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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34842963

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate whether (1) depression is associated with increased risk of past-year intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, disaggregated by sex, after controlling for potential confounders; (2) observed associations are mediated by alcohol misuse or past-year IPV victimisation. METHODS: Systematic review and individual participant data (IPD) meta-mediation analysis of general population surveys of participants aged 16 years or older, that were conducted in a high-income country setting, and measured mental disorder and IPV perpetration in the last 12 months. RESULTS: Four datasets contributed to meta-mediation analyses, with a combined sample of 12,679 participants. Depression was associated with a 7.4% and 4.8% proportion increase of past-year physical IPV perpetration among women and men, respectively. We found no evidence of mediation by alcohol misuse. Among women, past-year IPV victimisation mediated 45% of the total effect of depression on past-year IPV perpetration. Past-year severe IPV victimisation mediated 60% of the total effect of depression on past-year severe IPV perpetration. We could not investigate IPV victimisation as a mediator among men due to perfect prediction. CONCLUSIONS: Mental health services, criminal justice services, and domestic violence perpetrator programmes should be aware that depression is associated with increased risk of IPV perpetration. Interventions to reduce IPV victimisation might help prevent IPV perpetration by women. Data collection on mental disorder and IPV perpetration should be strengthened in future population-based surveys, with greater consistency of data collection across surveys, as only four studies were able to contribute to the meta-mediation analysis.

2.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 276, 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telephone therapist delivered CBT (TCBT) and web-based CBT (WCBT) have been shown to be significantly more clinically effective than treatment as usual (TAU) at reducing IBS symptom severity and impact at 12 months in adults with refractory IBS. In this paper we assess the cost-effectiveness of the interventions. METHODS: Participants were recruited from 74 general practices and three gastroenterology centres in England. Interventions costs were calculated, and other service use and lost employment measured and costed for one-year post randomisation. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were combined with costs to determine cost-effectiveness of TCBT and WCBT compared to TAU. RESULTS: TCBT cost £956 more than TAU (95% CI, £601-£1435) and generated 0.0429 more QALYs. WCBT cost £224 more than TAU (95% CI, - £11 to £448) and produced 0.029 more QALYs. Compared to TAU, TCBT had an incremental cost per QALY of £22,284 while the figure for WCBT was £7724. After multiple imputation these ratios increased to £27,436 and £17,388 respectively. Including lost employment and informal care, TCBT had costs that were on average £866 lower than TAU (95% CI, - £1133 to £2957), and WCBT had costs that were £1028 lower than TAU (95% CI, - £448 to £2580). CONCLUSIONS: TCBT and WCBT resulted in more QALYs and higher costs than TAU. Complete case analysis suggests both therapies are cost-effective from a healthcare perspective. Imputation for missing data reduces cost-effectiveness but WCTB remained cost-effective. If the reduced societal costs are included both interventions are likely to be more cost-effective. Trial registration ISRCTN44427879 (registered 18.11.13).


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Autogestão , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Inglaterra , Humanos , Internet , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/terapia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
3.
Health Technol Assess ; 25(43): 1-144, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dissociative (non-epileptic) seizures are potentially treatable by psychotherapeutic interventions; however, the evidence for this is limited. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of dissociative seizure-specific cognitive-behavioural therapy for adults with dissociative seizures. DESIGN: This was a pragmatic, multicentre, parallel-arm, mixed-methods randomised controlled trial. SETTING: This took place in 27 UK-based neurology/epilepsy services, 17 liaison psychiatry/neuropsychiatry services and 18 cognitive-behavioural therapy services. PARTICIPANTS: Adults with dissociative seizures in the previous 8 weeks and no epileptic seizures in the previous year and meeting other eligibility criteria were recruited to a screening phase from neurology/epilepsy services between October 2014 and February 2017. After psychiatric assessment around 3 months later, eligible and interested participants were randomised between January 2015 and May 2017. INTERVENTIONS: Standardised medical care consisted of input from neurologists and psychiatrists who were given guidance regarding diagnosis delivery and management; they provided patients with information booklets. The intervention consisted of 12 dissociative seizure-specific cognitive-behavioural therapy 1-hour sessions (plus one booster session) that were delivered by trained therapists, in addition to standardised medical care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was monthly seizure frequency at 12 months post randomisation. The secondary outcomes were aspects of seizure occurrence, quality of life, mood, anxiety, distress, symptoms, psychosocial functioning, clinical global change, satisfaction with treatment, quality-adjusted life-years, costs and cost-effectiveness. RESULTS: In total, 698 patients were screened and 368 were randomised (standardised medical care alone, n = 182; and cognitive-behavioural therapy plus standardised medical care, n = 186). Primary outcome data were obtained for 85% of participants. An intention-to-treat analysis with multivariate imputation by chained equations revealed no significant between-group difference in dissociative seizure frequency at 12 months [standardised medical care: median of seven dissociative seizures (interquartile range 1-35 dissociative seizures); cognitive-behavioural therapy and standardised medical care: median of four dissociative seizures (interquartile range 0-20 dissociative seizures); incidence rate ratio 0.78, 95% confidence interval 0.56 to 1.09; p = 0.144]. Of the 16 secondary outcomes analysed, nine were significantly better in the arm receiving cognitive-behavioural therapy at a p-value < 0.05, including the following at a p-value ≤ 0.001: the longest dissociative seizure-free period in months 7-12 inclusive post randomisation (incidence rate ratio 1.64, 95% confidence interval 1.22 to 2.20; p = 0.001); better psychosocial functioning (Work and Social Adjustment Scale, standardised treatment effect -0.39, 95% confidence interval -0.61 to -0.18; p < 0.001); greater self-rated and clinician-rated clinical improvement (self-rated: standardised treatment effect 0.39, 95% confidence interval 0.16 to 0.62; p = 0.001; clinician rated: standardised treatment effect 0.37, 95% confidence interval 0.17 to 0.57; p < 0.001); and satisfaction with treatment (standardised treatment effect 0.50, 95% confidence interval 0.27 to 0.73; p < 0.001). Rates of adverse events were similar across arms. Cognitive-behavioural therapy plus standardised medical care produced 0.0152 more quality-adjusted life-years (95% confidence interval -0.0106 to 0.0392 quality-adjusted life-years) than standardised medical care alone. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (cost per quality-adjusted life-year) for cognitive-behavioural therapy plus standardised medical care versus standardised medical care alone based on the EuroQol-5 Dimensions, five-level version, and imputed data was £120,658. In sensitivity analyses, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios ranged between £85,724 and £206,067. Qualitative and quantitative process evaluations highlighted useful study components, the importance of clinical experience in treating patients with dissociative seizures and potential benefits of our multidisciplinary care pathway. LIMITATIONS: Unlike outcome assessors, participants and clinicians were not blinded to the interventions. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant additional benefit of dissociative seizure-specific cognitive-behavioural therapy in reducing dissociative seizure frequency, and cost-effectiveness over standardised medical care was low. However, this large, adequately powered, multicentre randomised controlled trial highlights benefits of adjunctive dissociative seizure-specific cognitive-behavioural therapy for several clinical outcomes, with no evidence of greater harm from dissociative seizure-specific cognitive-behavioural therapy. FUTURE WORK: Examination of moderators and mediators of outcome. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN05681227 and ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02325544. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 25, No. 43. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Convulsões/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 980, 2021 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substance use is a risk factor for intimate partner abuse (IPA) perpetration. Delivering perpetrator interventions concurrently with substance use treatment shows promise. METHODS: The feasibility of conducting an efficacy and cost-effectiveness trial of the ADVANCE 16-week intervention to reduce IPA by men in substance use treatment was explored. A multicentre, parallel group individually randomised controlled feasibility trial and formative evaluation was conducted. Over three temporal cycles, 104 men who had perpetrated IPA towards a female (ex) partner in the past year were randomly allocated to receive the ADVANCE intervention + substance use treatment as usual (TAU) (n = 54) or TAU only (n = 50) and assessed 16-weeks post-randomisation. Participants' (ex) partners were offered support and 27 provided outcome data. Thirty-one staff and 12 men who attended the intervention participated in focus groups or interviews that were analysed using the framework approach. Pre-specified criteria assessed the feasibility of progression to a definitive trial: 1) ≥ 60% of eligible male participants recruited; 2) intervention acceptable to staff and male participants; 3) ≥ 70% of participants followed-up and 4) levels of substance use and 5) IPA perpetrated by men in the intervention arm did not increase from average baseline level at 16-weeks post-randomisation. RESULTS: 70.7% (104/147) of eligible men were recruited. The formative evaluation confirmed the intervention's acceptability. Therapeutic alliance and session satisfaction were rated highly. The overall median rate of intervention session attendance (of 14 compulsory sessions) was 28.6% (range 14.3-64.3% by the third cycle). 49.0% (51/104) of men and 63.0% (17/27) of their (ex) partners were followed-up 16-weeks post-randomisation. This increased to 100% of men and women by cycle three. At follow-up, neither substance use nor IPA perpetration had worsened for men in the intervention arm. CONCLUSIONS: It was feasible to deliver the ADVANCE intervention in substance use treatment services, although it proved difficult to collect data from female (ex)partners. While some progression criteria were met, others were not, although improvements were demonstrated by the third cycle. Lessons learned will be implemented into the study design for a definitive trial of the ADVANCE intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN79435190 prospectively registered 22nd May 2018.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Análise Custo-Benefício , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e049721, 2021 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate changes in daily mental health (MH) service use and mortality in response to the introduction and the lifting of the COVID-19 'lockdown' policy in Spring 2020. DESIGN: A regression discontinuity in time (RDiT) analysis of daily service-level activity. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Mental healthcare data were extracted from 10 UK providers. OUTCOME MEASURES: Daily (weekly for one site) deaths from all causes, referrals and discharges, inpatient care (admissions, discharges, caseloads) and community services (face-to-face (f2f)/non-f2f contacts, caseloads): Adult, older adult and child/adolescent mental health; early intervention in psychosis; home treatment teams and liaison/Accident and Emergency (A&E). Data were extracted from 1 Jan 2019 to 31 May 2020 for all sites, supplemented to 31 July 2020 for four sites. Changes around the commencement and lifting of COVID-19 'lockdown' policy (23 March and 10 May, respectively) were estimated using a RDiT design with a difference-in-difference approach generating incidence rate ratios (IRRs), meta-analysed across sites. RESULTS: Pooled estimates for the lockdown transition showed increased daily deaths (IRR 2.31, 95% CI 1.86 to 2.87), reduced referrals (IRR 0.62, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.70) and reduced inpatient admissions (IRR 0.75, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.83) and caseloads (IRR 0.85, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.91) compared with the pre lockdown period. All community services saw shifts from f2f to non-f2f contacts, but varied in caseload changes. Lift of lockdown was associated with reduced deaths (IRR 0.42, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.66), increased referrals (IRR 1.36, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.60) and increased inpatient admissions (IRR 1.21, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.42) and caseloads (IRR 1.06, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.12) compared with the lockdown period. Site-wide activity, inpatient care and community services did not return to pre lockdown levels after lift of lockdown, while number of deaths did. Between-site heterogeneity most often indicated variation in size rather than direction of effect. CONCLUSIONS: MH service delivery underwent sizeable changes during the first national lockdown, with as-yet unknown and unevaluated consequences.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Idoso , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Políticas , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677628

RESUMO

To examine the differences in hospital emergency psychiatric presentations for self-harm of children and adolescents during the covid-19 lockdown in March and April 2020 compared with the same period in 2019. Retrospective cohort study. We used electronic patient records from 23 hospital emergency departments in ten countries grouped into 14 areas. We examined data on 2073 acute hospital presentations by 1795 unique children and adolescents through age 18. We examined the total number of emergency psychiatric hospital presentations and the proportion of children and adolescents presenting with severe self-harm as our two main outcome measures. In addition, we examined sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and clinical management variables for those presenting with self-harm. To compare the number of hospital presentations between 2020 and 2019 a negative binomial model was used. For other variables, individual participant data (IPD) meta-analyses were carried out. Emergency psychiatric hospital presentations decreased from 1239 in 2019 to 834 in 2020, incident rate ratio 0.67, 95% CI 0.62-0.73; p < 0.001. The proportion of children and adolescents presenting with self-harm increased from 50% in 2019 to 57% in 2020, odds ratio 1.33, 1.07-1.64; p = 0.009 but there was no difference in the proportion presenting with severe self-harm. Within the subpopulation presenting with self-harm the proportion of children and adolescents presenting with emotional disorders increased from 58 to 66%, odds ratio 1.58, 1.06-2.36; p = 0.025. The proportion of children and adolescents admitted to an observation ward also decreased from 13 to 9% in 2020, odds ratio 0.52, 0.28-0.96; p = 0.036. Service planners should consider that, during a lockdown, there are likely to be fewer emergency psychiatric presentations. Many children and adolescents with psychiatric emergencies might not receive any service. A focus on developing intensive community care services with outreach capabilities should be prioritised.

7.
Psychol Med ; 51(14): 2433-2445, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined demographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics of a large cohort (n = 368) of adults with dissociative seizures (DS) recruited to the CODES randomised controlled trial (RCT) and explored differences associated with age at onset of DS, gender, and DS semiology. METHODS: Prior to randomisation within the CODES RCT, we collected demographic and clinical data on 368 participants. We assessed psychiatric comorbidity using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) and a screening measure of personality disorder and measured anxiety, depression, psychological distress, somatic symptom burden, emotional expression, functional impact of DS, avoidance behaviour, and quality of life. We undertook comparisons based on reported age at DS onset (<40 v. ⩾40), gender (male v. female), and DS semiology (predominantly hyperkinetic v. hypokinetic). RESULTS: Our cohort was predominantly female (72%) and characterised by high levels of socio-economic deprivation. Two-thirds had predominantly hyperkinetic DS. Of the total, 69% had ⩾1 comorbid M.I.N.I. diagnosis (median number = 2), with agoraphobia being the most common concurrent diagnosis. Clinical levels of distress were reported by 86% and characteristics associated with maladaptive personality traits by 60%. Moderate-to-severe functional impairment, high levels of somatic symptoms, and impaired quality of life were also reported. Women had a younger age at DS onset than men. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the burden of psychopathology and socio-economic deprivation in a large, heterogeneous cohort of patients with DS. The lack of clear differences based on gender, DS semiology and age at onset suggests these factors do not add substantially to the heterogeneity of the cohort.

8.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 56(1): 25-37, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857218

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic has potential to disrupt and burden the mental health care system, and to magnify inequalities experienced by mental health service users. METHODS: We investigated staff reports regarding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in its early weeks on mental health care and mental health service users in the UK using a mixed methods online survey. Recruitment channels included professional associations and networks, charities, and social media. Quantitative findings were reported with descriptive statistics, and content analysis conducted for qualitative data. RESULTS: 2,180 staff from a range of sectors, professions, and specialties participated. Immediate infection control concerns were highly salient for inpatient staff, new ways of working for community staff. Multiple rapid adaptations and innovations in response to the crisis were described, especially remote working. This was cautiously welcomed but found successful in only some clinical situations. Staff had specific concerns about many groups of service users, including people whose conditions are exacerbated by pandemic anxieties and social disruptions; people experiencing loneliness, domestic abuse and family conflict; those unable to understand and follow social distancing requirements; and those who cannot engage with remote care. CONCLUSION: This overview of staff concerns and experiences in the early COVID-19 pandemic suggests directions for further research and service development: we suggest that how to combine infection control and a therapeutic environment in hospital, and how to achieve effective and targeted tele-health implementation in the community, should be priorities. The limitations of our convenience sample must be noted.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
9.
BMC Fam Pract ; 21(1): 226, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158424

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

10.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(11): e18691, 2020 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is recommended in guidelines for people with refractory irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, the availability of CBT is limited, and poor adherence has been reported in face-to-face CBT. OBJECTIVE: Nested within a randomized controlled trial of telephone- and web-delivered CBT for refractory IBS, this qualitative study aims to identify barriers to and facilitators of engagement over time with the interventions, identify social and psychological processes of change, and provide insight into trial results. METHODS: A longitudinal qualitative study was nested in a randomized controlled trial. Repeated semistructured interviews were conducted at 3 (n=34) and 12 months (n=25) post baseline. Participants received telephone-based CBT (TCBT; n=17 at 3 months and n=13 at 12 months) or web-based CBT (WCBT; n=17 at 3 months and n=12 at 12 months). Inductive thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Participants viewed CBT as credible for IBS, perceived their therapists as knowledgeable and supportive, and liked the flexibility of web-based and telephone-based delivery; these factors facilitated engagement. Potential barriers to engagement in both groups (mostly overcome by our participants) included initial skepticism and concerns about the biopsychosocial nature of CBT, initial concerns about telephone-delivered talking therapy, challenges of maintaining motivation and self-discipline given already busy lives, and finding nothing new in the WCBT (WCBT group only). Participants described helpful changes in their understanding of IBS, attitudes toward IBS, ability to recognize IBS patterns, and IBS-related behaviors. Consistent with the trial results, participants described lasting positive effects on their symptoms, work, and social lives. Reasons and remedies for some attenuation of effects were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Both TCBT and WCBT for IBS were positively received and had lasting positive impacts on participants' understanding of IBS, IBS-related behaviors, symptoms, and quality of life. These forms of CBT may broaden access to CBT for IBS.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/terapia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Telefone/instrumentação , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
BMC Fam Pract ; 21(1): 207, 2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients continue to suffer from medically unexplained symptoms otherwise referred to as persistent physical symptoms (PPS). General practitioners (GPs) play a key role in the management of PPS and require further training. Patients are often frustrated with the care they receive. This study aims to assess the acceptability of an 'integrated GP care' approach which consists of offering self-help materials to patients with PPS and offering their GPs training on how to utilise cognitive behavioural skills within their consultations, as well as assessing the feasibility of conducting a future trial in primary care to evaluate its benefit. METHODS: A feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in primary care, South London, UK. GP practices (clusters) were randomly allocated to 'integrated GP care plus treatment as usual' or 'treatment as usual'. Patients with PPS were recruited from participating GP practices before randomisation. Feasibility parameters, process variables and potential outcome measures were collected at pre-randomisation and at 12- and 24-weeks post-randomisation at cluster and individual participant level. RESULTS: Two thousand nine hundred seventy-eight patients were identified from 18 GP practices. Out of the 424 patients who responded with interest in the study, 164 fully met the eligibility criteria. One hundred sixty-one patients provided baseline data before cluster randomisation and therefore were able to participate in the study. Most feasibility parameters indicated that the intervention was acceptable and a future trial feasible. 50 GPs from 8 GP practices (randomised to intervention) attended the offer of training and provided positive feedback. Scores in GP knowledge and confidence increased post-training. Follow-up rate of patients at 24 weeks was 87%. However estimated effect sizes on potential clinical outcomes were small. CONCLUSIONS: It was feasible to identify and recruit patients with PPS. Retention rates of participants up to 24 weeks were high. A wide range of health services were used. The intervention was relatively low cost and low risk. This complex intervention should be further developed to improve patients'/GPs' utilisation of audio/visual and training resources before proceeding to a full trial evaluation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02444520  (ClinicalTrials.gov).


Assuntos
Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Sintomas Inexplicáveis , Estudos de Viabilidade , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde
13.
Clin Trials ; 17(6): 654-663, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgical interventions allow for tailoring of treatment to individual patients and implementation may vary with surgeon and healthcare provider. In addition, in clinical trials assessing two competing surgical interventions, the treatments may be accompanied by co-interventions. AIMS: This study explores the use of causal mediation analysis to (1) delineate the treatment effect that results directly from the surgical intervention under study and the indirect effect acting through a co-intervention and (2) to evaluate the benefit of the surgical intervention if either everybody in the trial population received the co-intervention or nobody received it. METHODS: Within a counterfactual framework, relevant direct and indirect effects of a surgical intervention are estimated and adjusted for confounding via parametric regression models, for the situation where both mediator and outcome are binary, with baseline stratification factors included as fixed effects and surgeons as random intercepts. The causal difference in probability of a successful outcome (estimand of interest) is calculated using Monte Carlo simulation with bootstrapping for confidence intervals. Packages for estimation within standard statistical software are reviewed briefly. A step by step application of methods is illustrated using the Amaze randomised trial of ablation as an adjunct to cardiac surgery in patients with irregular heart rhythm, with a co-intervention (removal of the left atrial appendage) administered to a subset of participants at the surgeon's discretion. The primary outcome was return to normal heart rhythm at one year post surgery. RESULTS: In Amaze, 17% (95% confidence interval: 6%, 28%) more patients in the active arm had a successful outcome, but there was a large difference between active and control arms in the proportion of patients who received the co-intervention (55% and 30%, respectively). Causal mediation analysis suggested that around 1% of the treatment effect was attributable to the co-intervention (16% natural direct effect). The controlled direct effect ranged from 18% (6%, 30%) if the co-intervention were mandated, to 14% (2%, 25%) if it were prohibited. Including age as a moderator of the mediation effects showed that the natural direct effect of ablation appeared to decrease with age. CONCLUSIONS: Causal mediation analysis is a useful quantitative tool to explore mediating effects of co-interventions in surgical trials. In Amaze, investigators could be reassured that the effect of the active treatment, not explainable by differential use of the co-intervention, was significant across analyses.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Análise de Mediação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Técnicas de Ablação/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Causalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Método de Monte Carlo , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32426156

RESUMO

Background: Strong evidence exists that substance use is a contributory risk factor for intimate partner abuse (IPA) perpetration. Men in substance use treatment are more likely to perpetrate IPA than men from the general population. Despite this, referral pathways are lacking for this group. This trial will assess the feasibility of conducting an evaluation trial of a tailored integrated intervention to address substance use and IPA perpetration to men in substance use treatment. Methods/design: ADVANCE is a multicentre, parallel-group individually randomised controlled feasibility trial, with a nested formative evaluation, comparing an integrated intervention to reduce IPA + substance use treatment as usual (TAU) to TAU only. One hundred and eight men who have perpetrated IPA in the past 12 months from community substance use treatment in London, the West Midlands, and the South West will be recruited. ADVANCE is a manualised intervention comprising 2-4 individual sessions (2 compulsory) with a keyworker to set goals, develop a personal safety plan and increase motivation and readiness, followed by a 12-session weekly group intervention delivered in substance use services. Men will be randomly allocated (ratio 1:1) to receive the ADVANCE intervention + TAU or TAU only. Men's female (ex) partners will be invited to provide outcome data and offered support from integrated safety services (ISS). Regular case management meetings between substance use and ISS will manage risk. Outcome measures will be obtained at the end of the intervention (approximately 4 months post-randomisation) for all male and female participants. The main objective of this feasibility trial is to estimate parameters required for planning a definitive trial including rates of consent, recruitment, and follow-up by site and group allocation. Nested formative evaluation including focus groups and in-depth interviews will explore the intervention's acceptability to participants, group facilitators, keyworkers and ISS workers. Secondary outcomes include substance use, IPA, mental health, self-management, health and social care service use, criminal justice contacts, and quality of life. Discussion: Findings from this feasibility trial will inform the design of a multicentre randomised controlled trial evaluating the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the ADVANCE intervention for reducing IPA and improving the well-being of female (ex)partners. Trial registration: ISRCTN79435190.

15.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(6): 491-505, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dissociative seizures are paroxysmal events resembling epilepsy or syncope with characteristic features that allow them to be distinguished from other medical conditions. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) plus standardised medical care with standardised medical care alone for the reduction of dissociative seizure frequency. METHODS: In this pragmatic, parallel-arm, multicentre randomised controlled trial, we initially recruited participants at 27 neurology or epilepsy services in England, Scotland, and Wales. Adults (≥18 years) who had dissociative seizures in the previous 8 weeks and no epileptic seizures in the previous 12 months were subsequently randomly assigned (1:1) from 17 liaison or neuropsychiatry services following psychiatric assessment, to receive standardised medical care or CBT plus standardised medical care, using a web-based system. Randomisation was stratified by neuropsychiatry or liaison psychiatry recruitment site. The trial manager, chief investigator, all treating clinicians, and patients were aware of treatment allocation, but outcome data collectors and trial statisticians were unaware of treatment allocation. Patients were followed up 6 months and 12 months after randomisation. The primary outcome was monthly dissociative seizure frequency (ie, frequency in the previous 4 weeks) assessed at 12 months. Secondary outcomes assessed at 12 months were: seizure severity (intensity) and bothersomeness; longest period of seizure freedom in the previous 6 months; complete seizure freedom in the previous 3 months; a greater than 50% reduction in seizure frequency relative to baseline; changes in dissociative seizures (rated by others); health-related quality of life; psychosocial functioning; psychiatric symptoms, psychological distress, and somatic symptom burden; and clinical impression of improvement and satisfaction. p values and statistical significance for outcomes were reported without correction for multiple comparisons as per our protocol. Primary and secondary outcomes were assessed in the intention-to-treat population with multiple imputation for missing observations. This trial is registered with the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial registry, ISRCTN05681227, and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02325544. FINDINGS: Between Jan 16, 2015, and May 31, 2017, we randomly assigned 368 patients to receive CBT plus standardised medical care (n=186) or standardised medical care alone (n=182); of whom 313 had primary outcome data at 12 months (156 [84%] of 186 patients in the CBT plus standardised medical care group and 157 [86%] of 182 patients in the standardised medical care group). At 12 months, no significant difference in monthly dissociative seizure frequency was identified between the groups (median 4 seizures [IQR 0-20] in the CBT plus standardised medical care group vs 7 seizures [1-35] in the standardised medical care group; estimated incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0·78 [95% CI 0·56-1·09]; p=0·144). Dissociative seizures were rated as less bothersome in the CBT plus standardised medical care group than the standardised medical care group (estimated mean difference -0·53 [95% CI -0·97 to -0·08]; p=0·020). The CBT plus standardised medical care group had a longer period of dissociative seizure freedom in the previous 6 months (estimated IRR 1·64 [95% CI 1·22 to 2·20]; p=0·001), reported better health-related quality of life on the EuroQoL-5 Dimensions-5 Level Health Today visual analogue scale (estimated mean difference 6·16 [95% CI 1·48 to 10·84]; p=0·010), less impairment in psychosocial functioning on the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (estimated mean difference -4·12 [95% CI -6·35 to -1·89]; p<0·001), less overall psychological distress than the standardised medical care group on the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-10 scale (estimated mean difference -1·65 [95% CI -2·96 to -0·35]; p=0·013), and fewer somatic symptoms on the modified Patient Health Questionnaire-15 scale (estimated mean difference -1·67 [95% CI -2·90 to -0·44]; p=0·008). Clinical improvement at 12 months was greater in the CBT plus standardised medical care group than the standardised medical care alone group as reported by patients (estimated mean difference 0·66 [95% CI 0·26 to 1·04]; p=0·001) and by clinicians (estimated mean difference 0·47 [95% CI 0·21 to 0·73]; p<0·001), and the CBT plus standardised medical care group had greater satisfaction with treatment than did the standardised medical care group (estimated mean difference 0·90 [95% CI 0·48 to 1·31]; p<0·001). No significant differences in patient-reported seizure severity (estimated mean difference -0·11 [95% CI -0·50 to 0·29]; p=0·593) or seizure freedom in the last 3 months of the study (estimated odds ratio [OR] 1·77 [95% CI 0·93 to 3·37]; p=0·083) were identified between the groups. Furthermore, no significant differences were identified in the proportion of patients who had a more than 50% reduction in dissociative seizure frequency compared with baseline (OR 1·27 [95% CI 0·80 to 2·02]; p=0·313). Additionally, the 12-item Short Form survey-version 2 scores (estimated mean difference for the Physical Component Summary score 1·78 [95% CI -0·37 to 3·92]; p=0·105; estimated mean difference for the Mental Component Summary score 2·22 [95% CI -0·30 to 4·75]; p=0·084), the Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 scale score (estimated mean difference -1·09 [95% CI -2·27 to 0·09]; p=0·069), and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scale depression score (estimated mean difference -1·10 [95% CI -2·41 to 0·21]; p=0·099) did not differ significantly between groups. Changes in dissociative seizures (rated by others) could not be assessed due to insufficient data. During the 12-month period, the number of adverse events was similar between the groups: 57 (31%) of 186 participants in the CBT plus standardised medical care group reported 97 adverse events and 53 (29%) of 182 participants in the standardised medical care group reported 79 adverse events. INTERPRETATION: CBT plus standardised medical care had no statistically significant advantage compared with standardised medical care alone for the reduction of monthly seizures. However, improvements were observed in a number of clinically relevant secondary outcomes following CBT plus standardised medical care when compared with standardised medical care alone. Thus, adults with dissociative seizures might benefit from the addition of dissociative seizure-specific CBT to specialist care from neurologists and psychiatrists. Future work is needed to identify patients who would benefit most from a dissociative seizure-specific CBT approach. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research, Health Technology Assessment programme.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Transtornos Dissociativos/terapia , Convulsões/terapia , Adulto , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Transtornos Dissociativos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Dissociativos/psicologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Qualidade de Vida , Escócia/epidemiologia , Convulsões/psicologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , País de Gales/epidemiologia
16.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 59(8): 933-943, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084529

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is concern whether established parenting programs for children's conduct problems meet the needs of families with severe and complex mental health problems. For example, many children with conduct problems show comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or emotional problems, or have parents who are depressed, but families with such complex mental health problems typically seen in real life are often underrepresented in evaluation trials. We tested whether children with more severe conduct problems, and those with more complex mental health problems, benefit less from the Incredible Years parenting program, using individual participant data meta-analysis of randomized trials in Europe. METHOD: In 1,696 families from 13 children aged (child age 2-11 years; 37% girls; 58% low income; 30% ethnic minority; 98% mothers), we used moderator analysis within a multilevel model to test whether initial conduct problem severity, comorbid ADHD or emotional problems, and maternal depression would diminish intervention effects for children's conduct problems. RESULTS: The Incredible Years program reduced children's conduct problems overall (Cohen's d = -0.35), but more so in children with more severe conduct problems. There was no evidence that children's comorbid ADHD and emotional problems changed the intervention benefits. Children of mothers with more depressive symptoms benefited more. CONCLUSION: Children with more severe conduct problems derive greater, rather than lesser, benefits from a high-quality group parenting program, and comorbid ADHD and emotional problems do not reduce effects; maternal depression, rather than being linked to less child change, was associated with greater reductions in children's conduct problems.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Depressão , Grupos Étnicos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários , Poder Familiar
17.
Trials ; 21(1): 14, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People experiencing their first episode of psychosis are often deficient in vitamin D. Observational studies have reported an association between low vitamin D concentrations and poorer subsequent health outcomes in psychosis. A vitamin D deficiency in neonates and children has been linked to a later increased risk of schizophrenia and psychotic-like experiences. This trial aims to examine the effect of high-dose vitamin D supplementation on outcomes in early psychosis. We hypothesise that vitamin D supplementation will be associated with better mental health outcomes. METHODS/DESIGN: The DFEND study is a multicentre double-blind placebo-controlled parallel-group trial of vitamin D supplementation in people with early psychosis. Patients with an ICD-10 diagnosis of functional psychosis will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive either 120,000 IU/month of vitamin D (cholecalciferol) or a matched placebo for 6 months. The primary outcome is the total Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) score at the 6-month follow-up for all patients. Secondary outcomes include assessment of mood (Calgary Depression Scale), general function (Global Assessment of Functioning), cardiovascular risk (body mass index, waist circumference, C-reactive protein, cholesterol and HbA1c) and vitamin D levels at the 6-month follow-up. Additionally, 3- and 6-month total PANSS scores will be analysed for those with inadequate vitamin D levels at the baseline. DISCUSSION: The DFEND study is the first trial to examine whether vitamin D supplementation in early psychosis is associated with better mental health outcomes. The findings of this study may help to resolve the clinical equipoise regarding the benefits and cost-effectiveness of routine vitamin D supplementation in people with psychosis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN, ISRCTN12424842. Registered on 25 February 2015.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Neuroproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroproteção/fisiologia , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Placebos/efeitos adversos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Psicóticos/sangue , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina D/efeitos adversos , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/fisiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Stat Methods Med Res ; 29(4): 1129-1148, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172884

RESUMO

Causal mediation analysis aims to estimate natural direct and natural indirect effects under clearly specified assumptions. Traditional mediation analysis based on Ordinary Least Squares assumes an absence of unmeasured causes to the putative mediator and outcome. When these assumptions cannot be justified, instrumental variable estimators can be used in order to produce an asymptotically unbiased estimator of the mediator-outcome link, commonly referred to as a Two-Stage Least Squares estimator. Such bias removal, however, comes at the cost of variance inflation. A Semi-Parametric Stein-Like estimator has been proposed in the literature that strikes a natural trade-off between the unbiasedness of the Two-Stage Least Squares procedure and the relatively small variance of the Ordinary Least Squares estimator. The Semi-Parametric Stein-Like estimator has the advantage of allowing for a direct estimation of its shrinkage parameter. In this paper, we demonstrate how this Stein-like estimator can be implemented in the context of the estimation of natural direct and natural indirect effects of treatments in randomized controlled trials. The performance of the competing methods is studied in a simulation study, in which both the strength of hidden confounding and the strength of the instruments are independently varied. These considerations are motivated by a trial in mental health, evaluating the impact of a primary care-based intervention to reduce depression in the elderly.


Assuntos
Análise de Mediação , Modelos Estatísticos , Viés , Causalidade , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
19.
Trials ; 20(1): 663, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent disorder, seen in 20-30% of young adult prisoners. Pharmacoepidemiological studies, a small randomised controlled trial and open trial data of methylphenidate suggest clinically significant reductions in ADHD symptoms, emotional dysregulation, disruptive behaviour and increased engagement with educational activities. Yet, routine treatment of ADHD in offenders is not yet established clinical practice. There is continued uncertainty about the clinical response to methylphenidate (MPH), a first-line treatment for ADHD, in offenders, who often present with an array of complex mental health problems that may be better explained by states of inattentive, overactive, restless and impulsive behaviours. To address this problem, we will conduct an efficacy trial to establish the short-term effects of osmotic-controlled release oral delivery system (OROS)-methylphenidate (Concerta XL), an extended release formulation of MPH, on ADHD symptoms, emotional dysregulation and behaviour. METHODS: This study is a parallel-arm, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of OROS-MPH on ADHD symptoms, behaviour and functional outcomes in young male prisoners aged 16-25, meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition criteria for ADHD. Participants are randomised to 8 weeks of treatment with OROS-MPH or placebo, titrated over 5 weeks to balance ADHD symptom improvement against side effects. Two hundred participants will be recruited with a 1:1 ratio of drug to placebo. The primary outcome is change in level of ADHD symptoms after 8 weeks of trial medication. DISCUSSION: Potential benefits include improvement in ADHD symptoms, emotional dysregulation, attitudes towards violence and critical incidents and increased engagement with educational and rehabilitation programmes. Demonstrating the efficacy and safety of MPH on ADHD symptoms and associated impairments may provide the data needed to develop effective healthcare pathways for a significant group of young offenders. Establishing efficacy of MPH in this population will provide the foundation needed to establish long-term effectiveness studies with the potential for demonstrating significant reductions in criminal behaviour and improved health-economic outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN registry, ISRCTN16827947, 31st May 2016; EudraCT number, 2015-004271-78, 31st May 2016. Last particpant last visit 6 June 2019. Data lock 27 August 2019.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Metilfenidato/administração & dosagem , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Humanos , Masculino , Metilfenidato/efeitos adversos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Seleção de Pacientes , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 307, 2019 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persistent physical symptoms (PPS), also known as medically unexplained symptoms (MUS), affect approximately 50% of patients in secondary care and are often associated with disability, psychological distress and increased health care costs. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has demonstrated both short- and long-term efficacy with small to medium effect sizes for PPS, with larger treatment effects for specific PPS syndromes, including non-cardiac chest pain, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Research indicates that PPS conditions share similar cognitive and behavioural responses to symptoms, such as avoidance and unhelpful beliefs. This suggests that a transdiagnostic approach may be beneficial for patients with PPS. METHODS: A randomised controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted to evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a transdiagnostic CBT-based intervention for PPS. 322 participants with PPS will be recruited from secondary care clinics. Participants stratified by clinic and disability level will be randomised to CBT plus standard medical care (SMC) versus SMC alone. The intervention consists of 8 CBT sessions delivered by a qualified therapist over a period of 20 weeks. Outcomes will be assessed at 9, 20, 40- and 52-weeks post randomisation. Efficacy will be assessed by examining the difference between arms in the primary outcome Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS) at 52 weeks after randomisation. Secondary outcomes will include mood, symptom severity and clinical global impression at 9, 20, 40 and 52 weeks. Cost-effectiveness will be evaluated by combining measures of health service use, informal care, loss of working hours and financial benefits at 52 weeks. DISCUSSION: This trial will provide a powered evaluation of the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a transdiagnostic CBT approach versus SMC for patients with PPS. It will also provide valuable information about potential healthcare pathways for patients with PPS within the National Health Service (NHS). TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02426788. Registered 27 April 2015. Overall trial status: Ongoing; Recruitment status: No longer recruiting.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Atenção Secundária à Saúde/métodos , Transtornos Somatoformes/terapia , Adulto , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Atenção Secundária à Saúde/economia , Transtornos Somatoformes/economia , Transtornos Somatoformes/psicologia , Medicina Estatal , Resultado do Tratamento
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