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1.
Am J Med ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010226

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluated whether the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic was associated with changes in the pattern of acute cardiovascular admissions across European centres. METHODS: We set-up a multi-centre, multi-national, pan-European observational registry in 15 centres from 12 countries. All consecutive acute admissions to emergency departments and cardiology departments throughout a 1-month period during the COVID-19 outbreak were compared with an equivalent 1-month period in 2019. The acute admissions to cardiology departments were classified into 5 major categories: acute coronary syndrome, acute heart failure, arrhythmia, pulmonary embolism and other. RESULTS: Data from 54331 patients were collected and analysed. Nine centres provided data on acute admissions to emergency departments comprising 50384 patients: 20226 in 2020 vs 30158 in 2019 - incidence rate ratio (IRR) with 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 0.66(0.58-0.76). The risk of death at the emergency departments was higher in 2020 vs 2019: odds ratio (OR) with 95%CI: 4.1(3.0-5.8), P<0.0001. All 15 centers provided data on acute cardiology departments admissions: 3007 patients in 2020 vs 4452 in 2019, respectively, IRR(95%CI): 0.68(0.64-0.71). In 2020, there were less admissions with IRR(95%CI): acute coronary syndrome: 0.68(0.63-0.73), acute heart failure: 0.65(0.58-0.74), arrhythmia: 0.66(0.60-0.72), other: 0.68(0.62-0.76); we found a relatively higher percentage of pulmonary embolism admissions in 2020: OR(95%CI): 1.5(1.1-2.1), P=0.02. Among patients with acute coronary syndrome there were fewer admissions with unstable angina: 0.79(0.66-0.94), non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction: 0.56(0.50-0.64) and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: 0.78(0.68-0.89). CONCLUSION: In the European centres during the COVID-19 outbreak, there were fewer acute cardiovascular admissions. Also, fewer patients were admitted to the emergency departments with 4-times higher death risk at the emergency departments.

2.
Circulation ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032450

RESUMO

Background: Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is increasingly used to treat cardiogenic shock. However, VA-ECMO might hamper myocardial recovery. The Impella unloads the left ventricle. The aim of this study was to evaluate if left ventricular unloading in cardiogenic shock patients treated with VA-ECMO was associated with lower mortality. Methods: Data from 686 consecutive patients with cardiogenic shock treated with VA-ECMO with or without left ventricular unloading (using an Impella) at 16 tertiary-care centers in 4 countries were collected. The association between left ventricular unloading and 30-day mortality was assessed by Cox regression models in a 1:1 propensity-score-matched cohort. Results: Left ventricular unloading was used in 337 of the 686 patients (49%). After matching, 255 patients with left ventricular unloading were compared with 255 patients without left ventricular unloading. In the matched cohort, left ventricular unloading was associated with lower 30-day mortality (hazard ratio 0.79, 95% confidence interval 0.63-0.98, p=0.03) without differences in various subgroups. Complications occurred more frequently in patients with left ventricular unloading; e.g. severe bleeding in 98 (38.4%) vs. 45 (17.9%), access-site related ischemia in 55 (21.6%) vs. 31 (12.3%), abdominal compartment in 23 (9.4%) vs. 9 (3.7%) and renal replacement therapy in 148 (58.5%) vs. 99 (39.1%). Conclusions: In this international, multicenter cohort study, left ventricular unloading was associated with lower mortality in cardiogenic shock patients treated with VA-ECMO, despite higher complication rates. These findings support use of left ventricular unloading in cardiogenic shock patients treated with VA-ECMO and call for further validation, ideally in a randomized, controlled trial.

4.
EuroIntervention ; 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32863246

RESUMO

AIMS: Randomized trials have demonstrated improvement in clinical outcomes with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) compared with angiography-guided PCI. The ILUMIEN III trial demonstrated non-inferiority of an optical coherence tomography (OCT)- versus IVUS-guided PCI strategy in achieving similar post-PCI lumen dimensions. ILUMIEN IV is a large-scale, multicenter, randomized trial designed to demonstrate the superiority of OCT- versus angiography-guided stent implantation in patients with high-risk clinical characteristics (diabetes) and/or complex angiographic lesions in achieving larger post-PCI lumen dimensions and improving clinical outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: ILUMIEN IV is a prospective, single-blind clinical investigation that will randomize between 2490 and 3656 patients using an adaptive design to OCT-guided versus angiography-guided coronary stent implantation in a 1:1 ratio. The primary endpoints are: (1) Post-PCI minimal stent area assessed by OCT in each randomized arm, and (2) target vessel failure, the composite of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven target vessel revascularization. Clinical follow-up will continue for up to 2 years. The trial is currently enrolling, and the principal results are expected in 2022. CONCLUSIONS: The large-scale ILUMIEN IV randomized controlled trial will evaluate the effectiveness of OCT-guided versus angiography-guided PCI in improving post-PCI lumen dimensions and clinical outcomes in patients with diabetes and/or with complex coronary lesions.

5.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889633

RESUMO

AIMS: Longitudinal geographic mismatch (LGM) as well as edge dissections are associated with an increased risk of adverse events after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Recently, a novel system of real-time optical coherence tomography (OCT) with angiographic co-registration (ACR) became available and allows matched integration of cross-sectional OCT images to angiography. The OPTICO-integration II trial sought to assess the impact of ACR for PCI planning on the risk of LGM and edge dissections. METHODS: A total of 84 patients were prospectively randomized to ACR-guided PCI, OCT-guided PCI (without co-registration), and angiography-guided PCI. Primary endpoint was a composite of major edge dissection and/or LGM as assessed by post-PCI OCT. RESULTS: The primary endpoint was significantly reduced in ACR-guided PCI (4.2%) as compared to OCT-guided PCI (19.1%; p = 0.03) and angiography-guided PCI (25.5%; p < 0.01). Rates of LGM were 4.2%, 17.0%, and 22.9% in the ACR-guided PCI, in the OCT-guided PCI, and the angiography-guided PCI groups, respectively (ACR vs. OCT p = 0.04; ACR vs. angiography p = 0.04). The number of major edge dissections was low and without significant differences among the study groups (0% vs. 2.1% vs. 4.3%). CONCLUSION: This study for the first time demonstrates superiority of ACR-guided PCI over OCT- and angiography-guided PCI in reducing the composite endpoint of major edge dissection and LGM, which was meanly driven by a reduction of LGM.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) as a guiding tool for edge-to-edge transcatheter tricuspid valve repair (EETVr) using MitraClip (Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, USA) may not offer sufficient image quality in a significant proportion of patients. OBJECTIVES: Intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) as additional guiding tool in EETVr with the MitraClip device. METHODS: Appropriate angulations of the ICE catheter to visualize each commissure of the tricuspid valve were established in 3D printed heart models. In a single tertiary-care center ICE was used to support EETVr as additional guidance when TEE image quality was insufficient. Procedural safety and outcomes up to 30-days were compared between ICE/TEE and TEE only guided patients. RESULTS: In 6 of 11 patients (54.5%) undergoing EETVr with MitraClip TEE alone was unsatisfactory, necessitating additional ICE guidance. In 4 of these 6 patients ICE enabled a successful completion of the procedure. The steering maneuvers identified in the 3D models were well applicable in all patients, providing examples for potential future ICE implementation in EETVr. Under both TEE alone (n = 5) and ICE (n = 6) guidance the rate of procedural complications was 0%. According to vena contracta values at discharge significant TR reduction was achievable in the treated cohort (p = 0.011). At 30-days follow-up one patient (ICE guided) died following global heart failure, not associated with the procedure itself. CONCLUSIONS: ICE guidance may offer an additional tool to guide EETVr with the MitraClip device in patients with poor TEE quality, as it enables successful results without impairing procedural safety.

7.
Atherosclerosis ; 311: 84-90, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Very rare loss-of-function mutations in the apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3) gene have been associated with low circulating apoC-III, low triglycerides, and reduced cardiovascular risk. We aimed to analyze the impact of common APOC3 variants on key parameters of lipid metabolism and coronary artery disease in the largest sample so far. METHODS: Common variants in APOC3 were tested for associations with circulating apoC-III, lipids, and apolipoprotein B (apoB) in 3041 participants of the LUdwigshafen RIsk and Cardiovascular health study (LURIC). These variants were then tested for associations with coronary artery disease in a meta-analysis comprising up to 332,389 participants of the CARDIOGRAMplusC4D consortium and the UK Biobank. RESULTS: The mean (standard deviation) apoC-III concentration was 14.6 (5.1) mg/dl. Seven common variants in APOC3 (rs734104, rs4520, rs5142, rs5141, rs5130, rs5128, and rs4225) were associated with circulating apoC-III (all p < 0.05). The alleles that modestly raised apoC-III were also associated with markedly higher total triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglycerides and cholesterol (all p < 0.05), but not with low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and total apoB (all p > 0.05). These variants were not associated with coronary artery disease in the CARDIOGRAMplusC4D consortium and the UK Biobank (all p > 0.1). CONCLUSIONS: Modest, genetically caused elevations of apoC-III are associated with a marked increase of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins but not with an increase of LDL cholesterol, total apoB, and coronary artery disease. Whether effective inhibition of apoC-III production with antisense oligomers will be instrumental to reduce cardiovascular risk remains to be demonstrated.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940892

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Metformin is the first-line antidiabetic drug and shown to reduce cardiovascular risk independent from its glucose lowering action. Particularly in poorly controlled diabetes, tissue factor (TF) is expressed in the vasculature and accounts for thromboembolic complications. Here, we aimed to assess the effect of metformin on TF activity and markers of vascular inflammation in poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In a cohort of patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes (glycosylated hemoglobin 8.39 ± 0.24%, 68.1 ± 2.6 mmol/mol, n = 46) of whom half of the individuals were treated with metformin and the other half did not receive metformin as part of an anti-diabetic combination therapy, we assessed TF activity and markers of vascular inflammation. In vitro, human monocytic cells (THP-1) were exposed to metformin and TF expression measured in the presence and absence of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) or the AMPK inhibitor compound C. RESULTS: In the patients, metformin treatment was associated with lower levels of TF protein (241.5 ± 19 vs. 315.4 ± 25 pg/mL, p = 0.03) and reduced TF activity (408.9 ± 49 vs. 643.8 ± 47 U/mL, p = 0.001) compared with controls. Moreover, the patients on metformin showed lower levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)1 (26.6 ± 1.4 vs. 35.03 ± 3.1 ng/mL, p = 0.014) and higher expression of miR-126-3p/U6sno (11.39 ± 2.8 vs. 4.26 ± 0.9, p = 0.006), a known post-transcriptional down regulator of TF and VCAM1. In vitro, metformin dose-dependently reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TF expression in THP-1 cells. The AMPK activator AICAR alone lowered TF expression in THP-1, while the AMPK inhibitor compound C abrogated the metformin-dependent reduction in TF expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our data are the first to report that metformin is associated with reduced plasma TF procoagulant activity possibly explaining-at least in part-the vasculoprotective properties of metformin.

9.
Circulation ; 142(15): 1437-1447, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In clinical practice, local anesthesia with conscious sedation (CS) is performed in roughly 50% of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement. However, no randomized data assessing the safety and efficacy of CS versus general anesthesia (GA) are available. METHODS: The SOLVE-TAVI (Comparison of Second-Generation Self-Expandable Versus Balloon-Expandable Valves and General Versus Local Anesthesia in Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation) trial is a multicenter, open-label, 2×2 factorial, randomized trial of 447 patients with aortic stenosis undergoing transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement comparing CS versus GA. The primary efficacy end point was powered for equivalence (equivalence margin 10% with significance level 0.05) and consisted of the composite of all-cause mortality, stroke, myocardial infarction, infection requiring antibiotic treatment, and acute kidney injury at 30 days. RESULTS: The primary composite end point occurred in 27.2% of CS and 26.4% of GA patients (rate difference, 0.8 [90% CI, -6.2 to 7.8]; Pequivalence=0.015). Event rates for the individual components were as follows: all-cause mortality, 3.2% versus 2.3% (rate difference, 1.0 [90% CI, -2.9 to 4.8]; Pequivalence<0.001); stroke, 2.4% versus 2.8% (rate difference, -0.4 [90% CI, -3.8 to 3.8]; Pequivalence<0.001); myocardial infarction, 0.5% versus 0.0% (rate difference, 0.5 [90% CI, -3.0 to 3.9]; Pequivalence<0.001), infection requiring antibiotics 21.1% versus 22.0% (rate difference, -0.9 [90% CI, -7.5 to 5.7]; Pequivalence=0.011); acute kidney injury, 9.0% versus 9.2% (rate difference, -0.2 [90% CI, -5.2 to 4.8]; Pequivalence=0.0005). There was a lower need for inotropes or vasopressors with CS (62.8%) versus GA (97.3%; rate difference, -34.4 [90% CI, -41.0 to -27.8]). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with aortic stenosis undergoing transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement, use of CS compared with GA resulted in similar outcomes for the primary efficacy end point. These findings suggest that CS can be safely applied for transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02737150.

10.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32743679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With improvement of cancer-specific survival, comorbidities and treatment-related side effects, particularly cardiovascular toxicities, need close attention. The aim of the present study was to evaluate clinical characteristics and outcomes of cancer patients requiring coronary angiography during inpatient care. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients hospitalized between 02/2011 and 02/2018 in our two university hospital cancer centers. From a cohort of 60,676 cancer patients, we identified 153 patients (65.7 ± 11.6 years, 73.2% male), who underwent coronary angiography and were eligible for analysis. These were compared to a control group of 153 non-cancer patients pair-matched with respect to age, sex, and indication for catheterization. RESULTS: Cancer patients presented in 66% with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The most prevalent cancer entities were lymphoma (19%) and lung cancer (18.3%). The rate of primary percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) was significantly lower in the cancer cohort (40.5% vs. 53.6%, p = 0.029), although manifestation of coronary artery disease (CAD) and PCI results were comparable (SYNergy between PCI with TAXus and cardiac surgery (SYNTAX)-score, delta pre- and post-PCI - 9.8 vs. - 8.0, p = 0.2). Mortality was remarkably high in cancer patients (1-year mortality 46% vs. 8% in non-cancer patients, p < 0.001), particularly with troponin-positive ACS (5-year mortality 71%). CONCLUSION: Strategies to effectively control cardiovascular risks in cancer patients are needed. Additionally, suspected CAD in cancer patients should not prevent prompt diagnostic clarification and optimal revascularization as PCI results in cancer patients are comparable to non-cancer patients and occurrence of troponin-positive ACS leads to a significantly increased risk of mortality.

11.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 318, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend measurement of troponin in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. In AIS patients, troponin elevation is associated with increased mortality and worse outcome. However, uncertainty remains regarding the underlying pathophysiology of troponin elevation after stroke, particularly regarding diagnostic and therapeutic consequences. Troponin elevation may be caused by coronary artery disease (CAD) and more precisely acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Both have a high prevalence in stroke patients and contribute to poor outcome. Therefore, better diagnostic algorithms are needed to identify those AIS patients likely to have ACS or other manifestations of CAD. METHODS/DESIGN: The primary goal of the "PRediction of Acute coronary syndrome in acute Ischemic StrokE" (PRAISE) study is to develop a diagnostic algorithm for prediction of ACS in AIS patients. The primary hypothesis will test whether dynamic high-sensitivity troponin levels determined by repeat measurements (i.e., "rise or fall-pattern") indicate presence of ACS when compared to stable (chronic) troponin elevation. PRAISE is a prospective, multicenter, observational trial with central reading and predefined endpoints guided by a steering committee. Clinical symptoms, troponin levels as well as findings on electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and coronary angiogram will be recorded and assessed by central academic core laboratories. Diagnosis of ACS will be made by an endpoint adjudication committee. Severe adverse events will be evaluated by a critical event committee. Safety will be judged by a data and safety monitoring board. Follow-up will be conducted at three and twelve months and will record new vascular events (i.e., stroke and myocardial infarction) as well as death, functional and cognitive status. According to sample size calculation, 251 patients have to be included. DISCUSSION: PRAISE will prospectively determine the frequency of ACS and characterize cardiac and coronary pathologies in a large, multicenter cohort of AIS patients with troponin elevation. The findings will elucidate the origin of troponin elevation, shed light on its impact on necessary diagnostic procedures and provide data on the safety and diagnostic yield of coronary angiography early after stroke. Thereby, PRAISE will help to refine algorithms and develop guidelines for the cardiac workup in AIS. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03609385 registered 1st August 2018.

12.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741057

RESUMO

AIMS: Severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR) impairs prognosis in patients with left-sided heart failure (HF) with preserved (≥50%, HFpEF) and reduced ejection fraction (<50%, HFrEF). Transcatheter tricuspid valve edge-to-edge repair (TTVR) potentially improves prognosis among patients with severe TR. We sought to assess the impact of left-sided HF types on outcomes of TTVR. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this retrospective study, 71 HFpEF and 40 HFrEF patients, defined according to the European Society of Cardiology criteria, with isolated TR treated by TTVR in two tertiary care centres between 2016 and 2019 were analysed. The primary outcome was a composite outcome of all-cause mortality and HF hospitalization at 12 months [median follow-up 238 (interquartile range 175-365) days]. Additionally, a propensity score matching with a conservatively treated cohort of 914 patients with severe TR was performed. Procedural success did not differ between HFpEF (mean age 75.9 ± 9.3 years) or HFrEF (mean age 74.7 ± 9.1 years) patients (86% vs. 78%, P = 0.299). The primary endpoint occurred more frequently in patients with HFrEF as compared to HFpEF (50% vs. 30%, P = 0.016). Procedural success was associated with a reduced occurrence of the primary endpoint among patients with HFpEF (P < 0.001) but not HFrEF (P = 0.813), while both groups showed improvement in New York Heart Association functional class (both P < 0.001). After matching for age, EuroSCORE II, presence of a right ventricular lead and systolic pulmonary artery pressure, successful TTVR was associated with lower mortality as compared to conservative therapy in HFpEF patients (P = 0.020), but not in HFrEF patients (P = 0.274). CONCLUSION: Transcatheter tricuspid valve edge-to-edge repair might be a treatment option in patients with severe TR and HFpEF compared to conservative therapy.

13.
J Clin Med ; 9(9)2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825201

RESUMO

AIMS: The diagnostic approach to idiopathic giant-cell myocarditis (IGCM) is based on identifying various patterns of inflammatory cell infiltration and multinucleated giant cells (GCs) in histologic sections taken from endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs). The sampling error for detecting focally located GCs by histopathology is high, however. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of gene profiling as a new diagnostic method in clinical practice, namely in a large cohort of patients suffering from acute cardiac decompensation. Methods and Results: In this retrospective multicenter study, EMBs taken from n = 427 patients with clinically acute cardiac decompensation and suspected acute myocarditis were screened (mean age: 47.03 ± 15.69 years). In each patient, the EMBs were analyzed on the basis of histology, immunohistology, molecular virology, and gene-expression profiling. Out of the total of n = 427 patient samples examined, GCs could be detected in 26 cases (6.1%) by histology. An established myocardial gene profile consisting of 27 genes was revealed; this was narrowed down to a specified profile of five genes (CPT1, CCL20, CCR5, CCR6, TLR8) which serve to identify histologically proven IGCM with high specificity in 25 of the 26 patients (96.2%). Once this newly established profiling approach was applied to the remaining patient samples, an additional n = 31 patients (7.3%) could be identified as having IGCM without any histologic proof of myocardial GCs. In a subgroup analysis, patients diagnosed with IGCM using this gene profiling respond in a similar fashion to immunosuppressive therapy as patients diagnosed with IGCM by conventional histology alone. Conclusions: Myocardial gene-expression profiling is a promising new method in clinical practice, one which can predict IGCM even in the absence of any direct histologic proof of GCs in EMB sections. Gene profiling is of great clinical relevance in terms of a) overcoming the sampling error associated with purely histologic examinations and b) monitoring the effectiveness of therapy.

14.
15.
Infection ; 2020 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597401

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide causing a global health emergency. Pa-COVID-19 aims to provide comprehensive data on clinical course, pathophysiology, immunology and outcome of COVID-19, to identify prognostic biomarkers, clinical scores, and therapeutic targets for improved clinical management and preventive interventions. METHODS: Pa-COVID-19 is a prospective observational cohort study of patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection treated at Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin. We collect data on epidemiology, demography, medical history, symptoms, clinical course, and pathogen testing and treatment. Systematic, serial blood sampling will allow deep molecular and immunological phenotyping, transcriptomic profiling, and comprehensive biobanking. Longitudinal data and sample collection during hospitalization will be supplemented by long-term follow-up. RESULTS: Outcome measures include the WHO clinical ordinal scale on day 15 and clinical, functional, and health-related quality-of-life assessments at discharge and during follow-up. We developed a scalable dataset to (i) suit national standards of care, (ii) facilitate comprehensive data collection in medical care facilities with varying resources, and (iii) allow for rapid implementation of interventional trials based on the standardized study design and data collection. We propose this scalable protocol as blueprint for harmonized data collection and deep phenotyping in COVID-19 in Germany. CONCLUSION: We established a basic platform for harmonized, scalable data collection, pathophysiological analysis, and deep phenotyping of COVID-19, which enables rapid generation of evidence for improved medical care and identification of candidate therapeutic and preventive strategies. The electronic database accredited for interventional trials allows fast trial implementation for candidate therapeutic agents. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered at the German registry for clinical studies (DRKS00021688).

16.
Circ Heart Fail ; 13(7): e007103, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polymerase chain reaction analyses of cardiac tissues have detected viral sequences in up to 67% of cases of myocarditis. However, viruses have not been implicated in giant cell myocarditis (GCM). Furthermore, efforts to detect viruses implicated in myocarditis have been unsuccessful in more accessible samples such as peripheral blood. METHODS: We used Virome Capture Sequencing for Vertbrate Viruses (VirCapSeq-VERT), a method that simultaneously screens for all known vertebrate viruses, to investigate viruses in 33 patients with myocarditis. We investigated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (n=24), plasma (n=27), endomyocardial biopsies (n=2), and cardiac tissue samples from explanted hearts (n=13). RESULTS: Nine patients (27%) had GCM and 4 patients (13%) had fulminant myocarditis. We found the following viruses in the blood of patients with myocarditis: Epstein Barr virus (n=11, 41%), human pegivirus (n=1, 4%), human endogenous retrovirus K (n=27, 100%), and anellovirus (n=15, 56%). All tissue samples from fulminant myocarditis (n=2) and GCM (n=13) contained human endogenous retrovirus K. CONCLUSIONS: No nucleic acids from viruses previously implicated in myocarditis or other human illnesses were detected in relevant amounts in cardiac tissue samples from GCM or in blood samples from other types of myocarditis. These findings do not exclude a role for viral infection in GCM but do suggest that if viruses are implicated, the mechanism is likely to be indirect rather than due to cytotoxic infection of myocardium.

17.
Int J Cardiol ; 316: 7-12, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507395

RESUMO

AIMS: This study investigates the changes in therapy for Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) over the past 16 years in a large German registry. In particular, the high-risk population of female and elderly patients was analyzed. METHODS: In total, 19.383 patients presenting with NSTEMI were included in this study. Patients were stratified by age groups <75 years and ≥75 years and by sex. Four different time periods from 2000-2004, 2005-2008, 2009-2012 and 2013-2016 were compared. Influence on hospital mortality as the primary outcome measure was assessed by logistic regression analysis. Secondary outcome measures included percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), the use of drug eluting stents (DES), radial access route and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), defined as all-cause mortality, stroke, re-infarction, percutaneous re-intervention, intervention-related bleeding, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and new onset of cardiogenic shock or need for mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: Mortality decreased in all age groups between the initial time period and the most recent one (8.9% vs. 4.5%, p < 0.01), particularly in female patients ≥75 years (18.2% in 2000-2004 vs. 7.9% in 2013-2016, p < 0.01). Revascularization rates differed by gender (68.3% in women vs. 78.1% in men, p < 0.01) and by age (64.2% for ≥75 years vs. 80.9% for <75 years, p < 0.01). PCI rates in elderly female patients increased from 28.7% to 69.8% (p < 0.01) from the initial to the latest period. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrates, that revascularization rates improved in all patient groups over the study period. However, females and elderly patients still remain less likely to be treated according to current guidelines.

18.
Infection ; 48(4): 619-626, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535877

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide causing a global health emergency. Pa-COVID-19 aims to provide comprehensive data on clinical course, pathophysiology, immunology and outcome of COVID-19, to identify prognostic biomarkers, clinical scores, and therapeutic targets for improved clinical management and preventive interventions. METHODS: Pa-COVID-19 is a prospective observational cohort study of patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection treated at Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin. We collect data on epidemiology, demography, medical history, symptoms, clinical course, and pathogen testing and treatment. Systematic, serial blood sampling will allow deep molecular and immunological phenotyping, transcriptomic profiling, and comprehensive biobanking. Longitudinal data and sample collection during hospitalization will be supplemented by long-term follow-up. RESULTS: Outcome measures include the WHO clinical ordinal scale on day 15 and clinical, functional, and health-related quality-of-life assessments at discharge and during follow-up. We developed a scalable dataset to (i) suit national standards of care, (ii) facilitate comprehensive data collection in medical care facilities with varying resources, and (iii) allow for rapid implementation of interventional trials based on the standardized study design and data collection. We propose this scalable protocol as blueprint for harmonized data collection and deep phenotyping in COVID-19 in Germany. CONCLUSION: We established a basic platform for harmonized, scalable data collection, pathophysiological analysis, and deep phenotyping of COVID-19, which enables rapid generation of evidence for improved medical care and identification of candidate therapeutic and preventive strategies. The electronic database accredited for interventional trials allows fast trial implementation for candidate therapeutic agents. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered at the German registry for clinical studies (DRKS00021688).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Sistema de Registros , Berlim/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Pandemias , Fenótipo , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Organização Mundial da Saúde
19.
Am Heart J ; 225: 60-68, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use and impact of transradial artery access (TRA) compared to transfemoral artery access (TFA) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute myocardial infarction (MI) complicated by cardiogenic shock (CS) remain unclear. METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis of the CULPRIT-SHOCK trial where patients presenting with MI and multivessel disease complicated by CS were randomized to a strategy of culprit-lesion-only or immediate multivessel PCI. Arterial access was left at operator's discretion. Adjudicated outcomes of interest were the composite of death or renal replacement therapy (RRT) at 30 days and 1 year. Multivariate logistic models were used to assess the association between the arterial access and outcomes. RESULTS: Among the 673 analyzed patients, TRA and TFA were successfully performed in 118 (17.5%) and 555 (82.5%) patients, respectively. Compared to TFA, TRA was associated with a lower 30-day rate of death or RRT (37.3% vs 53.2%, adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.34-0.96), a lower 30-day rate of death (34.7% vs 49.7%; aOR: 0.56; 95% CI 0.33-0.96), and a lower 30-day rate of RRT (5.9% vs 15.9%; aOR: 0.40; 95% CI 0.16-0.97). No significant differences were observed regarding the 30-day risks of type 3 or 5 Bleeding Academic Research Consortium bleeding and stroke. The observed reduction of death or RRT and death with TRA was no longer significant at 1 year (44.9% vs 57.8%; aOR: 0.85; 95% CI 0.50-1.45 and 42.4% vs 55.5%, aOR: 0.78; 95% CI 0.46-1.32, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing PCI for acute MI complicated by CS, TRA may be associated with improved early outcomes, although the reason for this finding needs further research.


Assuntos
Artéria Femoral , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Artéria Radial , Idoso , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Choque Cardiogênico/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(10): e015289, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410525

RESUMO

Background Variants of the desmosomal protein desmoplakin are associated with arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, an important cause of ventricular arrhythmias in children and young adults. Disease penetrance of desmoplakin variants is incomplete and variant carriers may display noncardiac, dermatologic phenotypes. We describe a novel cardiac phenotype associated with a truncating desmoplakin variant, likely causing mechanical instability of myocardial desmosomes. Methods and Results In 2 young brothers with recurrent myocarditis triggered by physical exercise, screening of 218 cardiomyopathy-related genes identified the heterozygous truncating variant p.Arg1458Ter in desmoplakin. Screening for infections yielded no evidence of viral or nonviral infections. Myosin and troponin I autoantibodies were detected at high titers. Immunohistology failed to detect any residual DSP protein in endomyocardial biopsies, and none of the histologic criteria of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy were fulfilled. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging revealed no features associated with right ventricular arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, but multifocal subepicardial late gadolinium enhancement was present in the left ventricles of both brothers. Screening of adult cardiomyopathy cohorts for truncating variants identified the rare genetic variants p.Gln307Ter, p.Tyr1391Ter, and p.Tyr1512Ter, suggesting that over subsequent decades critical genetic/exogenous modifiers drive pathogenesis from desmoplakin truncations toward different end points. Conclusions The described novel phenotype of familial recurrent myocarditis associated with a desmoplakin truncation in adolescents likely represents a serendipitously revealed subtype of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy. It may be caused by a distinctive adverse effect of the variant desmoplakin upon the mechanical stability of myocardial desmosomes. Variant screening is advisable to allow early detection of patients with similar phenotypes.

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