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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015852

RESUMO

AIMS: 18F-sodium fluoride ([18F]fluoride) and gadobutrol are promising probes for positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characterizing coronary artery disease (CAD) activity. Unlike [18F]fluoride-PET/computed tomography (CT), the potential of PET/MR using [18F]fluoride and gadobutrol simultaneously, has so far not been evaluated. This study assessed feasibility and diagnostic potential of [18F]fluoride and gadobutrol enhanced dual-probe PET/MR in patients with CAD. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-one patients (age, 66.7 ± 6.7 years) with CAD scheduled for invasive coronary angiography (XCA) underwent simultaneous [18F]fluoride (mean activity/effective dose: 157.2 ± 29.7 MBq/3.77 ± 0.72 mSv) and gadobutrol enhanced PET/MR on an integrated PET/MRI (3 T) scanner. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used as reference. Target-to-background ratio (TBR, [18F]fluoride-PET) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) values (MRI, gadobutrol) were calculated for each coronary segment. Previously suggested PET/CT-TBR thresholds for adverse coronary events were evaluated. High-risk plaques, i.e. calcified and non-calcified thin-cap fibroatheromas (TCFAs) were predominantly located in segments with a TBR >1.28 (P = 0.012). Plaques containing a lipid core on OCT, were more frequently detected in segments with a TBR >1.25 (P < 0.001). TBR values significantly correlated with maximum calcification thickness (P = 0.009), while fibrous cap thickness was significantly less in segments with a TBR >1.28 (P = 0.044). Above a TBR threshold of >1.28, CNR values significantly correlated with the presence of calcified TCFAs (P = 0.032). CONCLUSION: Simultaneous [18F]fluoride and gadobutrol dual-probe PET/MRI is feasible in clinical practice and may facilitate the identification of high-risk patients. The combination of coronary MR-derived CNR values post gadobutrol and [18F]fluoride based TBR values may improve identification of high-risk plaque features.

3.
EuroIntervention ; 2021 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34916177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New ischaemic brain lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are reported in up to 86% of patients after transcatheter edge-to-edge repair of the mitral valve (TEER-MV). Knowledge of the exact procedural step(s) that carry the highest risk for cerebral embolisation may help to further improve the procedure. AIMS: The aim of this study was to identify the procedural step(s) that are associated with an increased risk of cerebral embolisation during TEER-MV with the MitraClip system. Furthermore, the risk of overt stroke and silent brain ischaemia after TEER-MV was assessed. METHODS: In this prospective, pre-specified observational study, all patients underwent continuous transcranial Doppler examination during TEER-MV to detect microembolic signals (MES). MES were assigned to specific procedural steps: (1) transseptal puncture and placement of the guide, (2) advancing and adjustment of the clip in the left atrium, (3) device interaction with the MV, and (4) removal of the clip delivery system and the guide. Neurological examination using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and cerebral MRI were performed before and after TEER-MV. RESULTS: Fifty-four patients were included. The number of MES differed significantly between the procedural steps with the highest numbers observed during device interaction with the MV. Mild neurological deterioration (NIHSS ≤3) occurred in 9/54 patients. New ischaemic lesions were detected in 21/24 patients who underwent MRI. Larger infarct volume was significantly associated with neurological deterioration. CONCLUSIONS: Cerebral embolisation is immanent to TEER-MV and predominantly occurs during device interaction with the MV. Improvements to the procedure may focus on this procedural step.

4.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) and toll-like receptors (TLRs) are inflammatory mediators contributing to atherogenesis and atherothrombosis. Vorapaxar, which selectively antagonizes PAR1-signaling, is an approved, add-on antiplatelet therapy for secondary prevention. The non-hemostatic, platelet-independent, pleiotropic effects of vorapaxar have not yet been studied. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cellular targets of PAR1 signaling in the vasculature were identified in three patient cohorts with atherosclerotic disease. Evaluation of plasma biomarkers (n = 190) and gene expression in endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs) (n = 12) revealed that PAR1 expression correlated with endothelial activation and vascular inflammation. PAR1 colocalized with TLR2/4 in human carotid plaques and was associated with TLR2/4 gene transcription in EMBs. In addition, vorapaxar reduced atherosclerotic lesion size in apolipoprotein E-knock out (ApoEko) mice. This reduction was associated with reduced expression of vascular adhesion molecules and TLR2/4 presence, both in isolated murine endothelial cells and the aorta. Thrombin-induced uptake of oxLDL was augmented by additional TLR2/4 stimulation and abrogated by vorapaxar. Plaque-infiltrating pro-inflammatory cells were reduced in vorapaxar-treated ApoEko mice. A shift toward M2 macrophages paralleled a decreased transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. CONCLUSIONS: PAR1 inhibition with vorapaxar may be effective in reducing residual thrombo-inflammatory event risk in patients with atherosclerosis independent of its effect on platelets.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34904655

RESUMO

AIMS: Rupture of the fibrous cap (RFC) represents the main pathophysiological mechanism causing acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Destabilization due to plaque biomechanics is considered to be importantly involved, exact mechanisms triggering plaque ruptures are, however, unknown. This study aims at characterizing the relation between plaque components and rupture points at ACS-causing culprit lesions in a large cohort of ACS-patients assessed by high-resolution intracoronary imaging. METHODS AND RESULTS: Within the prospective, multicentric OPTICO-ACS study program, the ACS-causing culprit plaques of 282 consecutive patients were investigated following a standardized optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging protocol. Each pullback was assessed on a frame-by-frame basis for the presence of lipid components (LC), calcium components (CC), and coexistence of both LC and CC (LCC) by two independent OCT-core labs. Of the 282 ACS-patients, 204 patients (72.3%) presented with ACS caused by culprit lesions with rupture of the fibrous cap (RFC-ACS) and 27.7% patients had ACS caused by culprit lesions with intact fibrous cap (IFC-ACS). When comparing RFC-ACS to IFC-ACS, a preferential occurrence of all three plaque components (LC, CC, and LCC) in RFC-ACS became apparent (P < 0.001). Within ruptured culprit lesions, the zone straight at the rupture point [extended rupture zone (RZ)] was characterized by similar (24.7% vs. 24.0%; P = ns) calcium content when compared with the proximal and distal border of the culprit lesion [border zone (BZ)]. The RZ displayed a significantly higher amount of both, LC (100% vs. 69.8%; P < 0.001) and LCC (22.7% vs. 6.8%; P < 0.001), when compared with the BZ. The relative component increase towards the RZ was particularly evident for LCC (+233.8%), while LC showed only a modest increase (+43.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Calcified- and lipid-containing components characterize ruptured fibrous cap ACS-causing culprit lesions. Their coexistence is accelerated directly at the ruptured point, suggesting a pathophysiological contribution in the development of RFC-ACS.

6.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34895483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiogenic shock has a high mortality on optimal therapy. Adrenomedullin is released during cardiogenic shock and is involved in its pathophysiological processes. This study assessed treatment with the humanised, monoclonal, non-neutralising, adrenomedullin antibody adrecizumab, increasing circulating concentrations of adrenomedullin in cardiogenic shock. METHODS: In this investigator-initiated, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicentre, randomised trial (ACCOST-HH), patients were recruited from four university hospitals in Germany. Patients were eligible if they were 18 years old or older and hospitalised for cardiogenic shock within the last 48 h. Exclusion criteria were resuscitation for longer than 60 min and cardiogenic shock due to sustained ventricular tachycardia or bradycardia. Adult patients in cardiogenic shock were randomly assigned (1:1) to intravenous adrecizumab (8 mg/kg bodyweight) or placebo using an internet-based software. A block randomisation procedure was applied with stratification by age (older vs younger than 65 years), sex (male vs female), and type of underlying cardiogenic shock (acute myocardial infarction vs other entities). Investigators, patients, and medical staff involved in patient care were masked to group assignment. The primary endpoint was number of days up to day 30 without the need for cardiovascular organ support, defined as vasopressor therapy, inotropes, or mechanical circulatory support (or both) assessed in the intention-to-treat population. Safety outcomes included therapy-emergent serious adverse events, severe adverse events, adverse events, suspected unexpected serious adverse reactions, study drug-related mortality, and total mortality. The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03989531, and EudraCT, 2018-002824-17, and is now complete. FINDINGS: Between April 5, 2019, and Jan 13, 2021, 150 patients were enrolled: 77 (51%) were randomly assigned to adrecizumab and 73 (49%) to placebo. All patients received the allocated treatment. The number of days without the need for cardiovascular organ support was not different between patients receiving adrecizumab or placebo (12·37 days [95% CI 9·80-14·94] vs 14·05 [11·41-16·69]; adjusted mean difference -1·69 days [-5·37 to 2·00]; p=0·37). Serious adverse events occurred in 59 patients receiving adrecizumab and in 57 receiving placebo (odds ratio 0·92 [95% CI 0·43-1·98]; p=0·83). Mortality was not different between groups at 30 days (hazard ratio 0·99 [95% CI 0·60-1·65]; p=0·98) or 90 days (1·10 [0·68-1·77]; p=0·71). INTERPRETATION: Adrecizumab was well tolerated in patients with cardiogenic shock but did not reduce the need for cardiovascular organ support or improve survival at days 30 and 90. FUNDING: Adrenomed AG and University Hospital of Hamburg.

7.
Membranes (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34832065

RESUMO

Reperfusion is the only feasible therapy following myocardial infarction, but reperfusion has been shown to damage mitochondrial function and disrupt energy production in the heart. Adenine nucleotide translocase 1 (ANT1) facilitates the transfer of ADP/ATP across the inner mitochondrial membrane; therefore, we tested whether ANT1 exerts protective effects on mitochondrial function during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). The hearts of wild-type (WT) and transgenic ANT1-overexpressing (ANT1-TG) rats were exposed to I/R injury using the standard Langendorff technique, after which mitochondrial function, hemodynamic parameters, infarct size, and components of the contractile apparatus were determined. ANT1-TG hearts expressed higher ANT protein levels, with reduced levels of oxidative 4-hydroxynonenal ANT modifications following I/R. ANT1-TG mitochondria isolated from I/R hearts displayed stable calcium retention capacity (CRC) and improved membrane potential stability compared with WT mitochondria. Mitochondria isolated from ANT1-TG hearts experienced less restricted oxygen consumption than WT mitochondria after I/R. Left ventricular diastolic pressure (Pdia) decreased in ANT1-TG hearts compared with WT hearts following I/R. Preserved diastolic function was accompanied by a decrease in the phospho-lamban (PLB)/sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA2a) ratio in ANT1-TG hearts compared with that in WT hearts. In addition, the phosphorylated (P)-PLB/PLB ratio increased in ANT1-TG hearts after I/R but not in WT hearts, which indicated more effective calcium uptake into the sarcoplasmic reticulum in ANT1-TG hearts. In conclusion, ANT1-TG rat hearts coped more efficiently with I/R than WT rat hearts, which was reflected by preserved mitochondrial energy balance, diastolic function, and calcium dynamics after reperfusion.

9.
Front Neurol ; 12: 731013, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819906

RESUMO

Objective: Extracellular vesicles (EV) are sub-1 µm bilayer lipid coated particles and have been shown play a role in long-term cardiovascular outcome after ischemic stroke. However, the dynamic change of EV after stroke and their implications for functional outcome have not yet been elucidated. Methods: Serial blood samples from 110 subacute ischemic stroke patients enrolled in the prospective BAPTISe study were analyzed. All patients participated in the PHYS-STROKE trial and received 4-week aerobic training or relaxation sessions. Levels of endothelial-derived (EnV: Annexin V+, CD45-, CD41-, CD31+/CD144+/CD146+), leukocyte-derived (LV: Annexin V+, CD45+, CD41-), monocytic-derived (MoV: Annexin V+, CD41-, CD14+), neuronal-derived (NV: Annexin V+, CD41-, CD45-, CD31-, CD144-, CD146-, CD56+/CD171+/CD271+), and platelet-derived (PV: Annexin V+, CD41+) EV were assessed via fluorescence-activated cell sorting before and after the trial intervention. The levels of EV at baseline were dichotomized at the 75th percentile, with the EV levels at baseline above the 75th percentile classified as "high" otherwise as "low." The dynamic of EV was classified based on the difference between baseline and post intervention, defining increases above the 75th percentile as "high increase" otherwise as "low increase." Associations of baseline levels and change in EV concentrations with Barthel Index (BI) and cardiovascular events in the first 6 months post-stroke were analyzed using mixed model regression analyses and cox regression. Results: Both before and after intervention PV formed the largest population of vesicles followed by NV and EnV. In mixed-model regression analyses, low NV [-8.57 (95% CI -15.53 to -1.57)] and low PV [-6.97 (95% CI -13.92 to -0.01)] at baseline were associated with lower BI in the first 6 months post-stroke. Patients with low increase in NV [8.69 (95% CI 2.08-15.34)] and LV [6.82 (95% CI 0.25-13.4)] were associated with reduced BI in the first 6 months post-stroke. Neither baseline vesicles nor their dynamic were associated with recurrent cardiovascular events. Conclusion: This is the first report analyzing the concentration and the dynamic of EV regarding associations with functional outcome in patients with subacute stroke. Lower levels of PV and NV at baseline were associated with a worse functional outcome in the first 6 months post-stroke. Furthermore, an increase in NV and LV over time was associated with worse BI in the first 6 months post-stroke. Further investigation of the relationship between EV and their dynamic with functional outcome post-stroke are warranted. Clinical Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov/, identifier: NCT01954797.

11.
N Engl J Med ; 385(20): 1845-1855, 2021 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with symptomatic heart failure, sacubitril-valsartan has been found to reduce the risk of hospitalization and death from cardiovascular causes more effectively than an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor. Trials comparing the effects of these drugs in patients with acute myocardial infarction have been lacking. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with myocardial infarction complicated by a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, pulmonary congestion, or both to receive either sacubitril-valsartan (97 mg of sacubitril and 103 mg of valsartan twice daily) or ramipril (5 mg twice daily) in addition to recommended therapy. The primary outcome was death from cardiovascular causes or incident heart failure (outpatient symptomatic heart failure or heart failure leading to hospitalization), whichever occurred first. RESULTS: A total of 5661 patients underwent randomization; 2830 were assigned to receive sacubitril-valsartan and 2831 to receive ramipril. Over a median of 22 months, a primary-outcome event occurred in 338 patients (11.9%) in the sacubitril-valsartan group and in 373 patients (13.2%) in the ramipril group (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78 to 1.04; P = 0.17). Death from cardiovascular causes or hospitalization for heart failure occurred in 308 patients (10.9%) in the sacubitril-valsartan group and in 335 patients (11.8%) in the ramipril group (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.07); death from cardiovascular causes in 168 (5.9%) and 191 (6.7%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.71 to 1.08); and death from any cause in 213 (7.5%) and 242 (8.5%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.05). Treatment was discontinued because of an adverse event in 357 patients (12.6%) in the sacubitril-valsartan group and 379 patients (13.4%) in the ramipril group. CONCLUSIONS: Sacubitril-valsartan was not associated with a significantly lower incidence of death from cardiovascular causes or incident heart failure than ramipril among patients with acute myocardial infarction. (Funded by Novartis; PARADISE-MI ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02924727.).


Assuntos
Aminobutiratos/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Bifenilo/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Ramipril/uso terapêutico , Valsartana/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Aminobutiratos/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Bifenilo/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Ramipril/efeitos adversos , Volume Sistólico , Valsartana/efeitos adversos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia
12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(20): e020488, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622666

RESUMO

Background It remains unclear whether the novel biomarker cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (CCN1) adds incremental prognostic value to the GRACE 2.0 (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) risk score and biomarkers high-sensitivity Troponin T, hsCRP (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein), and NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Methods and Results Patients referred for coronary angiography with a primary diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes were enrolled in the Special Program University Medicine - Acute Coronary Syndromes and Inflammation cohort. The primary/secondary end points were 30-day/1-year all-cause mortality and the composite of all-cause mortality or myocardial infarction as used in the GRACE risk score. Associations between biomarkers and outcome were assessed using log-transformed biomarker values and the GRACE risk score (versions 1.0 and 2.0). The incremental value of CCN1 beyond a reference model was assessed using Harrell's C-statistics calculated from a Cox proportional-hazard model. The P value of the C-statistics was derived from a likelihood ratio test. Among 2168 patients recruited, 1732 could be analyzed. CCN1 was the strongest single predictor of all-cause mortality at 30 days (hazard ratio [HR], 1.77 [1.31, 2.40]) and 1 year (HR, 1.81 [1.47, 2.22]). Adding CCN1 alone to the GRACE 2.0 risk score improved C-statistics for prognostic accuracy of all-cause mortality at 30 days (0.87-0.88) and 1 year (0.81-0.82) and when combined with high-sensitivity Troponin T, hsCRP, NT-proBNP for 30 days (0.87-0.91), and for 1-year follow-up (0.81-0.84). CCN1 also increased the prognostic value for the composite of all-cause mortality or myocardial infarction. Conclusions CCN1 predicts adverse outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes adding incremental information to the GRACE risk score, suggesting distinct underlying molecular mechanisms. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01000701.

13.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597388

RESUMO

AIMS: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, and increased low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) play a critical role in development and progression of atherosclerosis. Here, we examined for the first time gut immunomodulatory effects of the microbiota-derived metabolite propionic acid (PA) on intestinal cholesterol metabolism. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using both human and animal model studies, we demonstrate that treatment with PA reduces blood total and LDL cholesterol levels. In apolipoprotein E-/- (Apoe-/-) mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), PA reduced intestinal cholesterol absorption and aortic atherosclerotic lesion area. Further, PA increased regulatory T-cell numbers and interleukin (IL)-10 levels in the intestinal microenvironment, which in turn suppressed the expression of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (Npc1l1), a major intestinal cholesterol transporter. Blockade of IL-10 receptor signalling attenuated the PA-related reduction in total and LDL cholesterol and augmented atherosclerotic lesion severity in the HFD-fed Apoe-/- mice. To translate these preclinical findings to humans, we conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled human study (clinical trial no. NCT03590496). Oral supplementation with 500 mg of PA twice daily over the course of 8 weeks significantly reduced LDL [-15.9 mg/dL (-8.1%) vs. -1.6 mg/dL (-0.5%), P = 0.016], total [-19.6 mg/dL (-7.3%) vs. -5.3 mg/dL (-1.7%), P = 0.014] and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels [PA vs. placebo: -18.9 mg/dL (-9.1%) vs. -0.6 mg/dL (-0.5%), P = 0.002] in subjects with elevated baseline LDL cholesterol levels. CONCLUSION: Our findings reveal a novel immune-mediated pathway linking the gut microbiota-derived metabolite PA with intestinal Npc1l1 expression and cholesterol homeostasis. The results highlight the gut immune system as a potential therapeutic target to control dyslipidaemia that may introduce a new avenue for prevention of ACVDs.

14.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 28(13): 1467-1474, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extracellular vesicles are released upon cellular activation and mediate inter-cellular communication. Individual species of extracellular vesicles might have divergent roles in vascular homeostasis and may show different responses to therapies such as exercise training. AIMS: We examine endothelial effects of medium-size and small extracellular vesicles from the same individual with or without chronic coronary syndrome, and in chronic coronary syndrome patients participating in a four-week high-intensity interval training intervention. METHODS: Human aortic endothelial cells were exposed to medium-size extracellular vesicles and small extracellular vesicles isolated from plasma samples of study participants. Endothelial cell survival, activation and re-endothelialisation capacity were assessed by respective staining protocols. Extracellular vesicles were quantified by nanoparticle tracking analysis and flow cytometry. Extracellular vesicle microRNA expression was quantified by realtime-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: In patients with chronic coronary syndrome (n = 25), plasma counts of leukocyte-derived medium-size extracellular vesicles were higher than in age-matched healthy controls (n = 25; p = 0.04) and were reduced by high-intensity interval training (n = 15; p = 0.01 vs baseline). Re-endothelialisation capacity was promoted by medium-size extracellular vesicles from controls, but not by medium-size extracellular vesicles from chronic coronary syndrome patients. High-intensity interval training for 4 weeks enhanced medium-size extracellular vesicle-mediated support of in vitro re-endothelialisation. Small extracellular vesicles from controls or chronic coronary syndrome patients increased endothelial cell death and reduced repair functions and were not affected by high-intensity interval training. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that medium-size extracellular vesicles and small extracellular vesicles differentially affect endothelial cell survival and repair responses. This equilibrium is unbalanced in patients with chronic coronary syndrome where leukocyte-derived medium-size extracellular vesicles are increased leading to a loss of medium-size extracellular vesicle-mediated endothelial repair. High-intensity interval training partially restored medium-size extracellular vesicle-mediated endothelial repair, underlining its use in cardiovascular prevention and therapy to improve endothelial function.

15.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; : CIRCINTERVENTIONS121010698, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quantitative flow ratio (QFR) has been introduced as a novel angiography-based modality for fast hemodynamic assessment of coronary artery lesions and validated against fractional flow reserve. This study sought to define the prognostic role of pancoronary QFR assessment in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) including postinterventional culprit and nonculprit vessels. METHODS: In a total of 792 patients with ACS (48.6% ST-segment-elevation ACS and 51.4% non-ST-segment-elevation ACS), QFR analyses of postinterventional culprit (n=792 vessels) and nonculprit vessels (n=1231 vessels) were post hoc performed by investigators blinded to clinical outcomes. The follow-up comprised of major adverse cardiovascular events, including all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and ischemia-driven coronary revascularization within 2 years after the index ACS event. RESULTS: Major adverse cardiovascular events as composite end point occurred in 99 patients (12.5%). QFR with an optimal cutoff value of 0.89 for postinterventional culprit vessels and 0.85 for nonculprit vessels emerged as independent predictor of major adverse cardiovascular events after ACS (nonculprit arteries: adjusted odds ratio, 3.78 [95% CI, 2.21-6.45], P<0.001 and postpercutaneous coronary intervention culprit arteries: adjusted odds ratio, 3.60 [95% CI, 2.09-6.20], P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The present study for the first time demonstrates the prognostic implications of a pancoronary angiography-based functional lesion assessment in patients with ACS. Hence, QFR offers a novel tool to advance risk stratification and guide therapeutic management after ACS.

16.
J Proteome Res ; 20(11): 4974-4984, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677978

RESUMO

High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a heterogeneous mixture of blood-circulating multimolecular particles containing many different proteins, lipids, and RNAs. Recent advancements in mass spectrometry-based proteotype analysis show promise for the analysis of proteoforms across large patient cohorts. In order to create the required spectral libraries enabling these data-independent acquisition (DIA) strategies, HDL was isolated from the plasma of more than 300 patients with a multiplicity of physiological HDL states. HDL proteome spectral libraries consisting of 296 protein groups and more than 786 peptidoforms were established, and the performance of the DIA strategy was benchmarked for the detection of HDL proteotype differences between healthy individuals and a cohort of patients suffering from diabetes mellitus type 2 and/or coronary heart disease. Bioinformatic interrogation of the data using the generated spectral libraries showed that the DIA approach enabled robust HDL proteotype determination. HDL peptidoform analysis enabled by using spectral libraries allowed for the identification of post-translational modifications, such as in APOA1, which could affect HDL functionality. From a technical point of view, data analysis further shows that protein and peptide quantities are currently more discriminative between different HDL proteotypes than peptidoforms without further enrichment. Together, DIA-based HDL proteotyping enables the robust digitization of HDL proteotypes as a basis for the analysis of larger clinical cohorts.

17.
J Clin Med ; 10(18)2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575325

RESUMO

(1) Background: Patients with severe chronic kidney disease (CKD G4-G5) often have chronically elevated high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) values above the 99th percentile of the upper reference limit. In these patients, optimal cutoff levels for diagnosing non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) requiring revascularization remain undefined. (2) Methods: Of 11,912 patients undergoing coronary angiography from 2012 to 2017 for suspected NSTE-ACS, 325 (3%) had severe CKD. Of these, 290 with available serial hs-cTnT measurements were included, and 300 matched patients with normal renal function were selected as a control cohort. (3) Results: In the CKD cohort, 222 patients (76%) had NSTE-ACS with indication for coronary revascularization. Diagnostic performance was high at presentation and similar to that of the control population (AUC, 95% CI: 0.81, 0.75-0.87 versus 0.85, 0.80-0.89, p = 0.68), and the ROC-derived cutoff value was 4 times higher compared to the conventional 99th percentile. Combining the ROC-derived cutoff levels for hs-cTnT at presentation and absolute 3 h changes, sensitivity increased to 98%, and PPV and NPV improved up to 93% and 86%, respectively. (4) Conclusions: In patients with severe CKD and suspected ACS, the diagnostic accuracy of hs-cTnT for the diagnosis of NSTE-ACS requiring revascularization is improved by using higher assay-specific cutoff levels combined with early absolute changes.

18.
J Cardiovasc Dev Dis ; 8(9)2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tricuspid regurgitation is gaining importance due to its high morbidity and mortality. Especially in the elderly, novel technologies in percutaneous therapies have become valuable options due to the commonly present high surgical risk. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 78-year-old female suffering from massive tricuspid regurgitation with repetitive right-sided heart failure hospitalizations. As the patient was very frail and deemed as high surgical risk, we used the TriClip® system to improve her symptomatic status. During diagnostic work-up, an additional membrane separating the right atrium, consistent with the definition of a cor triatriatum dexter, was found. Although increasing the complexity of the procedure, implantation of 3 clips with reduction of tricuspid regurgitation to a mild-to-moderate degree was achieved without any notable complications. The patient was discharged with ameliorated symptoms on the fourth postoperative day. CONCLUSIONS: Our case highlights the feasibility of percutaneous edge-to-edge tricuspid valve repair in an elderly woman with cor triatriatum dexter. Accurate echocardiographic visualization is an absolute requirement to gain access to the tricuspid valve without interacting with prevailing additional membranes.

20.
Cells ; 10(8)2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440901

RESUMO

Adenine nucleotide translocase 1 (ANT1) transfers ATP and ADP over the mitochondrial inner membrane and thus supplies the cell with energy. This study analyzed the role of ANT1 in the immune response of ischemic heart tissue. Ischemic ANT1 overexpressing hearts experienced a shift toward an anti-inflammatory immune response. The shift was characterized by low interleukin (IL)-1ß expression and M1 macrophage infiltration, whereas M2 macrophage infiltration and levels of IL-10, IL-4, and transforming growth factor (TGFß) were increased. The modulated immune response correlated with high mitochondrial integrity, reduced oxidative stress, low left ventricular end-diastolic heart pressure, and a high survival rate. Isolated ANT1-transgenic (ANT1-TG) cardiomyocytes expressed low levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1α, tumor necrosis factor α, and TGFß. However, they showed increased expression and cellular release of anti-inflammatory immunomodulators such as vascular endothelial growth factor. The secretome from ANT1-TG cardiomyocytes initiated stress resistance when applied to ischemic wild-type cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. It additionally prevented macrophages from expressing pro-inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, ANT1 expression correlated with genes that are related to cytokine and growth factor pathways in hearts of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. In conclusion, ANT1-TG cardiomyocytes secrete soluble factors that influence ischemic cardiac cells and initiate an anti-inflammatory immune response in ischemic hearts.


Assuntos
Translocases Mitocondriais de ADP e ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Western Blotting , Cardiomiopatias/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/fisiologia , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Translocases Mitocondriais de ADP e ATP/genética , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Membranas Mitocondriais/fisiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Ratos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
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