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1.
Cancer Med ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optimal Phase-II design to evaluate new therapies in refractory/relapsed Ewing sarcomas (ES) remains imperfectly defined. OBJECTIVES: Recurrent/refractory ES phase-I/II trials analysis to improve trials design. METHODS: Comprehensive review of therapeutic trials registered on five databases (who.int/trialsearch, clinicaltrials.gov, clinicaltrialsregister.eu, e-cancer.fr, and umin.ac.jp) and/or published in PubMed/ASCO/ESMO websites, between 2005 and 2018, using the criterion: (Ewing sarcoma OR bone sarcoma OR sarcoma) AND (Phase-I or Phase-II). RESULTS: The 146 trials identified (77 phase-I/II, 67 phase-II, and 2 phase-II/III) tested targeted (34%), chemo- (23%), immune therapies (19%), or combined therapies (24%). Twenty-three trials were ES specific and 48 had a specific ES stratum. Usually multicentric (88%), few trials were international (30%). Inclusion criteria cover the recurrent ES age range for only 12% of trials and allowed only accrual of measurable diseases (RECIST criteria). Single-arm design was the most frequent (88%) testing mainly single drugs (61%), only 5% were randomized. Primary efficacy outcome was response rate (RR=CR+PR; Complete+Partial response) (n = 116/146; 79%), rarely progression-free or overall survival (16% PFS and 3% OS). H0 and H1 hypotheses were variable (3%-25% and 20%-50%, respectively). The 62 published trials enrolled 827 ES patients. RR was poor (10%; 15 CR=1.7%, 68 PR=8.3%). Stable disease was the best response for 186 patients (25%). Median PFS/OS was of 1.9 (range 1.3-14.7) and 7.6 months (5-30), respectively. Eleven (18%) published trials were considered positive, with median RR/PFS/OS of 15% (7%-30%), 4.5 (1.3-10), and 16.6 months (6.9-30), respectively. CONCLUSION: This review supports the need to develop the international randomized phase-II trials across all age ranges with PFS as primary endpoint.

2.
Haematologica ; 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440924

RESUMO

Pediatric-onset Evans syndrome (pES) is defined by both immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) before the age of 18 years. There have been no comprehensive long-term studies of this rare disease, which can be associated to various immunopathological manifestations (IMs). We report outcomes of the 151 patients with pES and more than 5 years of follow-up from the nationwide French prospective OBS'CEREVANCE cohort. Median age at final follow-up was 18.5 (6.8-50.0) years and the median follow-up period was 11.3 (5.1-38.0) years. At 10 years, ITP and AIHA were in sustained complete remission in 54.5% and 78.4% of patients, respectively. The frequency and number of clinical and biological IMs increased with age: at 20 years old, 74% had at least one clinical cIM. A wide range of cIMs occurred, mainly lymphoproliferation, dermatological, gastrointestinal/hepatic and pneumological IMs. The number of cIMs was associated with a subsequent increase in the number of second-line treatments received (other than steroids and immunoglobulins; hazard ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-1.60; p = 0.0002, Cox proportional hazards method). Survival at 15 years after diagnosis was 84%. Death occurred at a median age of 18 (1.7-31.5) years, and the most frequent cause was infection. The number of second-line treatments and severe/recurrent infections were independently associated with mortality. In conclusion, longterm outcomes of pES showed remission of cytopenias but frequent IMs linked to high secondline treatment burden. Mortality was associated to drugs and/or underlying immunodeficiencies, and adolescents-young adults are a high-risk subgroup.

3.
Front Immunol ; 11: 595478, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33250898

RESUMO

Primary infection with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox, a benign and self-limited disease in healthy children. In patients with primary or acquired immunodeficiencies, primary infection can be life-threatening, due to rapid dissemination of the virus to various organs [lung, gastrointestinal tract, liver, eye, central nervous system (CNS)]. We retrospectively described and compared the clinical presentations and outcomes of disseminated varicella infection (DV) in patients with acquired (AID) (n= 7) and primary (PID) (n= 12) immunodeficiencies. Patients with AID were on immunosuppression (mostly steroids) for nephrotic syndrome, solid organ transplantation or the treatment of hemopathies, whereas those with PID had combined immunodeficiency (CID) or severe CID (SCID). The course of the disease was severe and fulminant in patients with AID, with multiple organ failure, no rash or a delayed rash, whereas patients with CID and SICD presented typical signs of chickenpox, including a rash, with dissemination to other organs, including the lungs and CNS. In the PID group, antiviral treatment was prolonged until immune reconstitution after bone marrow transplantation, which was performed in 10/12 patients. Four patients died, and three experienced neurological sequelae. SCID patients had the worst outcome. Our findings highlight substantial differences in the clinical presentation and course of DV between children with AID and PID, suggesting differences in pathophysiology. Prevention, early diagnosis and treatment are required to improve outcome.

4.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-8, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095090

RESUMO

Peripheral lymphopenia is a well-known negative prognostic marker in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). We characterized the peripheral B-cell compartment in a prospective cohort of 83 pediatric cHL patients. We observed significantly low total B-cell counts (<100 cells/µl) in 31 of 83 patients (37%). More specifically, there was a smaller peripheral IgDhighCD27- naïve B-cell pool among B-cell lymphopenic patients than for non-B-cell lymphopenic patients (p < 0.01). The B-cell count was lower in patients without in situ Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) expression than among those with in situ EBV expression (p = 0.03). Peripheral B-cell lymphopenia was associated with the presence of poor prognostic features, such as advanced lymphoma stage (p < 0.01) and the presence of B symptoms (p = 0.04). Of interest, B-cell lymphopenia resolved in all six studied patients in long-term remission. Our findings support that cHL tumor-associated factors interfere with the distribution of peripheral B-cell subsets.

5.
Blood ; 136(14): 1657-1669, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573700

RESUMO

Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a T-cell malignancy predominantly driven by a hyperactive anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion protein. ALK inhibitors, such as crizotinib, provide alternatives to standard chemotherapy with reduced toxicity and side effects. Children with lymphomas driven by nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1)-ALK fusion proteins achieved an objective response rate to ALK inhibition therapy of 54% to 90% in clinical trials; however, a subset of patients progressed within the first 3 months of treatment. The mechanism for the development of ALK inhibitor resistance is unknown. Through genome-wide clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) activation and knockout screens in ALCL cell lines, combined with RNA sequencing data derived from ALK inhibitor-relapsed patient tumors, we show that resistance to ALK inhibition by crizotinib in ALCL can be driven by aberrant upregulation of interleukin 10 receptor subunit alpha (IL10RA). Elevated IL10RA expression rewires the STAT3 signaling pathway, bypassing otherwise critical phosphorylation by NPM1-ALK. IL-10RA expression does not correlate with response to standard chemotherapy in pediatric patients, suggesting that a combination of crizotinib and chemotherapy could prevent ALK inhibitor resistance-specific relapse.

6.
Hemasphere ; 4(1): e329, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072145

RESUMO

The objective of this guideline is to aid clinicians in making individual salvage treatment plans for pediatric and adolescent patients with first relapse or refractory (R/R) classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). While salvage with standard dose chemotherapy followed by high dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant is often considered the standard of care in adult practice, pediatric practice adopts a more individualized risk stratified and response adapted approach to salvage treatment with greater use of non-transplant salvage. Here, we present on behalf of the EuroNet Pediatric Hodgkin Lymphoma group, evidence and consensus-based guidelines for standardized diagnostic, prognostic and response procedures to allocate children and adolescents with R/R cHL to stratified salvage treatments.

7.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(4): 812-820, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676669

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated nilotinib exposure in pediatric patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) or Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) resistant to, relapsed on, refractory to, or intolerant of previous treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients (aged 1-<18 years) with CML resistant to or intolerant of imatinib and/or dasatinib (n = 11) or Ph+ ALL relapsed on or refractory to standard therapy (n = 4) enrolled in this phase I study. Nilotinib (230 mg/m2 twice daily; equivalent to the adult 400-mg twice-daily dose) was administered orally in 12 or 24 cycles of 28 days. The primary objective was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of nilotinib in pediatric patients. RESULTS: The area under the concentration-time curve at steady state was slightly lower in pediatric patients versus adults (14,751.4 vs. 17,102.9 ng/h/mL); the geometric mean ratio (GMR; pediatric:adult) was 0.86 [90% confidence interval (CI), 0.70-1.06]. Body surface area-adjusted systemic clearance was slightly higher in pediatric versus adult patients (GMR, 1.30; 90% CI, 1.04-1.62). Nilotinib was generally well tolerated. The most common adverse events were headache, vomiting, increased blood bilirubin, and rash. Three patients with CML achieved major molecular response, and three with Ph+ ALL achieved complete remission. CONCLUSIONS: Nilotinib 230 mg/m2 twice daily in pediatric patients provided a pharmacokinetics and safety profile comparable with the adult reference dose; clinical activity was demonstrated in both CML and Ph+ ALL. This dose is recommended for further evaluation in pediatric patients. The safety profile was consistent with that in adults.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/metabolismo , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Esquema de Medicação , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/metabolismo , Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , Masculino , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Distribuição Tecidual
9.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(9): e27873, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207026

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In order to describe relapsed B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and mature acute leukemia in children/adolescents treated with the Lymphomes Malins B (LMB) regimen and their outcome in the rituximab era, relapses in the French LMB2001 study were reviewed. METHODS: Between February 2001 and December 2011, 33 patients out of 773 (4.3%) relapsed; 27 had Burkitt lymphoma and six large B-cell histology. Median age at diagnosis was 10.1 years. One patient was initially treated in risk group A, 21 in group B, and 11 in group C. RESULTS: Median time to relapse after diagnosis was 4.5 months (range 2.4-13.6). Thirty-two patients received salvage therapy. Twenty-seven received rituximab mainly in addition to high-dose cytarabine and etoposide (n = 18) and/or ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide (n = 7). First-line salvage chemotherapy response rate was 66% with 47% being complete remission (CR). Twenty-one patients received high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) followed by autologous (n = 13) or allogeneic (n = 8) transplant. With a median follow-up of 6.8 years, the 5-year survival rate after relapse was 36.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 22-53%). Twelve patients were still alive; all but one (group A) received consolidation treatment. Achieving CR before consolidation was significantly associated with better survival, with a 5-year survival rate of 75% (95% CI 46.8-91.1%) for patients in CR before HDC, 33% (95% CI 9.7-70%) for patients in partial remission, and 0% for nonresponders (P = .033). CONCLUSION: Survival of children/adolescents with mature B-cell lymphoma/leukemia remains poor after relapse with no apparent improvement with rituximab. Response rates to salvage chemo-immunotherapies are insufficient and new drugs are urgently needed to improve disease control.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Linfoma de Burkitt , Leucemia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Linfoma de Burkitt/diagnóstico , Linfoma de Burkitt/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma de Burkitt/mortalidade , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Citarabina/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Etoposídeo/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , França , Humanos , Ifosfamida/administração & dosagem , Lactente , Leucemia/diagnóstico , Leucemia/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia/mortalidade , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/diagnóstico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/mortalidade , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Taxa de Sobrevida
10.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(2): 171-181, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30671780

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) are associated in the definition of Evans syndrome (ES). The occurrence of neurological involvement in this population is poorly described and suggests an underlying primary immunodeficiency (PID). We aimed to describe the clinical manifestations, evolution, and PID profiles of these patients. METHODS: OBS'CEREVANCE is a French, nationwide prospective cohort that includes children with chronic ITP, AIHA, and ES. Patients with a neurological involvement were described. Centralized radiological and pathological reviews and genetic analyses were performed. RESULTS: On October 2016, eight patients (7/181 ES, 1/371 AIHA, and 0/615 ITP) were identified, all male, with a median age (range) at cytopenia onset of 11.5 years (1.6-15.8). Neurological symptoms appeared with a median delay of 6 years (2.5-18) after cytopenia and were polymorphic: seizures (n = 4), cranial nerve palsy (n = 2), Brown-Sequard syndrome (n = 2), intracranial pressure (n = 2), vertigo (n = 1), and/or sensory neuropathy (n = 1). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed inflammatory lesions, confirmed by pathology for five patients with macrophagic or lymphoplasmocytic infiltrates. All patients had other relevant immunopathological manifestations: pulmonary nodules (n = 6), lymphoproliferation (n = 4), abnormal immunophenotype (n = 8), and hypogammaglobulinemia (n = 7). Treatment consisted of steroids that improved symptomatology and MRI. Five patients relapsed and three had an asymptomatic radiological progression. A PID was identified in 3/8 patients: 22q11.2 microdeletion (n = 1) and CTLA deficiency (n = 2). CONCLUSION: Neurological involvement is a rare and severe late event in the course of childhood ES, which can reveal an underlying PID. Imaging and pathology examination highlight a causative immune dysregulation that may guide targeted therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática , Trombocitopenia , Adolescente , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/diagnóstico , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Masculino , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/diagnóstico , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/tratamento farmacológico , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/diagnóstico , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/tratamento farmacológico , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Trombocitopenia/diagnóstico , Trombocitopenia/tratamento farmacológico
11.
Lancet Haematol ; 5(10): e450-e461, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30290902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite remarkable progress in the treatment of newly-diagnosed classical Hodgkin's lymphoma and systemic anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, treatment of relapsed or refractory disease remains challenging. The aims of this study were to assess the safety, tolerability, recommended phase 2 dose, and efficacy of brentuximab vedotin in paediatric patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma or systemic anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. METHODS: This open-label, dose-escalation phase 1/2 study was done at 12 centres across eight countries (France, Germany, Italy, Mexico, The Netherlands, Spain, UK, and USA). We recruited paediatric patients aged 7-18 years with relapsed or refractory classical Hodgkin's lymphoma or systemic anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, for whom standard treatment was unavailable or no longer effective. Participants were allocated to receive brentuximab vedotin at 1·4 mg/kg (phase 1) or 1·8 mg/kg (phases 1 and 2) via intravenous infusion once every 3 weeks for up to 16 cycles. Dose escalation was done via a 3+3 design. Key exclusion criteria were stem-cell transplantation less than 3 months before administration of the first dose of study drug, presence of cytomegalovirus infection after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation, previous treatment with an anti-CD30 antibody, and concurrent immunosuppressive or systemic therapy for chronic graft-versus-host disease. Primary outcomes were safety profile in the safety-evaluable population and maximum tolerated dose, recommended phase 2 dose, pharmacokinetics (phase 1), and proportion of patients who achieved best overall response (phase 2; evaluated by an independent review facility) in the response-evaluable population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01492088. FINDINGS: Between April 16, 2012, and April 4, 2016, we screened 41 paediatric patients and enrolled 36 (aged 7-18 years), of whom 19 had relapsed or refractory classical Hodgkin's lymphoma and 17 had relapsed or refractory systemic anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. At the data cutoff (Oct 12, 2016), all 36 patients had discontinued study drug treatment; the most common reason was progressive disease (15 patients). The maximum tolerated dose was not reached. The recommended phase 2 dose was 1·8 mg/kg. The proportion of patients who achieved overall response was 47% (95% CI 21-73) for classical Hodgkin's lymphoma and 53% (28-77) for systemic anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. All 36 patients had a treatment-emergent adverse event and 16 patients (44%) had at least one grade 3 or worse treatment-emergent adverse event. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events were pyrexia (16 [44%] of 36) and nausea (13 [36%]). The most common grade 3 or worse treatment-emergent adverse events were neutropenia (four [11%]), increased γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (two [6%]), and pyrexia (two [6%]). 12 (33%) patients had transient, limited-severity peripheral neuropathy. Eight patients (22%) had a serious adverse event; three (8%) had a drug-related serious adverse event. One patient died of cardiac arrest (disease progression of a large huge mediastinal mass, unrelated to the study drug). Paediatric pharmacokinetic profiles were consistent with those from studies of adult patients. INTERPRETATION: Brentuximab vedotin has manageable toxicity and is associated with clinically meaningful responses in paediatric patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma or systemic anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, and could allow subsequent stem-cell transplantation in some patients who were initially ineligible for stem-cell transplantation. FUNDING: Millennium Pharmaceuticals Inc.


Assuntos
Doença de Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoconjugados/uso terapêutico , Linfoma Anaplásico de Células Grandes/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Brentuximab Vedotin , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva
13.
J Nucl Med ; 59(10): 1524-1530, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29653979

RESUMO

To determine whether the current 18F-FDG PET response criterion for skeletal involvement in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is suitable, we performed a systematic evaluation of the different types of skeletal involvement and their response on PET after 2 cycles of chemotherapy (PET-2). A secondary objective was to observe the influence of the initial uptake intensity (measured as qPET) and initial metabolic tumor volume (MTV) of skeletal lesions on the PET-2 response. Methods: The initial PET scans of 1,068 pediatric HL patients from the EuroNet-PHL-C1 trial were evaluated for skeletal involvement by central review. Three types of skeletal lesions were distinguished: PET-only lesions (those detected on PET only), bone marrow (BM) lesions (as confirmed by MRI or BM biopsy), and bone lesions. qPET and MTV were calculated for each skeletal lesion. All PET-2 scans were assessed for residual tumor activity. The rates of complete metabolic response for skeletal and nodal involvement on PET-2 were compared. Results: Of the 1,068 patients, 139 (13%) showed skeletal involvement (44 PET-only, 32 BM, and 63 bone). Of the 139 patients with skeletal involvement, 101 (73%) became PET-2-negative in the skeleton and 94 (68%) became PET-2-negative in the lymph nodes. The highest number of PET-2-negative scans in the skeleton was 42 (95%) in the 44 PET-only patients, followed by 22 skeletal lesions (69%) in the 32 BM patients and 37 (59%) in the 63 bone patients. Lesions that became PET-2-negative showed a lower initial median qPET (2.74) and MTV (2 cm3) than lesions that remained PET-2-positive (3.84 and 7 cm3, respectively). Conclusion: In this study with pediatric HL patients, the complete response rate for skeletal involvement on PET-2 was similar to that for nodal involvement. Bone flare seemed to be irrelevant. Overall, the current skeletal PET response criterion-comparison with the local skeletal background-is well suited. The initial qPET and MTV of skeletal lesions were predictive of the PET-2 result. Higher values for both parameters were associated with a worse PET-2 response.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Medula Óssea/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Doença de Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia de Indução , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Adolescente , Neoplasias da Medula Óssea/secundário , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Criança , Feminino , Doença de Hodgkin/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(13): 1330-1338, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29498925

RESUMO

Purpose Safe, effective treatments are needed for pediatric patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP). Dasatinib is approved for treatment of adults and children with CML-CP. A phase I study determined suitable dosing for children with Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) leukemias. Methods CA180-226/NCT00777036 is a phase II, open-label, nonrandomized prospective trial of patients < 18 years of age receiving dasatinib. There are three cohorts: (1) imatinib-resistant/intolerant CML-CP, (2) imatinib-resistant/intolerant CML in accelerated/blast phase or Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 17), and (3) newly diagnosed CML-CP treated with tablets or powder for oral suspension. Major cytogenetic response > 30% for imatinib-resistant/intolerant patients and complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) > 55% for newly diagnosed patients were of clinical interest. Results Of 113 patients with CML-CP, 14 (48%) who were imatinib-resistant/intolerant and 61 (73%) who were newly diagnosed remained on treatment at time of analysis. Major cytogenetic response > 30% was reached by 3 months in the imatinib-resistant/intolerant group and CCyR > 55% was reached by 6 months in the newly diagnosed CML-CP group. CCyR and major molecular response by 12 months, respectively, were 76% and 41% in the imatinib-resistant/intolerant group and 92% and 52% in newly diagnosed CML-CP group. Progression-free survival by 48 months was 78% and 93% in the imatinib-resistant/intolerant and newly diagnosed CML-CP groups, respectively. No dasatinib-related pleural or pericardial effusion, pulmonary edema, or pulmonary arterial hypertension were reported. Bone growth and development events were reported in 4% of patients. Conclusion In the largest prospective trial to date in children with CML-CP, we demonstrate that dasatinib is a safe, effective treatment of pediatric CML-CP. Target responses to first- or second-line dasatinib were met early, and deep molecular responses were observed. Safety of dasatinib in pediatric patients was similar to that observed in adults; however, no cases of pleural or pericardial effusion or pulmonary arterial hypertension were reported.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Dasatinibe/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dasatinibe/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Clin Immunol ; 188: 52-57, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29330115

RESUMO

Evans syndrome (ES) is defined by the combination of autoimmune hemolytic anemia and immune thrombocytopenia. Clinical presentation includes manifestations of immune dysregulation, found in primary immune deficiencies, autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome with FAS (ALPS-FAS), Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and Lipopolysaccharide-Responsive vesicle trafficking Beige-like and Anchor protein (LRBA) defects. We report the clinical history and genetic results of 18 children with ES after excluding ALPS-FAS. Thirteen had organomegaly, five lymphocytic infiltration of non-lymphoid organs, nine hypogammaglobulinemia and fifteen anomalies in lymphocyte phenotyping. Seven patients had genetic defects: three CTLA4 mutations (c.151C>T; c.109+1092_568-512del; c.110-2A>G) identified by Sanger sequencing and four revealed by Next Generation Sequencing: LRBA (c.2450+1C>T), STAT3 gain-of-function (c.2147C>T; c.2144C>T) and KRAS (c.37G>T). No feature emerged to distinguish patients with or without genetic diagnosis. Our data on pediatric-onset ES should prompt physicians to perform extensive screening for mutations in the growing pool of genes involved in primary immune deficiencies with autoimmunity.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/genética , Antígeno CTLA-4/genética , Mutação , Trombocitopenia/genética , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/diagnóstico , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/genética , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/patologia , Trombocitopenia/diagnóstico
16.
Blood ; 131(3): 289-300, 2018 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29051182

RESUMO

Risk stratification in childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is mainly based on minimal residual disease (MRD) quantification. Whether oncogenetic mutation profiles can improve the discrimination of MRD-defined risk categories was unknown. Two hundred and twenty FRALLE2000T-treated patients were tested retrospectively for NOTCH1/FBXW7/RAS and PTEN alterations. Patients with NOTCH1/FBXW7 (N/F) mutations and RAS/PTEN (R/P) germ line (GL) were classified as oncogenetic low risk (gLoR; n = 111), whereas those with N/F GL and R/P GL mutations or N/F and R/P mutations were classified as high risk (gHiR; n = 109). Day 35 MRD status was available for 191 patients. Five-year cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) and disease-free survival were 36% and 60% for gHiR patients and 11% and 89% for gLoR patients, respectively. Importantly, among the 60% of patients with MRD <10-4, 5-year CIR was 29% for gHiR patients and 4% for gLoR patients. Based on multivariable Cox models and stepwise selection, the 3 most discriminating variables were the oncogenetic classifier, MRD, and white blood cell (WBC) count. Patients harboring a WBC count ≥200 × 109/L, gHiR classifier, and MRD ≥10-4 demonstrated a 5-year CIR of 46%, whereas the 58 patients (30%) with a WBC count <200 × 109/L, gLoR classifier, and MRD <10-4 had a very low risk of relapse, with a 5-year CIR of only 2%. In childhood T-ALL, the N/F/R/P mutation profile is an independent predictor of relapse. When combined with MRD and a WBC count ≥200 × 109/L, it identifies a significant subgroup of patients with a low risk of relapse.


Assuntos
Mutação/genética , Neoplasia Residual/genética , Oncogenes/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Genes Neoplásicos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Contagem de Leucócitos , Neoplasia Residual/sangue , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Br J Haematol ; 177(1): 106-115, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28220934

RESUMO

Advanced stage nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (nLPHL) is extremely rare in children and as a consequence, optimal treatment for this group of patients has not been established. Here we retrospectively evaluated the treatments and treatment outcomes of 41 of our patients from the UK and France with advanced stage nLPHL. Most patients received chemotherapy, some with the addition of the anti CD20 antibody rituximab or radiotherapy. Chemotherapy regimens were diverse and followed either classical Hodgkin lymphoma or B non-Hodgkin lymphoma protocols. All 41 patients achieved a complete remission with first line treatment and 40 patients are alive and well in remission. Eight patients subsequently relapsed and 1 patient died of secondary cancer (9 progression-free survival events). The median time to progression for those who progressed was 21 months (5·9-73·8). The median time since last diagnosis is 87·3 months (8·44-179·20). Thirty-six (90%), 30 (75%) and 27 (68%) patients have been in remission for more than 12, 24 and 36 months, respectively. Overall, the use of rituximab combined with multi-agent chemotherapy as first line treatment seems to be a reasonable therapeutic option.


Assuntos
Doença de Hodgkin/diagnóstico , Doença de Hodgkin/terapia , Adolescente , Biópsia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Terapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Doença de Hodgkin/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Imagem Multimodal , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Recidiva , Retratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 64(7)2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28097818

RESUMO

International harmonization of staging evaluation and response criteria is needed for childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood Hodgkin lymphoma. Two Hodgkin lymphoma protocols from cooperative trials in Europe and North America were compared for areas in need of harmonization, and an evidence-based approach is currently underway to harmonize staging and response evaluations with a goal to enhance comparisons, expedite identification of effective therapies, and aid in the approval process for new agents by regulatory agencies.


Assuntos
Doença de Hodgkin/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/normas , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
Blood Adv ; 1(12): 733-747, 2017 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29296717

RESUMO

The oncogenic mechanisms driven by aberrantly expressed transcription factors in T-cell acute leukemia (T-ALL) are still elusive. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in normal development and pathologies. Here, we examined the expression of 738 miRNA species in 41 newly diagnosed pediatric T-ALLs and in human thymus-derived cells. We found that expression of 2 clustered miRNAs, miR-125b/99a, peaks in primitive T cells and is upregulated in the T leukemia homeobox 3 (TLX3)-positive subtype of T-ALL. Using loss- and gain-of-function approaches, we established functional relationships between TLX3 and miR-125b. Both TLX3 and miR-125b support in vitro cell growth and in vivo invasiveness of T-ALL. Besides, ectopic expression of TLX3 or miR-125b in human hematopoietic progenitor cells enhances production of T-cell progenitors and favors their accumulation at immature stages of T-cell development resembling the differentiation arrest observed in TLX3 T-ALL. Ectopic miR-125b also remarkably accelerated leukemia in a xenograft model, suggesting that miR125b is an important mediator of the TLX3-mediated transformation program that takes place in immature T-cell progenitors. Mechanistically, TLX3-mediated activation of miR-125b may impact T-cell differentiation in part via repression of Ets1 and CBFß genes, 2 regulators of T-lineage. Finally, we established that TLX3 directly regulates miR-125b production through binding and transactivation of LINC00478, a long noncoding RNA gene, which is the host of miR-99a/Let-7c/miR-125b. Altogether, our results reveal an original functional link between TLX3 and oncogenic miR-125b in T-ALL development.

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