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1.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 83(7): 269-278, 2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285757

RESUMO

Previously an increased risk for monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), a precursor of multiple myeloma (MM), was reported among Vietnam veterans exposed to Agent Orange and its contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Dysregulated expression of certain microRNAs (miRNAs) was demonstrated in MGUS and MM. Given the important role of miRNAs in cellular homeostasis, the aim of this study was to determine if there was an association between serum levels of selected miRNAs and TCDD in 47 MGUS cases identified in our previous investigation using serum specimens and exposure data archived by the Air Force Health Study (AFHS). A total of 13 miRNA levels (let-7a, let-7i, miR-16, miR-20a, miR-21, miR-34a, miR-106b, miR-146a, miR-181a, miR-192, miR-205, miR-335, and miR-361) was measured in serum stored during the 2002 AFHS follow-up and the relationship to lipid-adjusted serum TCDD levels in 1987 was determined. miR-34a showed the strongest relationship with TCDD; after age-adjustment, this positive association was more pronounced. In contrast, the other 12 miRNAs displayed absolute values of age adjusted coefficient estimates below 1.16 and non-significant p-values. The observed strong positive association between high body burdens of TCDD and miR-34a, a tumor suppressor regulated by p53, in this MGUS population warrants clarification of the TCDD-miR-34a relationship and its role in the pathogenesis of MGUS and risk for MM.

2.
J Mol Diagn ; 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302778

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a systemic malignancy of monoclonal plasma cells that accounts for 10% of hematologic cancers. With development of highly effective therapies for MM, minimal residual disease assessment (MRD) has emerged an important end point for management decisions. Currently, serological assays lack the sensitivity for MRD assessment, and invasive bone marrow sampling with flow cytometry or molecular methods has emerged as the gold standard. We report a sensitive and robust targeted mass spectrometry proteomics method to detect MRD in serum, without the need of invasive, sequential bone marrow aspirates. The method detects immunoglobulin (Ig) derived clonotypic tryptic peptides predicted by sequencing the clonal plasma cell Ig genes. A heavy isotope labeled Ig internal standard is added to patient serum at a known concentration, the Ig is enriched in a light chain type specific manner, proteins are digested and analyzed by targeted mass spectrometry. Peptides from the constant regions of the lambda or kappa light chains, Ig heavy chains, and clonotypic peptides unique to the patient monoclonal immunoglobulins are targeted. This technique is highly sensitive and specific for the patient specific monoclonal immunoglobulins, even in samples negative by multi-parametric flow cytometry. Our method can accurately and precisely detect monoclonal protein in serum of patients treated for myeloma and has broad implications for management of hematologic patients.

3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1917, 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317634

RESUMO

The evolution and progression of multiple myeloma and its precursors over time is poorly understood. Here, we investigate the landscape and timing of mutational processes shaping multiple myeloma evolution in a large cohort of 89 whole genomes and 973 exomes. We identify eight processes, including a mutational signature caused by exposure to melphalan. Reconstructing the chronological activity of each mutational signature, we estimate that the initial transformation of a germinal center B-cell usually occurred during the first 2nd-3rd decades of life. We define four main patterns of activation-induced deaminase (AID) and apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC) mutagenesis over time, including a subset of patients with evidence of prolonged AID activity during the pre-malignant phase, indicating antigen-responsiveness and germinal center reentry. Our findings provide a framework to study the etiology of multiple myeloma and explore strategies for prevention and early detection.

5.
Value Health ; 23(4): 441-450, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327161

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In the field of relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM), between-trial or indirect comparisons are required to estimate relative treatment effects between competing interventions based on the available evidence. Two approaches are frequently used in RRMM: network meta-analysis (NMA) and unanchored matching-adjusted indirect comparison (MAIC). The objective of the current study was to evaluate the relevance and credibility of published NMA and unanchored MAIC studies aiming to estimate the comparative efficacy of treatment options for RRMM. METHODS: Twelve relevant studies were identified in the published literature (n = 7) and from health technology assessment agencies (n = 5). Data from trials were extracted to identify between-trial differences that may have biased results. Credibility of the performed analyses and relevance of the research questions were critically appraised using the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) checklist and feedback based on consultations with clinical experts. RESULTS: The identified studies concerned NMAs of randomized controlled trials (RCTs; n = 7), unanchored MAICs (n = 4), or both types of analyses (n = 1). According to clinical expert consultation, the majority of the identified NMAs did not consider differences in prior therapies or treatment duration across the RCTs included in the analyses, thereby compromising the relevance. CONCLUSION: Based on the results and feedback from clinicians, the majority of NMAs did not consider prior treatment history or treatment duration, which resulted in nonrelevant comparisons. Furthermore, it may have compromised the credibility of the estimates owing to differences in effect-modifiers between the different trials. Pairwise comparisons by means of unanchored MAICs require clear justification given the reliance on non-randomized comparisons.

6.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 44(6): 838-848, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118627

RESUMO

In patients with multiple myeloma, plasmablastic transformation in the bone marrow is rare and associated with poor outcomes. The significance of discordant extramedullary plasmablastic transformation in patients with small, mature clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow has not been well studied. Here, we report the clinicopathologic, cytogenetic, and molecular features of 10 such patients (male/female: 6/4, median age: 65 y, range: 48 to 76 y) with an established diagnosis of multiple myeloma in the bone marrow composed of small, mature plasma cells in parallel with a concurrent or subsequent extramedullary plasmablastic transformation. Eight patients with available survival data showed an overall aggressive clinical course with a median survival of 4.5 months after the diagnosis of extramedullary plasmablastic transformation, despite aggressive treatment and even in patients with low-level bone marrow involvement. Pathologically, the extramedullary plasmablastic myeloma were clonally related to the corresponding bone marrow plasma cells, showed high levels of CMYC and/or P53 expression with a high Ki-67 proliferation index by immunohistochemistry and harbored more complex genomic aberrations including frequent mutations in the RAS pathway and MYC rearrangements compared with their bone marrow counterparts. In summary, although genetic and immunohistochemical studies were not uniformly performed on all cases due to the retrospective nature of this study, our data suggest that discordant extramedullary plasmablastic transformation of multiple myeloma has an aggressive clinical course and is characterized by frequent mutations in the RAS pathway and more complex genomic abnormalities.

7.
Invest New Drugs ; 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125598

RESUMO

This phase 1 study sought to characterize the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic behavior of VLX1570, a small molecule inhibitor of the deubiquitinases (DUBs) that remove sterically bulky ubiquitin chains from proteins during processing in the19S regulatory subunit of the proteasome, in patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (MM). Fourteen patients were treated with escalating doses of VLX1570 ranging from 0.05 to 1.2 mg/kg as a brief intravenous (IV) infusion on Days 1, 2, 8, 9, 15, and 16 of a 28-day cycle. Due to its poor aqueous solubility, VLX1570 was formulated in polyethylene glycol, polyoxyethylated castor oil, and polysorbate 80 and administered as a brief intravenous (IV) infusion via a central venous catheter. Anti-myeloma effects were noted at doses at or above 0.6 mg/kg, however, two patients treated at the 1.2 mg/kg dose level experienced severe, abrupt, and progressive respiratory insufficiency, which was associated with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates on imaging studies, similar to those rarely noted with bortezomib and other inhibitors of the 20S proteasome, culminating in death. Although the contribution of VLX1570's formulation to the pulmonary toxicity could not be ruled out, the severity and precipitous nature of the toxicity and the steep relationship between dose and toxicity, the study was discontinued. Despite the severe pulmonary toxicity noted with VLX1570, efforts directed at identifying DUB inhibitors with greater therapeutic indices appear warranted based on the unique mechanism of action, robustness of preclinical antitumor activity, and activity of the DUB inhibitors in MM resistant to PIs targeting the 20S proteasome subunit.

11.
Br J Haematol ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026474

RESUMO

Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) may soon replace routine electrophoretic methods for monitoring monoclonal proteins in patients with multiple myeloma. To further evaluate the clinical utility of this assay, we compared the performance of MALDI-TOF-MS head-to-head with an established bone marrow-based measurable residual disease assay by flow cytometry (Flow-BM-MRD), using Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center's 10-color, single-tube method. Our results suggest that MALDI-TOF-MS adds value to bone marrow-based MRD testing and may be most useful for early detection of relapse in peripheral blood compared to current electrophoretic methods.

12.
Thromb Res ; 186: 86-92, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927271

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There are conflicting results whether elevated hematocrit is associated with an increased risk of thromboembolic events in individuals without polycythemia vera. To assess the risk of vascular events in relation to hemoglobin concentration, we conducted a large population-based cohort study based on Scandinavian health registers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 1,538,019 Swedish and Danish blood donors between 1987 and 2012. Hazard ratios (HRs) of arterial and venous thrombosis were estimated using Cox regression. Additionally, we fitted person-stratified models where each donor was compared only to him-/herself. RESULTS: The risk of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke increased with higher hemoglobin concentration in both men and women. The HRs for myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke in men with hemoglobin concentration ≥ 17.5 g/dL were 3.52 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.85-4.36) and 2.36 (95% CI, 1.63-3.43), respectively, compared to the reference group. The corresponding HRs for women with hemoglobin concentration ≥ 16.0 g/dL were 3.22 (2.12-4.89) and 2.35 (1.37-4.02) for myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke, respectively. The risk of venous thrombosis was highest in men with subnormal hemoglobin concentration (<13.0 g/dL), HR 1.69 (95% CI, 1.40-2.04). In the person-stratified model, the association between elevated hemoglobin concentration and risk of myocardial infarction was attenuated but remained significant. CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort of Scandinavian blood donors, elevated hemoglobin concentration was associated with an increased risk of vascular events, primarily arterial events. Even though associations were weakened when each person served as their own control, a high hemoglobin concentration may serve as a cardiovascular risk marker.

13.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 26(1): 58-65, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493537

RESUMO

Despite ongoing therapeutic advances, multiple myeloma (MM) remains largely incurable, and outcomes in patients who develop resistance to immunomodulatory drugs or proteasome inhibitors remain grim. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) is an alternative option that may offer potential for cure. Although rates of transplantation-related morbidity and mortality have decreased in recent years, weighing this approach's potential benefits against nontransplantation therapies demands a thoroughly informed pre-alloHCT assessment. Here we assess the impact of pre-alloHCT variables on important clinical outcomes in a large cohort of relapsed refractory MM (RRMM) CD34+-selected alloHCT recipients. We included all patients with MM who underwent CD34+-selected alloHCT at our center between June 2010 and December 2015. Patients were conditioned with busulfan (0.8 mg/kg × 10), melphalan (70 mg/m2 × 2), and fludarabine (25 mg/m2 × 5), followed by infusion of a CD34+-selected peripheral blood stem cell graft, without post-alloHCT graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. The 73-patient cohort had a median age of 55 years (range, 37 to 66 years). Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 70% and 53%, respectively, at 1 year (95% confidence interval [CI], 58% to 79% and 41% to 64%) and 50% and 30%, respectively, at 3 years (95% CI, 38% to 62% and 19% to 41%). The cumulative incidence of relapse was 25% at 1 year (95% CI, 15% to 35%) and 47% at 3 years (95% CI, 35% to 58%). Nonrelapse mortality at 1 year was 22% (95% CI, 13% to 32%). The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) was 7% at 100 days (95% CI, 3% to 14%), and that of any chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was 8% at 1 year (95% CI, 3% to 16%). International Staging System (ISS) stage II-III assessed before salvage therapy was associated with poorer 3-year OS (30% versus 54%; P = .037) and 3-year PFS (9% versus 33%; P = .013), and increased 3-year relapse incidence (72% versus 39%; P = .004). Older age and GVHD before 6 months (aGVHD grade II-IV or cGVHD of any grade) were also associated with poorer OS, and a greater number of pre-alloHCT lines of therapy was also associated with increased relapse incidence. Our findings reinforce that CD34+-selected alloHCT can achieve prolonged disease control and long-term survival in high- risk, heavily treated refractory MM populations. We also identified numerous pre-alloHCT variables associated with OS, PFS, and relapse. Amongst these, presalvage ISS stage II-III was consistently associated with poorer survival and relapse outcomes. Given the lack of established alternate therapies for patients with RRMM, we advocate the identification of adverse pre-alloHCT variables to inform alloHCT decision making rather than to exclude patient cohorts from this potentially curative treatment option.

14.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 20(1): e30-e37, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Therapeutic advances have greatly extended survival times in patients with multiple myeloma, necessitating increasingly lengthy trials when using survival outcomes as primary endpoints. A surrogate endpoint that can more rapidly predict survival could accelerate drug development. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate minimal residual disease (MRD) status as a valid progression-free survival (PFS) surrogate in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched abstracts in PubMed, The American Society of Hematology, and the European Hematology Association for "myeloma," "minimal residual disease," and "clinical trial." Because of the need to evaluate the treatment effect on MRD response, only randomized studies for subjects with NDMM were included. Details on the MRD-tested populations were required. The meta-analysis was performed by principles outlined at the 2013 United States Food and Drug Administration workshop on MRD in acute myeloid leukemia.42 For samples that were not measured for MRD and within the subset specified for MRD assessment, their MRD status was imputed from the samples that had known MRD status. Patients that were excluded from planned MRD assessment were considered MRD-positive. RESULTS: Six randomized studies, representing 3283 patients and 2208 MRD samples, met analysis inclusion criteria. MRD negativity rates ranged from 0.06 to 0.70. The treatment effect on the odds ratio for MRD-negative response strongly correlated with the hazard ratio for PFS with a coefficient of determination for the weighted regression line of 0.97. Our meta-analysis suggested that MRD status met both the Prentice criteria for PFS surrogacy. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the claim that MRD status can be used as a surrogate for PFS in NDMM.

15.
Haematologica ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792034

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma causes lytic bone lesions and fractures. The impact of fractures on multiple myeloma survival is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fractures on survival in multiple myeloma using data from multiple myeloma patients diagnosed in Sweden in the years 1990-2013, identified from the Swedish Cancer Registry. Information on date of birth, multiple myeloma diagnosis, fractures, and death was collected from central registries. A Cox regression model was used to compare survival in patients with and without a fracture at multiple myeloma diagnosis and another Cox model was used with fracture as a time-dependent variable to assess the effect of fracture on survival after multiple myeloma diagnosis. Results were adjusted for age, sex, year of diagnosis, and previous fractures. A total of 14,013 patients were diagnosed with multiple myeloma during the study, thereof 1,213 (8.7%) were diagnosed with a fracture at multiple myeloma diagnosis, and 3,235 (23.1%) after diagnosis. Patients with a fracture at diagnosis were at a significantly increased risk of death (hazard ratio=1.28; 95% confidence interval: 1.19-1.37). The risk of death was significantly increased in patients with a fracture after multiple myeloma diagnosis (2.00; 1.90-2.10). The impact of fractures on survival did not change significantly between the two calendar periods 1990-1999 and 2000-2013 (0.98; 0.89-1.08). Our large study shows that multiple myeloma patients with fractures are at a significantly increased risk of dying compared to those without fractures which stresses the importance of preventing bone disease in multiple myeloma.

16.
Blood Cancer J ; 9(12): 101, 2019 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827071

RESUMO

Recent genomic research efforts in multiple myeloma have revealed clinically relevant molecular subgroups beyond conventional cytogenetic classifications. Implementing these advances in clinical trial design and in routine patient care requires a new generation of molecular diagnostic tools. Here, we present a custom capture next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel designed to identify rearrangements involving the IGH locus, arm level, and focal copy number aberrations, as well as frequently mutated genes in multiple myeloma in a single assay. We sequenced 154 patients with plasma cell disorders and performed a head-to-head comparison with the results from conventional clinical assays, i.e., fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray. Our custom capture NGS panel had high sensitivity (>99%) and specificity (>99%) for detection of IGH translocations and relevant chromosomal gains and losses in multiple myeloma. In addition, the assay was able to capture novel genomic markers associated with poor outcome such as bi-allelic events involving TP53. In summary, we show that a multiple myeloma designed custom capture NGS panel can detect IGH translocations and CNAs with very high concordance in relation to FISH and SNP microarrays and importantly captures the most relevant and recurrent somatic mutations in multiple myeloma rendering this approach highly suitable for clinical application in the modern era.

17.
JAMA Oncol ; 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830214

RESUMO

Importance: All patients who develop multiple myeloma have a preceding asymptomatic expansion of clonal plasma cells, clinically recognized as monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance or smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM). During the past decade, significant progress has been made in the classification and risk stratification of SMM. Observations: This review summarizes current clinical challenges and discusses available models for risk stratification in the context of SMM. Owing to several novel, more effective, and less toxic drugs, these aspects are becoming increasingly important to identify patients eligible for early treatment. However, all proposed criteria were built around indirect markers of disease burden and therefore are generally able to identify a fraction of patients with SMM in whom transformation to multiple myeloma and genomic subclonal diversification are already happening. In contrast, next-generation sequencing approaches have the potential to identify myeloma precursor disease that will progress even before the major clonal expansion and progression, providing a potential base for more effective treatment and better precision regarding the optimal timing of treatment initiation. Conclusions and Relevance: Owing to modern technologies, in the near future, prognostic models derived from genomic signatures independent of the disease burden will allow better identification of the optimal timing to treat a plasma cell clonal disorder at the very early stages, when the chances of eradication are higher.

19.
Clin Adv Hematol Oncol ; 17(10): 559-568, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730582

RESUMO

The significant advances made in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) have allowed for a paradigm shift away from the early use of high-dose melphalan with autologous stem cell transplant (HDM-ASCT). In 2015 alone, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved 4 novel drugs for MM. Novel drugs and regimens have shown unprecedented efficacy, which has increased the tempo of new drug development. Furthermore, the FDA recently approved a diagnostic test to detect minimal residual disease (MRD) that will allow community clinicians to conduct real-time testing of MRD. Most importantly, frontline regimens based on immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) and proteasome inhibitors (PIs) have shown a large clinical benefit. The next era has begun, as several 4-drug combinations that include monoclonal antibodies are being evaluated in clinical trials in the attempt to replace HDM-ASCT in the treatment of MM. We and others have therefore questioned the need for early HDM-ASCT, especially in light of the possible complications. HDM-ASCT is associated not only with acute toxicities-cytopenia, infection, and even death-but also an increased risk of developing secondary cancers. This article discusses the historic context of HDM-ASCT, the modern role of HDM-ASCT given the availability of highly sensitive MRD testing, and the likely future of quadruplet treatment. In summary, patients who attain deep responses using IMiD- and PI-based regimens may not require early HDM-ASCT. A delayed approach to this treatment is acceptable, and might be preferred by patients.

20.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 17(10): 1154-1165, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590151

RESUMO

The NCCN Guidelines for Multiple Myeloma provide recommendations for diagnosis, workup, treatment, follow-up, and supportive care for patients with monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance, solitary plasmacytoma, smoldering myeloma, and multiple myeloma. These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight some of the important updates and changes in the 1.2020 version of the NCCN Guidelines for Multiple Myeloma.

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