0.24 (p = 0.015), 0.09 (p = 0.064), 0.13 (p = 0.003), 0.00 (p = 0.591) for 95-NLP, coded-strict, coded-broad and coded-broad-SV BD, respectively. The h2g for all EHR-based cases combined except coded-broad-SV (excluded due to 0 h2g) was 0.12 (p = 0.004). These h2g were lower or similar to the h2g observed by the ICCBD + PGCBD (0.23, p = 3.17E-80, total N = 33,181). However, the rg between ICCBD + PGCBD and the EHR-based cases were high for 95-NLP (0.66, p = 3.69 × 10-5), coded-strict (1.00, p = 2.40 × 10-4), and coded-broad (0.74, p = 8.11 × 10-7). The rg between EHR-based BD definitions ranged from 0.90 to 0.98. These results provide the first genetic validation of automated EHR-based phenotyping for BD and suggest that this approach identifies cases that are highly genetically correlated with those ascertained through conventional methods. High throughput phenotyping using the large data resources available in EHRs represents a viable method for accelerating psychiatric genetic research.

19.
Biol Psychiatry ; 84(11): 810-816, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29331354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uncertainty remains whether bipolar I disorder (BDI) and bipolar II disorder (BDII) differ etiologically. We used a population-based family sample to examine the etiological boundaries between BDI and BDII by assessing their familial aggregation/coaggregation and by assessing the coaggregation between them and schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, eating disorders, autism spectrum disorder, substance use disorders, anxiety disorders, and personality disorders. METHODS: By linking Swedish national registers, we established a population-based cohort (N = 15,685,511) and identified relatives with different biological relationships. Odds ratios (ORs) were used to measure the relative risk of BDI and BDII in relatives of individuals diagnosed with BDI (n = 4309) and BDII (n = 4178). The heritability for BDI and BDII and the genetic correlation across psychiatric disorders were estimated by variance decomposition analysis. RESULTS: Compared with the general population, the OR of BDI was 17.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 13.1-22.0) in first-degree relatives of BDI patients, higher than that of BDII patients (OR 9.8, 95% CI 7.7-12.5). The ORs of BDII were 13.6 (95% CI 10.2-18.2) in first-degree relatives of BDII patients and 9.8 (95% CI 7.7-12.4) in relatives of BDI patients. The heritabilities for BDI and BDII were estimated at 57% (95% CI 32%-79%) and 46% (95% CI 21%-67%), respectively, with a genetic correlation estimated as 0.78 (95% CI 0.36-1.00). The familial coaggregation of other psychiatric disorders, in particular schizophrenia, showed different patterns for BDI and BDII. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a distinction between BDI and BDII in etiology, partly due to genetic differences.

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